United States occupation of Nicaragua
The United States occupation of Nicaragua from 1912 to 1933 was part of the Banana Wars, when the US military intervened in various Latin American countries from 1898 to 1934. The formal occupation began in 1912 though there were various other assaults by the U. S. in Nicaragua throughout this period. American military interventions in Nicaragua were designed to stop any other nation except the United States of America from building a Nicaraguan Canal. Nicaragua assumed a quasi-protectorate status under the 1916 Bryan–Chamorro Treaty, but with the onset of the Great Depression, it became too costly for the U. S. government and a withdrawal was ordered in 1933. In 1909 Nicaraguan President José Santos Zelaya of the Liberal Party faced opposition from the Conservative Party, led by governor Juan José Estrada of Bluefields who received support from the U. S. government. The United States had limited military presence in Nicaragua, having only one patrolling U. S. Navy ship off the coast of Bluefields, in order to protect the lives and interests of American citizens who lived there.
The Conservative Party sought to overthrow Zelaya which led to Estrada's rebellion in December 1909. Two Americans, Leonard Groce and Lee Roy Cannon, were captured and indicted for joining the rebellion and the laying of mines. Zelaya ordered the execution of the two Americans, which severed U. S. relations. The forces of Chamorro and Nicaraguan General Juan Estrada, each leading conservative revolts against Zelaya's government, had captured three small towns on the border with Costa Rica and were fomenting open rebellion in the capital of Managua. U. S. Naval warships, waiting off Mexico and Costa Rica moved into position; the protected cruisers USS Des Moines, USS Tacoma, collier USS Hannibal lay in the harbor at Bluefields, Nicaragua, on the Atlantic coast with USS Prairie en route for Colón, with 700 Marines. On December 12, 1909, Albany with 280 bluejackets and the gunboat USS Yorktown with 155, arrived at Corinto, Nicaragua, to join the gunboat USS Vicksburg with her crew of 155 to protect American citizens and property on the Pacific coast of Nicaragua.
Zelaya resigned on December 14, 1909, his hand-picked successor, Jose Madriz, was elected by unanimous vote of the liberal Nicaraguan national assembly on December 20, 1909. U. S. Secretary of State Philander C. Knox admonished that the United States would not resume diplomatic relations with Nicaragua until Madriz demonstrated that his was a "responsible government... prepared to make reparations for the wrongs" done to American citizens. His request for asylum granted by Mexico, Zelaya was escorted by armed guard to the Mexican gunboat General Guerrero and departed Corinto for Salina Cruz, Mexico, on the night of December 23, with Albany standing by but taking no action; as the flagship of the Nicaraguan Expeditionary Squadron, under Admiral William W. Kimball, Albany spent the next five months in Central America at Corinto, maintaining U. S. neutrality in the ongoing rebellion, sometimes under criticism by the U. S. press and business interests that were displeased by Kimball's "friendly" attitude toward the liberal Madriz administration.
By mid-March 1909, the insurgency led by Estrada and Chamorro was collapsed and with the apparent and unexpected strength of Madriz, the U. S. Nicaraguan Expeditionary Squadron completed its withdrawal from Nicaraguan waters. On May 27, 1910, U. S. Marine Corps Major Smedley Butler arrived on the coast of Nicaragua with 250 Marines, for the purpose of providing security in Bluefields. United States Secretary of State Philander C. Knox condemned Zelaya's actions. Zelaya succumbed to U. S. political fled the country, leaving José Madriz as his successor. Madriz in turn had to face an advance by the reinvigorated eastern rebel forces, which led to his resignation. In August 1910, Juan Estrada became president of Nicaragua with the official recognition of the United States. Estrada’s administration allowed President William Howard Taft and Secretary of State Philander C. Knox to apply "dollars for bullets" policy; the goal was to undermine European financial strength in the region, which threatened American interests to construct a canal in the isthmus, to protect American private investment in the development of Nicaragua's natural resources.
