The Toronto Star is a Canadian broadsheet daily newspaper. It is owned by Toronto Star Newspapers Ltd. a division of Star Media Group, the Star was first printed on Toronto World presses, and at its formation The World owned a 51% interest in it as a silent partner. That arrangement only lasted for two months, during time it was rumoured that William Findlay Billy Maclean, the Worlds proprietor, was considering selling the Star to the Riordon family. After an extensive fundraising campaign among the Star staff, Maclean agreed to sell his interest to Hocken, the paper did poorly in its first few years. Hocken sold out within the year, and several owners followed in succession until Sir William Mackenzie bought it in 1896 and its new editors, Edmund E. Sheppard and Frederic Nicholls, moved the entire Star operation into the same building used by the magazine Saturday Night. This would continue until Joseph E, holy Joe Atkinson, backed by funds raised by supporters of Sir Wilfrid Laurier, bought the paper.
The supporters included Senator George Cox, William Mulock, Peter Charles Larkin, Atkinson was the Stars editor from 1899 until his death in 1948. Its early opposition and criticism of the Nazi regime saw the paper one of the first North American papers to be banned in Germany. He championed many causes that would come to be associated with the welfare state, old age pensions, unemployment insurance. The Government of Canada Digital Collections website describes Atkinson as a radical in the best sense of that term, the Star was unique among North American newspapers in its consistent, ongoing advocacy of the interests of ordinary people. The friendship of Atkinson, the publisher, with Mackenzie King, Atkinson became the controlling shareholder of the Star. The Star was frequently criticized for practising the yellow journalism of its era, for decades, the paper included heavy doses of crime and sensationalism, along with advocating social change. From 1910 to 1973, the Star published a weekend supplement, shortly before his death in 1948, Joseph E.
Atkinson transferred ownership of the paper to a charitable organization given the mandate of continuing the papers liberal tradition. In 1949, the Province of Ontario passed the Charitable Gifts Act, barring charitable organizations from owning parts of profit-making businesses. It would continue to supply sponsored content to the CRBCs station CRCT, in 1971, the newspaper was renamed The Toronto Star and moved to a modern office tower at One Yonge Street by Queens Quay. The original Star Building at 80 King Street West was demolished to make room for First Canadian Place, the new building originally housed the papers presses. In 1992, the plant was moved to the Toronto Star Press Centre at the Highway 407 &400 interchange in Vaughan. In September 2002, the logo was changed, and The was dropped from the papers, during the 2003 blackout, the Star printed the paper at a press in Welland, Ontario
Diss is a market town and electoral ward in Norfolk, close to the border with the neighbouring East Anglian county of Suffolk, with a population of 7,572. Diss railway station is on the Great Eastern Main Line, which runs from London to Norwich, the town lies in the valley of the River Waveney, around a mere that covers 6 acres. The mere is up to 18 feet deep, although there is another 51 feet of mud, the town takes its name from dic an Anglo-Saxon word meaning either ditch or embankment. Diss has a number of buildings, including an early 14th century parish church. At the time of Edward the Confessor, Diss was part of the Hartismere hundred of Suffolk and it is recorded as being in the kings possession as demesne of the Crown, there being at that time a church and a glebe of 24 acres. This was considered to be worth £15 per annum, which had doubled by the time of William the Conqueror, it being estimated at £30 with the benefit of the hundred and half. It was found to be a long, around 3 miles and half this distance broad.
This was afterwards called Walcote, and includes part of Heywode, as appears from its joining to Burston, Diss was granted by King Henry I to Richard de Lucy, prior to 1135. The Testa de Neville states that it was not known whether Diss was rendered unto Richard de Lucy as an inheritance or for his service, Richard de Lucy become Chief Justiciar to King Stephen and Henry II. After Richard de Lucy’s death in 1179, the inheritance of the two parts of the hundred of Diss passed to his daughter Maud, who married Walter FitzRobert. A grant made in 1298 to William Partekyn of Prilleston granted, for homage and half a mark of silver and this came on the express condition that the gross dye should be washed off first. It seems as if the church of Diss was built by the same Lord, shortly afterwards, the estate was acquired by the Ratcliffe family, who inherited the title of Baron FitzWalter. The Ratcliffe family owned the land until at least 1732, styling themselves Viscounts FitzWalter, opposite the 14th-century parish church of St.
