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Goodison Park

Goodison Park is a football stadium in Walton, Liverpool and the home of Premier League club Everton since its completion in 1892. The stadium is in a residential area two miles from Liverpool city centre, it has an all-seated capacity of 39,572. As Everton has remained in the top tier of English football since 1954, Goodison Park has hosted more top-flight games than any other stadium in England; the club has only been outside the top division for four seasons, having been relegated in 1930 and 1951. As well as hosting Everton games, the stadium has been the venue for an FA Cup Final and numerous international fixtures, including a semi-final match in the 1966 World Cup, among other matches. Everton played on an open pitch in the south-east corner of the newly laid out Stanley Park; the first official match after being renamed Everton from St. Domingo's, was at Stanley Park being staged on 20 December 1879 with St. Peter's being the opposition, with admission free. In 1882, a Mr J. Cruit donated land at Priory Road with the necessary facilities required for professional clubs.

Cruit asked the club to leave his land after two years because the crowds became far too large and noisy. Everton moved to a site where proper covered stands were built. Everton played at the Anfield ground from 1884 until 1892. During this time the club turned professional entering teams in the FA Cup, they became founding members of the Football League winning their first championship at the ground in 1890–91. Anfield's capacity grew to over 20,000 with the club hosted an international match with England hosting Ireland. During their time at Anfield, Everton became the first club to introduce goalnets to professional football. In the 1890s, a dispute about how the club was to be owned and run emerged with John Houlding, Anfield's majority owner and Everton's Chairman, at the forefront. Houlding disagreed with the club's committee disagreeing about the full purchase of the land at Anfield from minor land owner Mr Orrell escalating into a principled disagreement of how the club was run. Two such disagreements included Houlding wanting Everton to sell only his brewery products during an event and for the Everton players to use his public house The Sandon as changing room facilities.

The most famous of the disagreements concerns the level of increased rent Everton were asked to pay. In 1889, Everton paid £100 to Houlding in rent which by the 1889–90 season had risen to £250. Everton had to pay for all stands; the dispute escalated to a rent of £370 per year being demanded. In the complicated lead up to the split in the club, the rent dispute is too simplistic to be singled out as the prime cause; the dispute was compounded by many minor disputed points. The flashpoint was a covenant in the contract of land purchase by Houlding from Orrell causing further and deep friction. A strip of land at the Anfield ground bordering the adjacent land owned by Mr Orrell, could be used to provide a right of way access road for Orrell's landlocked vacant site. In early 1891 the club erected a stand on this now proposed roadway, overlapping Orrell's land, unbeknown to the Everton F. C. Committee. In August 1891 Orrell announced intentions of developing his land next to the football ground, building an access road on the land owned by Houlding and occupied by Everton F.

C. Everton F. C. stated they knew nothing of the covenant, Houlding stated. This situation created great distrust leading to friction between Houlding and the Everton F. C. Committee; the rift and distrust between the two parties was on three levels, Houlding's personal business intentions and morally. The club faced a dilemma of having to destroy the new revenue generating stand or compensate Orrell. Houlding's way around the problem was to propose a limited company with floatation of the club enabling the club to purchase Houlding's and Orrell's land outright, hoping to raise £12,000. Previous attempts to raise money from the community had failed miserably; this would have meant. The Everton Committee accepted Houlding's proposal in principle, yet voted against it at a meeting. After much negotiating and brinkmanship on both sides Everton vacated Anfield, leaving Houlding with an empty stadium with no one to play in it; as a consequence, Houlding formed his own football club, Liverpool, to take up residence at the stadium.

The clubs themselves have differing versions of events of. Houlding explained why this situation arose in a Liverpool match programme against Cliftonville in April 1893, he pointed out. If the club had gone bust he would have lost it all. Despite making no profit in this respect, the issue that upset the members at Everton most was his plan to sell Anfield and the land adjoining, with Houlding himself profiting, he felt. Houlding, as the ambitious businessman he was, saw a great future for the club, he wanted the club to have its own home ground and wanted them to buy land so the club could expand in due course. Most of the Everton FC board members failed to share his forward thinking and lacked confidence, they wanted instead a long term rent deal on all the land, but for this to be acceptable to Houlding, he wanted a rent at a price considered too high for the Club. The members reacted to that by "offering" Houlding less rent. Houlding unsurprisingly refused to accept this stating that he did not want to be dictated: "I cannot understand why a gentleman that has done so much

Noar Hill

Noar Hill, near Selborne in East Hampshire, is best known for its nature reserve. Nore is an obsolete spelling of north. Noar is a variant of nore; the hill is at 51°04′30″N 0°56′00″W and lies in the parish of Newton Valence, in the East Hampshire Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty.. It forms one of the westerly outposts of the chalk hills called the South Downs, rises to a maximum height of about 210 metres above sea-level; the western and northern flanks slope gently, but the eastern and southern flanks in places reach a gradient exceeding 60%. Gilbert White, in his Natural History of Selborne, says of Noar Hill: At each end of the village, which runs from south-east to north-west, arises a small rivulet: that at the north-west end fails: but the other is a fine perennial spring little influenced by drought or wet seasons, called Well-head; this breaks out of some high grounds adjoining to Nore Hill, a noble chalk promontory, remarkable for sending forth two streams into two different seas.