The policy opened the door for American banks to lend money to the Nicaraguan government, ensuring United States control over the country's finances. By 1912 the ongoing political conflict in Nicaragua between the liberal and conservative factions had deteriorated to the point that U. S. investments under President Taft's Dollar Diplomacy including substantial loans to the fragile coalition government of conservative President Juan José Estrada were in jeopardy. Minister of War General Luis Mena forced Estrada to resign, he was replaced by the conservative Adolfo Díaz. Díaz's connection with the United States led to a decline in his popularity in Nicaragua. Nationalistic sentiments arose in the Nicaraguan military, including Luis Mena, the Secretary of War. Mena managed to gain the support of the National Assembly, accusing Díaz of "selling out the nation to New York bankers". Díaz asked the U. S. government for help, as Mena's opposition turned into rebellion. Knox appealed to president Taft for military intervention, arguing that the Nicaraguan railway from Corinto to Granada was threatened, interfering with U.
S. interests. In mid-1912 Mena persuaded the Nicaraguan national assembly to name him successor to Díaz when Díaz's term expired in 1913; when the United States refused to recognize the Nicaraguan assembly's decision, Mena rebelled against the Díaz government. A force led by liberal General Benjam
Carmen Miranda GCIH, OMC, was a Portuguese-born Brazilian samba singer, Broadway actress, film star, popular from the 1930s to the 1950s. Nicknamed "The Brazilian Bombshell", Miranda is noted for her signature fruit hat outfit she wore in her American films; as a young woman, she designed hats in a boutique before making her first recordings with composer Josué de Barros in 1929. Miranda's 1930 recording of "Taí", written by Joubert de Carvalho, catapulted her to stardom in Brazil as the foremost interpreter of samba. During the 1930s Miranda performed on Brazilian radio and appeared in five Brazilian chanchadas, films celebrating Brazilian music and the country's carnival culture. Hello, Hello Brazil! and Hello, Carnival! Embodied the spirit of these early Miranda films; the 1939 musical Banana da Terra gave the world her "Baiana" image, inspired by African-Brazilians from the northeastern state of Bahia. In 1939, Broadway producer Lee Shubert offered Miranda an eight-week contract to perform in The Streets of Paris after seeing her at Cassino da Urca in Rio de Janeiro.
The following year she made her first Hollywood film, Down Argentine Way with Don Ameche and Betty Grable, her exotic clothing and Latin accent became her trademark. That year, she was voted the third-most-popular personality in the United States. In 1943, Miranda starred in Busby Berkeley's The Gang's All Here, noted for its musical numbers with the fruit hats that became her trademark. By 1945, she was the highest-paid woman in the United States. Miranda made 14 Hollywood films between 1940 and 1953. Although she was hailed as a talented performer, her popularity waned by the end of World War II. Miranda came to resent the stereotypical "Brazilian Bombshell" image she had cultivated, attempted to free herself of it with limited success, she became a fixture on television variety shows. Despite being stereotyped, Miranda's performances popularized Brazilian music and increased public awareness of Latin culture. In 1941 she was the first Latin American star to be invited to leave her hand and footprints in the courtyard of Grauman's Chinese Theatre, was the first South American honored with a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.
Miranda is considered the precursor of Brazil's 1960s Tropicalismo cultural movement. A museum was built in Rio de Janeiro in her honor, in 1995 she was the subject of the documentary Carmen Miranda: Bananas is My Business. Miranda was born Maria do Carmo Miranda da Cunha in Várzea da Ovelha e Aliviada, a village in the northern Portuguese municipality of Marco de Canaveses, she was the second daughter of Maria Emília Miranda. In 1909, when Miranda was ten months old, her father emigrated to Brazil and settled in Rio de Janeiro, where he opened a barber shop, her mother followed in 1910 with their daughters and Carmen. Although Carmen never returned to Portugal, she retained her Portuguese nationality. In Brazil, her parents had four more children: Cecília, Aurora and Óscar, she was christened "Carmen" by her father because of his love for Bizet's operatic masterpiece. This passion for opera influenced his children, Miranda's love for singing and dancing, at an early age, she was educated at the Convent of Saint Therese of Lisieux.