Mary the Virgin stands a 16th-century building known as the Dolphin House. This was one of the most important buildings in the town and its impressive dressed-oak beams denote it as an important building, possibly a wool merchants house. Formerly a pub, the Dolphin, from the 1800s to the 1960s, adjacent to Dolphin House is the towns market place, the geographical and social centre of the town. The market is held every Friday, a variety of traders sell fresh fruit and vegetables, fish. The market was first granted a charter by Richard the Lionheart, the towns post office and main shopping street are located by the marketplace. Early in 1871, substantial alterations were made to a house in Mount Street, the workmen were removing the brick flooring of one of the ground floor rooms and excavating the soil beneath, to insert the joists of a boarded floor, when they discovered a hoard of coins
Liquor Control Board of Ontario
The Liquor Control Board of Ontario is a Crown corporation that retails and distributes alcoholic beverages throughout the province of Ontario, Canada. It is accountable to the Ontario Ministry of Finance and it was established in 1927 on the advice of Ontario Premier Howard Ferguson, to sell liquor and beer. Such sales had been banned outright in 1916, the creation of the LCBO marked an easing of the provinces temperance regime, many of these outlets are located at the wineries, breweries or distilleries themselves, certain wine retail shops are located within grocery stores. Beverages sold at bars and restaurants must be consumed on the establishments premises, as of July 11,2016, LCBO accepts Apple Pay in each of their 654 stores in the province, allowing contactless payment for all purchases of liquor. The LCBO was created in 1927 with the end of prohibition which had introduced in the province in 1916. The Liquor Control Act authorized the LCBO to control the sale, Brewers Retail was created to sell beer in a controlled manner while wines and spirits were sold in LCBO outlets.
Wineries and breweries were allowed to sell from their own stores. The Conservative government of Howard Ferguson contested the 1926 provincial election on a platform of easing the temperance law, on being re-elected, it introduced the Liquor Control Act as a compromise between the complete prohibition demanded by the temperance movement and the unregulated sale of alcohol. Premier Ferguson stated that the Liquor Control Act was, to allow people to exercise a God-given freedom under reasonable restrictions. Ferguson was further quoted as saying the purpose of the LCBO was to promote temperance sobriety, personal liberty and, above all, to restore respect for the law. To achieve these goals LCBO was mandated by Ferguson’s Government to employ a mechanism in order to know “exactly who is buying and how much. From 1927-1962 the LCBO required people who wanted to purchase liquor to possess a permit and they had to present these permits at the point of purchase, and the clerk at the liquor store would enter information about what, the individual purchased.
Residents applied for and received individually-numbered liquor permits, a temporary permit was a single sheet form with 6 digit number with effective and expiry dates. This was issued until the yearly permit form was received and it was provided to non-resident visitors. In 1957 Permit books were replaced with permit cards and these cards held the permit holder’s name and their permit number and were needed in order to purchase liquor at the LCBO. The purchase order form would be handed to an LCBO employee along with the individual’s liquor permit and he would “examine permit and see to what extent the purchaser has been buying liquor. If purchaser has exceeded a reasonable quantity per week, note permit number and address and this meant a store employee could deny a sale to a customer if his intended purchases may be considered too large for one person to reasonably consume. Purchase order forms remained in use into the 1970s when the LCBO changed to a self serve format, to control what it considered to be excessive purchases or other abuses of the permit privilege the LCBO employed a list called the interdiction list
Canada is a country in the northern half of North America. Canadas border with the United States is the worlds longest binational land border, the majority of the country has a cold or severely cold winter climate, but southerly areas are warm in summer. Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its territory being dominated by forest and tundra. It is highly urbanized with 82 per cent of the 35.15 million people concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, One third of the population lives in the three largest cities, Toronto and Vancouver. Its capital is Ottawa, and other urban areas include Calgary, Quebec City, Winnipeg. Various aboriginal peoples had inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Pursuant to the British North America Act, on July 1,1867, the colonies of Canada, New Brunswick and this began an accretion of provinces and territories to the mostly self-governing Dominion to the present ten provinces and three territories forming modern Canada.