Her father did not approve of Miranda's plans to enter show business. Miranda's older sister, developed tuberculosis and was sent to Portugal for treatment, she worked in a boutique, opened a successful hat business. Miranda was introduced to Josué de Barros, a composer and musician from Bahia, while she was working at her family’s inn. With help from de Barros and Brunswick Records, she recorded her first single in 1929. Miranda's second single, "Prá Você Gostar de Mim", was a collaboration with Brazilian composer Joubert de Carvalho and sold a record 35,000 copies that year, she signed a two-year contract with RCA Victor in 1930. In 1933 Miranda signed a two-year contract with Rádio Mayrink Veiga, the most popular Brazilian station of the 1930s, was the first contract singer in Brazilian radio history, she signed a contract with Odeon Records, making her the highest-paid radio singer in Brazil at the time. Miranda's rise to stardom in Brazil was linked to the growing popularity of a native style of music: the samba.
The samba and Miranda's popularity enhanced the revival of Brazilian nationalism during the regime of President Getúlio Vargas. Her gracefulness and vitality in her recordings and live performances gave her the nickname "Cantora do It"; the singer was known as "Ditadora Risonha do Samba", in 1933 radio announcer Cesar Ladeira christened her "A Pequena Notável". Her Brazilian film career was linked to a genre of musical films which drew on the nation's carnival traditions and the annual celebration and musical style of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil's capital at the time. Miranda performed a musical number in O Carnaval Cantado no Rio (1932
Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro, or Rio, is anchor to the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area and the second-most populous municipality in Brazil and the sixth-most populous in the Americas. Rio de Janeiro is the capital of the state of Brazil's third-most populous state. Part of the city has been designated as a World Heritage Site, named "Rio de Janeiro: Carioca Landscapes between the Mountain and the Sea", by UNESCO on 1 July 2012 as a Cultural Landscape. Founded in 1565 by the Portuguese, the city was the seat of the Captaincy of Rio de Janeiro, a domain of the Portuguese Empire. In 1763, it became the capital of the State of Brazil, a state of the Portuguese Empire. In 1808, when the Portuguese Royal Court transferred itself from Portugal to Brazil, Rio de Janeiro became the chosen seat of the court of Queen Maria I of Portugal, who subsequently, in 1815, under the leadership of her son, the Prince Regent, future King João VI of Portugal, raised Brazil to the dignity of a kingdom, within the United Kingdom of Portugal and Algarves.
Rio stayed the capital of the pluricontinental Lusitanian monarchy until 1822, when the War of Brazilian Independence began. This is one of the few instances in history that the capital of a colonising country shifted to a city in one of its colonies. Rio de Janeiro subsequently served as the capital of the independent monarchy, the Empire of Brazil, until 1889, the capital of a republican Brazil until 1960 when the capital was transferred to Brasília. Rio de Janeiro has the second largest municipal GDP in the country, 30th largest in the world in 2008, estimated at about R$343 billion, it is headquarters to Brazilian oil and telecommunications companies, including two of the country's major corporations – Petrobras and Vale – and Latin America's largest telemedia conglomerate, Grupo Globo. The home of many universities and institutes, it is the second-largest center of research and development in Brazil, accounting for 17% of national scientific output according to 2005 data. Despite the high perception of crime, the city has a lower incidence of crime than Northeast Brazil, but it is far more criminalized than the south region of Brazil, considered the safest in the country.
Rio de Janeiro is one of the most visited cities in the Southern Hemisphere and is known for its natural settings, samba, bossa nova, balneario beaches such as Barra da Tijuca, Copacabana and Leblon. In addition to the beaches, some of the most famous landmarks include the giant statue of Christ the Redeemer atop Corcovado mountain, named one of the New Seven Wonders of the World. Rio de Janeiro was the host of the 2016 Summer Olympics and the 2016 Summer Paralympics, making the city the first South American and Portuguese-speaking city to host the events, the third time the Olympics were held in a Southern Hemisphere city; the Maracanã Stadium held the finals of the 1950 and 2014 FIFA World Cups, the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup, the XV Pan American Games. Europeans first encountered Guanabara Bay on 1 January 1502, by a Portuguese expedition under explorer Gaspar de Lemos, captain of a ship in Pedro Álvares Cabral's fleet, or under Gonçalo Coelho; the Florentine explorer Amerigo Vespucci participated as observer at the invitation of King Manuel I in the same expedition.