With the Constitution Act 1982, Canada took over authority, removing the last remaining ties of legal dependence on the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II being the head of state. The country is officially bilingual at the federal level and it is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Its advanced economy is the eleventh largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources, Canadas long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. Canada is a country and has the tenth highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the ninth highest ranking in the Human Development Index. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, Canada is an influential nation in the world, primarily due to its inclusive values, years of prosperity and stability, stable economy, and efficient military.
While a variety of theories have been postulated for the origins of Canada. In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona, from the 16th to the early 18th century Canada referred to the part of New France that lay along the St. Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named The Canadas, until their union as the British Province of Canada in 1841. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the name for the new country at the London Conference. The transition away from the use of Dominion was formally reflected in 1982 with the passage of the Canada Act, that year, the name of national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day
The red-brick Gooderham Building is a historic landmark of Toronto, Canada located at 49 Wellington Street East. On the eastern edge of the citys Financial District, it is in the St. Lawrence neighbourhood wedged between Front Street and Wellington Street, where they join up to form a triangular intersection, completed in 1892, it was an early example of a prominent flatiron building. The CN Tower is visible from certain angles behind Brookfield Place and this vista frequently appears in imagery of the city. The previous building was shorter, but in the same shape and it was the office of the Gooderham & Worts distillery until 1952, and sold by the Gooderham Estate in 1957. Bought in 1975 and saved and partially restored by David Walsh and Robert Phillips, further restoration took place in 1998 by owners Michael and Anne Tippin. The building was declared a site under the Ontario Heritage Act in 1975. Currently, it is owned and managed by the Woodcliffe Corporation, on 12 October 2011, Woodcliffe Corporation announced that it would be selling the building.
The building was last sold for $10.1 million in 2005, the building is currently owned and managed by The Commercial Realty Group. The Gooderham Building is well known both for its narrow shape and for the mural on its back wall. It is a picture of the Perkins Building, which is located directly across the street, the building has a Romanesque cornice and frieze above the arched windows on the 4th floor. The main entrance located on Wellington Street makes use of a French Gothic archway, the foundation is made of sandstone. The steep copper roof has eight gable dormers, four on the south facade, with its linear pattern of fenestration distributed equally on all floors, it conveys a light feeling of a corporate office building. The Gooderham Building is set on a foundation that reaches half a storey above the ground. These days it is still being used as an office building, the 1st floor uses rectangular sliding windows on the south side, but it has fixed windows on the north side. Conversely, on the 2nd floor, it uses fixed windows on the south side, on the 3rd, 4th and 5th floors, the Gooderham Building has single-hung and arch-hung windows.
The Gooderham Building has three entrances, two of the entrances lead to the pub in the basement known as The Flatiron and Firkin. Entrance doors are in pairs, and have wooden frames for windows, the pub in the basement has a large patio around the south side of the building. Entrances for the pub are located in the basement and the 1st floor on the Front Street side, there is no public access to the pub from the building
Rum-running, or bootlegging, is the illegal business of transporting alcoholic beverages where such transportation is forbidden by law. Smuggling is usually done to circumvent taxation or prohibition laws within a particular jurisdiction, the term rum-running is more commonly applied to smuggling over water, bootlegging is applied to smuggling over land. The term rum-running most likely originated at the start of Prohibition in the United States and it was said that some ships carried $200,000 in contraband in a single run. It was not long after the first taxes on alcoholic beverages that someone began to smuggle them, the British government had revenue cutters in place to stop smugglers as early as the 16th century. Pirates often made extra money running rum to heavily taxed colonies, an irony of the history of prohibition in North America is that industrial-scale smuggling flowed both ways across the Canada–US border at different points in the early twentieth century. National prohibition in the United States did not begin until 1920, as well, Canadas version of prohibition had never included a ban on the manufacture of liquor for export.
Soon the black-market trade was reversed with Canadian whisky and beer flowing in large quantities to the United States, this illegal international trade undermined the support for prohibition in the receiving country, and the American version ended in 1933. One of the most famous periods of rum-running began in the United States with the Prohibition began on January 16,1920 and this period lasted until the Eighteenth Amendment was repealed with ratification of the Twenty-first Amendment, on December 5,1933. At first, there was action on the seas. This was the start of the Bimini–Bahamas rum trade and the introduction of Bill McCoy, with the start of Prohibition Captain McCoy began bringing rum from Bimini and the rest of the Bahamas into south Florida through Government Cut. The rum-running business was good, and McCoy soon bought a Gloucester knockabout schooner named Arethusa at auction. He installed an auxiliary, mounted a concealed machine gun on her deck. In the days of rum running, it was common for captains to add water to the bottles to stretch their profits, any cheap sparkling wine became French champagne or Italian Spumante, unbranded liquor became top-of-the-line name brands.
McCoy became famous for never watering his booze, and selling only top brands, although the phrase appears in print in 1882, this is one of several folk etymologies for the origin of the term The real McCoy. On November 15,1923, McCoy and Tomoka encountered the U. S. Coast Guard Cutter Seneca, a boarding party attempted to board, but McCoy chased them off with the machine gun. Tomoka tried to run, but the Seneca placed a shell just off her hull, the small, quick boats could more easily outrun Coast Guard ships and could dock in any small river or eddy and transfer their cargo to a waiting truck. They were known to float planes and flying boats. Soon others were following suit, the limit became known as Rum Line
Hiram Walker was an American entrepreneur and founder of the Hiram Walker and Sons Ltd. distillery Windsor, Canada. Walker was born in East Douglas and moved to Detroit in 1838 and he purchased land across the Detroit River, just east of what is Windsor and established a distillery in 1858 in what would become Walkerville, Ontario. Walker began selling his whisky as Hiram Walkers Club Whisky, in containers that were clearly marked and he used a process to make his whisky that was vastly different from all other distillers. It became very popular, angering American distillers, who forced the U. S. Government to pass a law requiring that all foreign whiskeys state their country of origin on the label, from this point forward, Hiram Walkers famous Canadian Club Whisky was Canadas top export whisky. The Hiram Walker & Sons Distillery remained in the Walker family until 1926 when they sold it to Harry C, Canadian Club whisky is still produced at the distillery site Walker founded. The company has gone through several owners and is now part of Pernod Ricard, the Canadian Club brand is owned by Beam Suntory, a subsidiary of Suntory Holdings of Japan.
Hiram Walker was born on July 4,1816 on a farm in Douglas. He was the generation of English immigrants, his father was a reputable schoolmaster. His ancestors can be traced back to Thomas Walker of Boston and his father died when he was aged 9. Douglas, Massachusetts was a town, with a population of 1,800, and very few businesses, which include a planing mill. He received a school education in Boston, and began working as a dry goods clerk. He left for Detroit, Michigan, in 1838, at the age of 22 years, Detroit was a vast change from Boston at the time, as Detroit had a smaller population, where Hiram was able to find employment. His first employment in Detroit was as a clerk at a store owned by Augustus Gardner. His general tasks were to order, receive and price out all the goods in which the company dealt with, through this, he gained knowledge and experience of the business world. At this time, Boston was the metropolis of New England, the Eastern Seaboard. Walker, as well as many other youthful New Englanders, were drawn to the opportunity of the Mid-West and beyond, largely in part to the expansion, on October 5,1846, at age thirty, Hiram Walker married Mary Abigail Williams.