The region of Rio was inhabited by the Tupi, Puri and Maxakalí peoples. In 1555, one of the islands of Guanabara Bay, now called Villegagnon Island, was occupied by 500 French colonists under the French admiral Nicolas Durand de Villegaignon. Villegagnon built Fort Coligny on the island when attempting to establish the France Antarctique colony; the city of Rio de Janeiro proper was founded by the Portuguese on 1 March 1565 and was named São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro, in honour of St. Sebastian, the saint, the namesake and patron of the Portuguese then-monarch Sebastião. Rio de Janeiro was the name of Guanabara Bay; until early in the 18th century, the city was threatened or invaded by several French pirates and buccaneers, such as Jean-François Duclerc and René Duguay-Trouin. In the late 17th century, still during the Sugar Era, the Bandeirantes discovered gold and diamonds in the neighbouring captaincy of Minas Gerais, thus Rio de Janeiro became a much more practical port for exporting wealth than Salvador, much farther northeast.
On 27 January 1763, the colonial administration in Portuguese America was moved from Salvador to Rio de Janeiro. The city remained a colonial capital until 1808, when the Portuguese royal family and most of the associated Lisbon nobles, fleeing from Napoleon's invasion of Portugal, moved to Rio de Janeiro; the kingdom's capital was transferred to the city, thus, became the only European capital outside of Europe. As there was no physical space or urban structure to accommodate hundreds of noblemen who arrived many inhabitants were evicted from their homes. In the first decades, several educational establishments were created, such as the Military Academy, the Royal School of Sciences and Crafts and the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts, as well as the National Library of Brazil – with the largest collection in Latin America – and The Botanical Garden; the first printed newspaper in Brazil, the Gazeta do Rio de Janeiro, came into circulation during this period. When Brazil was elevated to Kingdom in 1815, it
Walter Elias Disney was an American entrepreneur, voice actor and film producer. A pioneer of the American animation industry, he introduced several developments in the production of cartoons; as a film producer, Disney holds the record for most Academy Awards earned by an individual, having won 22 Oscars from 59 nominations. He was presented with two Golden Globe Special Achievement Awards and an Emmy Award, among other honors. Several of his films are included in the National Film Registry by the Library of Congress. Born in Chicago in 1901, Disney developed an early interest in drawing, he took art classes as a boy and got a job as a commercial illustrator at the age of 18. He moved to California in the early 1920s and set up the Disney Brothers Studio with his brother Roy. With Ub Iwerks, Walt developed the character Mickey Mouse in 1928, his first popular success; as the studio grew, Disney became more adventurous, introducing synchronized sound, full-color three-strip Technicolor, feature-length cartoons and technical developments in cameras.
The results, seen in features such as Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, Fantasia and Bambi, furthered the development of animated film. New animated and live-action films followed after World War II, including the critically successful Cinderella and Mary Poppins, the latter of which received five Academy Awards. In the 1950s, Disney expanded into the amusement park industry, in 1955 he opened Disneyland. To fund the project he diversified into television programs, such as Walt Disney's Disneyland and The Mickey Mouse Club. In 1965, he began development of another theme park, Disney World, the heart of, to be a new type of city, the "Experimental Prototype Community of Tomorrow". Disney was a heavy smoker throughout his life, died of lung cancer in December 1966 before either the park or the EPCOT project were completed. Disney was a shy, self-deprecating and insecure man in private but adopted a warm and outgoing public persona, he had high expectations of those with whom he worked. Although there have been accusations that he was racist or anti-Semitic, they have been contradicted by many who knew him.
His reputation changed in the years after his death, from a purveyor of homely patriotic values to a representative of American imperialism. He remains an important figure in the history of animation and in the cultural history of the United States, where he is considered a national cultural icon, his film work continues to be adapted. Walt Disney was born on December 5, 1901, in Chicago's Hermosa neighborhood, he was the fourth son of Elias Disney—born in the Province of Canada, to Irish parents—and Flora, an American of German and English descent. Aside from Disney and Flora's sons were Herbert and Roy. In 1906, when Disney was four, the family moved to a farm in Marceline, where his uncle Robert had just purchased land. In Marceline, Disney developed his interest in drawing when he was paid to draw the horse of a retired neighborhood doctor. Elias was a subscriber to the Appeal to Reason newspaper, Disney practiced drawing by copying the front-page cartoons of Ryan Walker. Disney began to develop an ability to work with watercolors and crayons.
He lived near the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway line and became enamored with trains. He and his younger sister Ruth started school at the same time at the Park School in Marceline in late 1909. In 1911, the Disneys moved to Missouri. There, Disney attended the Benton Grammar School, where he met fellow-student Walter Pfeiffer, who came from a family of theatre fans and introduced Disney to the world of vaudeville and motion pictures. Before long, he was spending more time at the Pfeiffers' house than at home. Elias had purchased a newspaper delivery route for Kansas City Times. Disney and his brother Roy woke up at 4:30 every morning to deliver the Times before school and repeated the round for the evening Star after school; the schedule was exhausting, Disney received poor grades after falling asleep in class, but he continued his paper route for more than six years. He attended Saturday courses at the Kansas City Art Institute and took a correspondence course in cartooning. In 1917, Elias bought stock in a Chicago jelly producer, the O-Zell Company, moved back to the city with his family.
Disney enrolled at McKinley High School and became the cartoonist of the school newspaper, drawing patriotic pictures about World War I. In mid-1918, Disney attempted to join the United States Army to fight against the Germans, but he was rejected for being too young. After forging the date of birth on his birth certificate, he joined the Red Cross in September 1918 as an ambulance driver, he was arrived in November, after the armistice. He drew cartoons on the side of his ambulance for decoration and had some of his work published in the army newspaper Stars and Stripes. Disney returned to Kansas City in October 1919, where he worked as an apprentice artist at the Pesmen-Rubin Commercial Art Studio. There, he drew commercial illustrations for advertising, theater programs and ca
United States involvement in the Mexican Revolution
The United States involvement in the Mexican Revolution was varied and contradictory, first supporting and repudiating Mexican regimes during the period 1910-1920. For both economic and political reasons, the U. S. government supported those who occupied the seats of power, whether they held that power legitimately or not. A clear exception was the French Intervention in Mexico, when the U. S. supported the beleaguered liberal government of Benito Juárez at the time of the American Civil War. Prior to Woodrow Wilson's inauguration on March 4, 1913, the U. S. Government focused on just warning the Mexican military that decisive action from the U. S. military would take place if lives and property of U. S. nationals living in the country were endangered. President William Howard Taft sent more troops to the US-Mexico border but did not allow them to intervene in the conflict, a move which Congress opposed. Twice during the Revolution, the U. S. sent troops into Mexico. The U. S. recognized the government of Porfirio Díaz in 1878, two years after Díaz's coup d'état brought him to power.
Díaz's long rule of Mexico brought close economic cooperation between the two countries since Díaz imposed political order that allowed business to flourish. In 1908, however, Díaz gave an interview to a U. S. journalist, James Creelman, in which Díaz stated he would not run for re-election in 1910. Díaz reversed himself, ran for re-election, jailed the leading opposition candidate, Francisco I. Madero. Mexican revolutionaries prior to the 1910 events had sought refuge on the U. S. side of the border, a pattern Madero continued. He escaped Mexico and took refuge in San Antonio and called for nullification of the 1910 elections, himself as provisional president, revolutionary support from the Mexican people, his Plan of San Luis Potosí did spark revolutionary uprisings in Mexico's north. The U. S. stayed out of the unfolding events until March 6, 1911, when President William Howard Taft mobilized forces on the U. S.-Mexico border. "In effect this was an intervention in Mexican politics, to Mexicans it meant the United States had condemned Díaz.