Mary Williams and Hiram Walker had 7 children,5 boys and 2 girls, on her mothers side, Mary Abigail was the descendant of French merchants. He had two daughters, Julia Elizabeth and Jennie Melissa, and five sons, Willis Ephraim, Edward Chandler, Franklin Hiram, Edward Chandler was his second son, whom commissioned the development of Willistead Manor
Toronto is the most populous city in Canada and the provincial capital of Ontario. With a population of 2,731,571, it is the fourth most populous city in North America after Mexico City, New York City, and Los Angeles. A global city, Toronto is a centre of business, finance and culture. Aboriginal peoples have inhabited the area now known as Toronto for thousands of years, the city itself is situated on the southern terminus of an ancient Aboriginal trail leading north to Lake Simcoe, used by the Wyandot and the Mississauga. Permanent European settlement began in the 1790s, after the broadly disputed Toronto Purchase of 1787, the British established the town of York, and designated it as the capital of Upper Canada. During the War of 1812, the town was the site of the Battle of York, York was renamed and incorporated as the city of Toronto in 1834, and became the capital of the province of Ontario during the Canadian Confederation in 1867. The city proper has since expanded past its original borders through amalgamation with surrounding municipalities at various times in its history to its current area of 630.2 km2.
While the majority of Torontonians speak English as their primary language, Toronto is a prominent centre for music, motion picture production, and television production, and is home to the headquarters of Canadas major national broadcast networks and media outlets. Toronto is known for its skyscrapers and high-rise buildings, in particular the tallest free-standing structure in the Western Hemisphere. The name Toronto is likely derived from the Iroquois word tkaronto and this refers to the northern end of what is now Lake Simcoe, where the Huron had planted tree saplings to corral fish. A portage route from Lake Ontario to Lake Huron running through this point, in the 1660s, the Iroquois established two villages within what is today Toronto, Ganatsekwyagon on the banks of the Rouge River and Teiaiagonon the banks of the Humber River. By 1701, the Mississauga had displaced the Iroquois, who abandoned the Toronto area at the end of the Beaver Wars, French traders founded Fort Rouillé on the current Exhibition grounds in 1750, but abandoned it in 1759.
During the American Revolutionary War, the region saw an influx of British settlers as United Empire Loyalists fled for the British-controlled lands north of Lake Ontario, the new province of Upper Canada was in the process of creation and needed a capital. Dorchester intended the location to be named Toronto, in 1793, Governor John Graves Simcoe established the town of York on the Toronto Purchase lands, instead naming it after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. Simcoe decided to move the Upper Canada capital from Newark to York, the York garrison was constructed at the entrance of the towns natural harbour, sheltered by a long sandbar peninsula. The towns settlement formed at the end of the harbour behind the peninsula, near the present-day intersection of Parliament Street. In 1813, as part of the War of 1812, the Battle of York ended in the towns capture, the surrender of the town was negotiated by John Strachan. US soldiers destroyed much of the garrison and set fire to the parliament buildings during their five-day occupation, the sacking of York was a primary motivation for the Burning of Washington by British troops in the war
Pernod Ricard is a French company that produces distilled beverages. The companys eponymous products, Pernod Anise and Ricard Pastis, are both anise-flavoured liqueurs and are referred to simply as Pernod or Ricard. The company produces other types of pastis. After the banning of absinthe, Pernod Ricard was created from the Pernod Fils company and it is now a worldwide conglomerate. Pernod Ricard owns the distilled beverage division of the former corporation Seagram, in 2005, the company acquired a British-based competitor, Allied Domecq plc. In 2008, Pernod Ricard announced its acquisition of Swedish-based V&S Group, in 2013 Pernod Ricard joined leading alcohol producers as part of a producers commitments to reducing harmful drinking. As of 2015, India is the third largest market by value. 1797 – Henri-Louis Pernod, a Swiss distiller, opened his first absinthe distillery in Switzerland,1805 – Maison Pernod Fils was founded in Pontarlier, Franche-Comté in eastern France by Henri-Louis Pernod and started the production of the anise-flavored liquor known as absinthe.