Although the United States appears to have pursued an inconsistent policy toward Mexico, in fact it was the pattern for the U. S. "Every victorious faction between 1910 and 1919 enjoyed the sympathy, in most cases the direct support of U. S. authorities in its struggle for power. In each case, the administration in Washington soon turned on its new friends with the same vehemence it had expressed in supporting them." The U. S. turned against the regimes it helped install when they began pursuing policies counter to U. S. diplomatic and business interests. When Díaz was forced to resign in 1911 and Francisco I. Madero was elected president in October 1911, the U. S. president was a lame duck. The U. S. Ambassador to Mexico, Henry Lane Wilson was sympathetic to the new regime, but came into conflict with it. Ambassador Wilson conspired with General Victoriano Huerta to oust Madero; the United States government under newly inaugurated president Woodrow Wilson refused to recognize Huerta's government. Under President Wilson, the United States had sent troops to occupy Veracruz.
President Wilson's government recognized the government of Venustiano Carranza in 1915, which allowed arms from the U. S. to flow to Carranza's forces. When former Carranza ally, Pancho Villa attacked the border town of Columbus, New Mexico in 1916, the U. S. Army under Gen. John J. Pershing pursued him in a punitive mission, known as the Pancho Villa Expedition; the U. S. failed in the main objective of that raid, to capture Villa. Carranza forced the U. S. to withdraw across the border. U. S. foreign policy toward Latin America was to assume the region was the sphere of influence of the U. S. articulated in the Monroe Doctrine. In the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, President Theodore Roosevelt asserted the United States' right to intervene militarily in the region to restore order if in the U. S. view a nation would not do it itself. Thus there was a long history of U. S. intervention in Latin America prior to the Mexican Revolution. Underpinning these U. S. foreign policies was the assumption that Latin American countries and Latin Americans themselves were lesser.
Many Protestant Anglo-Americans believed Catholic Latin Americans were the antithesis of all they themselves represented. These attitudes originated in Catholic Spain's colonial-era political rivals, the Protestant English, who articulated anti-Spanish rhetoric, collectively known as the "Black Legend". Protestant Anglo-Americans believed Spanish Americans dangerously misguided with their "anti-Christ" Pope. One political cartoon during the Mexican Revolution expressed the opinion that former Spanish colonies were only able to advance as they had, due to U. S. intervention. The press in the U. S. portrayed Mexicans as innately violent and missing opportunities for advancement, as seen in a 1913 San Francisco Examiner cartoon. Rather than considering the Revolution as a legitimate means of forcing change, it served to reinforce the perception of lawless Mexicans. Many contended it was only through dictator Porfirio Díaz that Mexico had been kept out of chaos. Land redistribution undertaken by Mexican revolutionary Pancho Villa were condemned as "offer evidence...of the barbarity of Mexican politics," to which President Woodrow Wilson replied, "the revolution was out of control and...only U.
S military intervention could stabilize." Constant ov
Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs
The Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs known as the Office for Inter-American Affairs, was a United States agency promoting inter-American cooperation during the 1940s in commercial and economic areas. It was started in August 1940 as OCCCRBAR with Nelson Rockefeller as its head, appointed by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt; the Office of Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs in the Executive Office of the President was formally established and enacted by US Executive Order 8840 on July 30, 1941 by President Roosevelt who named Nelson Rockefeller as the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs. The agency's function was to distribute news and advertising, to broadcast radio, in and to Latin America in order to counter Italian and German propaganda there; the OCIAA grew to be a large Federal agency with a budget of $38 million by 1942 and 1,500 employees by 1943. It was renamed the Office of Inter-American Affairs with changed powers by Executive order 9532 on March 23, 1945.
The Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs was established in August 1940 by order of the U. S. Council of National Defense, operated with funds from both the government and the private sector. By executive order July 30, 1941, President Franklin D. Roosevelt established the OCIAA within the Office for Emergency Management of the Executive Office of the President, "to provide for the development of commercial and cultural relations between the American Republics and thereby increasing the solidarity of this hemisphere and furthering the spirit of cooperation between the Americas in the interest of hemisphere defense."The mission of the OCIAA was cultural diplomacy, promoting hemispheric solidarity and countering the growing influence of the Axis powers in Latin America. The OCIAA's Motion Picture Division played an important role in documenting history and shaping opinion toward the Allied nations after the U. S. entered World War II in December 1941. To support the war effort — and for their own audience development throughout Latin America — Hollywood studios partnered with the U.
S. government on a nonprofit basis, making films and incorporating Latin American stars and content into their commercial releases. During the 1940s the CBS radio broadcasting network contributed to the OCIAA's cultural initiatives by establishing the CBS Pan American Orchestra to showcase prominent musical artists from both North and South America on its Viva América program. Broadcasts to Latin America were coordinated by the OCIAA with CBS' "La Cadena de Las Américas" shortwave radio and radiotelephone systems as envisioned by William S. Paley. Included among the international contributors were: Alfredo Antonini, Terig Tucci, John Serry Sr. Elsa Miranda, Eva Garza, Nestor Mesa Chaires, Juan Arvizu and Edmund A. Chester; the OCIAA supported cultural programming on the CBS radio network which included performances by such Hollywood luminaries as Edward G. Robinson and Rita Hayworth. Artists working in a variety of disciplines were appointed goodwill ambassadors to Latin America by the OCIAA, which sponsored a variety of cultural tours.
A select listing includes photojournalist Genevieve Naylor. In its early days, a particular concern of the OCIAA was the elimination of German influence in South America, that of other Axis powers. Trade routes to Europe were disrupted following the fall of France in June 1940, presenting opportunities to both Germany and the U. S. At the same time, many agents or affiliates of U. S. firms operating in Latin America were sympathetic to European Axis powers. The office encouraged a voluntary program of non-cooperation with companies and individuals perceived to be anti-American. To this end it cooperated secretly with British Security Coordination in New York. Though isolated in Europe, Britain maintained an extensive intelligence network in Latin America, was happy to undermine Germany's trade efforts overseas by identifying sympathisers and agents. Through these efforts, U. S. exporters were encouraged to drop over a thousand accounts in South America during the first half of 1941. The office was concerned with public opinion in Latin America.
It translated and disseminated relevant speeches by President Roosevelt, distributed pro-U. S materials to features syndicates in the region, it carried out audience research surveys and encouraged radio broadcasters targeting these regions to improve the quality of their programming. In order to discourage opposing views it created a'Proclaimed List', a black-list of newspapers and radio stations owned or influenced by Axis powers. Latin American firms wishing to do business with America were discouraged from dealing with these stations. Tax incentives were used: spending by American firms on unprofitable longwave transmission to Latin America could be deducted from income tax payments. Spending on approved advertising in Latin America became deductible from corporate income taxes. Walt Disney and a group of animators had been sent to South America in 1941 by the U. S. State Department as part of its Good Neighbor policy, guaranteed financing for the resulting movie, Saludos Amigos. In 19
The Moore-McCormack Lines was a series of companies operating as shipping lines, operated by the Moore-McCormack Company, Incorporated Moore-McCormack Lines and Mooremack, founded in 1913 in New York City. It ceased trading on its buy-out in 1982; the founders were Emmet J. McCormack, with Mr Molloy. From a small start with one ship, SS Montara, inaugurating a run from the USA to Brazil, the shipping line expanded to become a major US line operating around the world. Moore-McCormack's original offices were at 29 Broadway, but were moved in 1919 to 5 Broadway and to 2 Broadway, two floors, when the building opened. Moore-McCormack Lines' first run was with Montara, intended to be a shipment of dynamite from Wilmington, Delaware, to Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, with the load not ready, the ship took coal from Norfolk, Virginia, to Aroostook County, before returning for the dynamite; the ship was the first US line ship into Brazil in 26 years, causing a sensation. It was retired after this trip; the company acquired various small steamers, including a Great Lakes vessel renamed Mooremack, which were operated profitably during World War I.
Additionally, chartered ships including passenger ships added to the South American runs that, by 1919, included Recife in Pernambuco, Santos and Buenos Aires. After the war, the US government offered surplus ships to US shipping companies. Mooremack received several ships, which expanded its fleet and opportunities for trade, including in 1920 and 1921 to the Levant and India. Runs were established to Ireland, but ended by 1925. Ships went into the Mediterranean and to Black Sea ports including Russian, the first American-flag ships to Soviet Union ports. In 1928, Vice President Robert C. Lee negotiated for Mooremack to become shipping agents for the Soviet Union using the American Scantic Line, having bought the line from the US Government, he negotiated with the government of Poland for Mooremack to be part of the establishment of Gdynia as Poland's sea port. This led to the establishment of trade from Czechoslovakia and Austria through Gdynia in competition with German ports, a factor in the German invasion of Czechoslovakia and Poland at the outbreak of World War II.
On 8 September 1938, there was a consolidation of nine companies within the group to become Moore-McCormack Lines, capitalized at US$4.8m. On 4 October, Moore-McCormack contracted to operate ten cargo ships and three ocean liners belonging to the United States Maritime Commission between the USA and South America as the Good Neighbor Fleet; the passenger liners were the former Panama Pacific Line 20,000-gross register ton turbo-electric steamships California and Pennsylvania, which were renamed Uruguay and Argentina to reflect their new route between New York and Buenos Aires via Rio de Janeiro and Montevideo. From 1936, the US Government had supported the expansion of US flag shipping. Mooremack had begun a building program, but as the war began four of its C-3 class ships were requisitioned; these were "Rio" class ships of 17,600 tons displacement and designed to carry 150 passengers. Thus Rio Hudson, Rio Parana, Rio de la Plata and Rio de Janeiro became Royal Navy Avenger-class escort carriers HMS Avenger, HMS Biter, HMS Charger and HMS Dasher.
Trade increased after the outbreak of the European war and Mooremack shifted some 20 million tons of cargo destined for that theatre, including whole trains for Russia. The USA's entry into World War II brought various opportunities for Mooremack, along with many of its ships being taken into US Navy service; the Good Neighbor liners Uruguay and Argentina became United States Army Transportation Corps troop ships. The Type C3-class cargo ships Mormacstar, Mormacsun and Mormacyork became the United States Navy's Elizabeth C. Stanton-class transport ships Elizabeth C. Stanton, Florence Nightingale and Anne Arundel; the Type C3 ships Mormacmail and Mormacland became the Long Island-class escort carriers USS Long Island and HMS Archer, other Mooremack C3s became Navy transports. The aftermath of the war had Mooremack owning 41 ships and, in 1946, 76 chartered ships from the US Maritime Commission. In 1949, Mooremack repaid a government loan subsidising the South American services, repaid its mortgages, thus owning its fleet.
Mooremack was involved in the Korean War. Notably, its cargo ship SS Meredith Victory rescued some 14,000 refugees from Hungnam in December 1950. In 1954, Mooremack withdrew the liner Uruguay from its New York – River Plate route, leaving Brazil and Argentina to continue a reduced service. Uruguay was laid up in the National Defense Reserve Fleet in the James Virginia. In 1958, Mooremack introduced a new SS Brasil and SS Argentina to the route, while the old Brazil and Argentina joined Uruguay in the Reserve Fleet on the James River; the new pair of liners worked the route until 1969, when declining passenger numbers made them unprofitable and Mooremack laid them up. In 1964-1965, Mooremack placed its Constellation Class freight liners in service, the Mormacargo, Mormacvega, Mormacdraco and Mormacrigel; the fast, state of the art vessels completed Mooremack's modernization program begun in 1956. On 11 February 1966, the Mormacaltair set sail from New York for Europe, establishing the first scheduled transatlantic container service.
Within weeks, Mooremack was joined by United States Lines and Sea-Land Service, but Mooremack failed to exploit its first-off-the-mark lead and make the investment in cellular con