1871 – Distillerie Hémard was founded near Paris,1872 – Société Pernod Père & Fils opened in Avignon. 1915 – Production and consumption of absinthe was prohibited in France,1926 – All 3 distilleries merged to form Les Établissements Pernod. 1951 – Pastis 51 was launched,1965 – Takeover of Distillerie Rousseau, Laurens et Moureaux, producer of the Suze liquor since 1889. 1932 – Ricard, which soon became Frances favourite long drink, was founded in Marseille by Paul Ricard,1940 – Production of pastis was prohibited by the Vichy regime. 1944 – Production of pastis became legal again,1968 – Paul Ricard retired, his son Patrick became CEO in 1978. 1975 – Old rivals Pernod and Ricard merged to form Pernod Ricard S. A.1988 – Pernod Ricard acquired Irish Distillers,1989 – Pernod Ricard acquired Orlando Wyndham. 1993 – Pernod Ricard worked with Cuban companies to create Havana Club International,2001 – Pernod Ricard purchased 38% of Seagrams Wines and Spirits business. 2005 – Pernod Ricard purchased Allied Domecq,2008 – Pernod Ricard purchased V&S Group including the Absolut Vodka brand, from the Swedish government.
Pernod Ricard previously owned the carbonated citrus drink Orangina, both brands were sold in 2001 to Cadbury Schweppes. The Havana Club trademark remains unchallenged elsewhere in the world, having been validated by court decisions in a number of other than the US
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain.
The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years
An antifreeze is an additive which lowers the freezing point of a water-based liquid. An antifreeze mixture is used to achieve freezing-point depression for cold environments and boiling points are colligative properties of a solution, which depend on the concentration of the dissolved substance. Because water has good properties as a coolant, water plus antifreeze is used in combustion engines and other heat transfer applications, such as HVAC chillers. The purpose of antifreeze is to prevent a rigid enclosure from bursting due to expansion when water freezes, both the additive and the mixture are called antifreeze, depending on the context. Salts are frequently used for de-icing, but salt solutions are not used for cooling systems because they can cause corrosion to metals. Instead, non-corrosive antifreezes are commonly used for critical de-icing, such as for aircraft wings, most automotive engines are water-cooled to remove waste heat, although the water is actually antifreeze/water mixture and not plain water.
The term engine coolant is used in the automotive industry. When used in a context, corrosion inhibitors are added to help protect vehicles radiators. Water pump seal lubricant is added, antifreeze was developed to overcome the shortcomings of water as a heat transfer fluid. These should not be confused with core plugs, whose purpose is to allow removal of used in the casting process of engine blocks. On the other hand, if the engine coolant gets too hot, it might boil while inside the engine, causing voids, leading to localized hot spots, if plain water were to be used as an engine coolant, it would promote galvanic corrosion. Proper engine coolant and a pressurized coolant system can help obviate the problems which make plain water incompatible with automotive engines. With proper antifreeze, a temperature range can be tolerated by the engine coolant, such as −34 °F to +265 °F for 50% propylene glycol diluted with water. Early engine coolant antifreeze was methanol, as radiator caps were vented, not sealed, the methanol was lost to evaporation, requiring frequent replenishment to avoid freezing of the coolant.
Methanol accelerates corrosion of the metals, especially aluminum, used in the engine, ethylene glycol was developed, and soon replaced methanol as an engine cooling system antifreeze. It has a low volatility compared to methanol and to water. Before the 1950s, coolant systems were unpressurized and the engine was often cooler than modern automotive engines, by pressurizing the coolant system with a radiator cap, the boiling point of the fluid is increased, permitting higher engine temperatures and better fuel efficiency. Pressurized systems do not appreciably change the freezing point, the most common water-based antifreeze solutions used in electronics cooling are mixtures of water and either ethylene glycol or propylene glycol