The one to the south becomes a branch of the Arun, running to Arundel, so falling into the British channel: the other to the north. The western flanks and much of the summit are given over to arable fields. A smaller part of the summit, 20 hectares known as High Common, is covered with downland grasses and scrub; the northern and southern flanks are covered by deciduous woodland dominated by beech. Such beechwoods on steep hills in East Hampshire are termed "hangers". High Common is the site of mediaeval chalk-workings – chalk was dug out and spread on nearby fields as fertilizer; the excavations have left an irregular network of pits and hollows of varying size and steepness. Because the ground is so uneven, High Common remained unploughed for centuries and was only used for grazing, it retains the ancient chalk downland flora which elsewhere has been lost. Its importance was recognized in 1982, when it was declared a nature reserve, it has SSSI status. The reserve is managed by the Isle of Wight Wildlife Trust.

When first declared, about two-thirds of the reserve were covered by scrub, a great deal of which has now been removed, though management today still requires constant scrub-control and regular coppicing of hazel. Grazing is used to maintain the close-cropped turf on which many of the other plants and insects depend; the chalk-diggings not only made High Common unsuitable for ploughing, but left bare chalk exposed. The many inclines and aspects of the disused pits provide different microclimates, all of which add to the variety of the flora. Noar Hill is noted for its calcicoles; these include hairy rock-cress, harsh downy-rose, pale flax, common milkwort, wild thyme and clustered bellflower. Small-leaved sweet-briar was recorded in 1978. Four bushes of box growing on the landslip are considered by Dr Francis Rose to be native. Early gentian has been found on the bare chalk-scree; the parasitic knapweed broomrape is recorded. Juniper thrives. There are occasional findings of dragon's - fern-grass.

However, the chief glory of Noar Hill derives from its orchids. At least eleven species have been identified: Twayblade Autumn lady's tresses Musk orchid Pyramidal orchid Fragrant orchid Frog orchid Coeloglossum viride, including × Dactyloglossum mixtum) Common spotted orchid Southern marsh orchid Early purple orchid Fly orchid Bee orchid The colony of musk orchids runs to 10,000 spikes and is of national importance. High Common, surrounded by botanically impoverished farmland, provides both a refuge for chalk downland species and a reservoir from which recolonization of nearby areas is possible; the habitat restoration being undertaken at Selborne Common may be one beneficiary. Noar Hill is home to the only British species of the curious fairy shrimp, which lives in puddles on the tracks and survives as an egg when the mud dries. Glow-worms are seen over the reserve on summer evenings. Grasshoppers abound, including the rufous grasshopper; the butterflies include marbled white, brown argus, Duke of Burgundy, brown hairstreak, holly blue, besides large numbers of more common species.

The reserve is a good place to look for slowworms. It supports breeding turtle doves. Several pairs of common buzzards are resident in the area and the rabbits on High Common are a favourite prey; the hen harrier. For some reason – the abundance of rosehipsbullfinches are always to be found upon the hill. Brewis, Anne, et al; the Flora of Hampshire. Harley Books, ISBN 0-946589-53-4 Hampshire & IoW Wildlife Trust

Dumbrăvița, Timiș

Dumbrăvița is a commune in Timiș County, Romania. It is composed of Dumbrăvița. At the 2011 census, 77.9 % of inhabitants were 14.6 % Hungarians and 1.2 % Germans. It was founded in 1892 by Hungarian settlers from Szentes, it is bordered to the north by the communes of Giarmata and Sânandrei, to the east by Ghiroda commune, to the south and west by Timișoara. As result of the development of the city, many people from Timișoara have built homes in Dumbrăvița, which has the tendency of becoming a neighborhood of Timișoara. Meanwhile, between the 2002 and the 2011 census, the population grew by 168%, from 2693 to 7241 residents


Centerbe or Centerba, is a liqueur made by aromatic herbs found on Mount Majella. It is a typical abruzzese liquor in central Italy and it's made on a base of 70% alcohol; the liqueur comes in two strengths: mild. The strong centerba is used as digestif after-meals and has antiseptic properties, it was manufactured by Beniamino Toro in Tocco da Casauria in 1817. It's made with 60 to 150 proof alcohol by volume, can be made by placing orange leaves, chamomile, sage, cloves, toasted coffee beans, mint, lemon leaves, mandarin leaves, thyme blossoms, marjoram in a bottle.'White Unsweetened Centerbe' is an ingredient in the forgotten Coup de Foudre cocktail, included in the United Kingdom Bartenders Guild's'1700 Cocktails'. Verbatim, the recipe is: 1/3 Red Curaçao, 1/3 Coates Plymouth Gin. Serve with a small piece of candied orange peel.'Unsweetened' suggests that, at that time, a medicinal version of Centerbe was available similar to the homemade recipe above without the sugar syrup. Alternatively, many of the 18th century sweet recipes are, to modern tastes, exceptionally sweet.

So standard Centerbe was sweetened to make it palatable. Bols and Grand Marnier both made red curacaos. Coates owners of Plymouth Gin, subsidised the publication of 1700, in return became the'named' gin brand in all the recipes. Chartreuse

Ron Martin (geographer)

Ronald Leonard Martin FBA FAcSS is professor of economic geography at the Department of Geography University of Cambridge. He is a fellow of the Cambridge-MIT Institute, research associate of the Centre for Business Research and professorial fellow of St Catharine's College, Cambridge. Martin's research focuses on the geographies of work and of financial systems, regional economic development, economic theory and economic geography, the interface between geography and public policy, he is the editor of the journal Cambridge Journal of Regions and Society, published by Oxford University Press. He was elected a Fellow of the British Academy in 2005, awarded a Leverhulme Trust Major Research Fellowship for 2007-2010. Outside of his academic work, he is an associate director of the Local Futures Group, an economic-geographic consultancy. British Academy's'Thank-Offering to Britain' senior research fellowship, 1997–1998 Academician of the Academy of Learned Societies for the Social Sciences, 2001 Listed by the American Economic Association in 2003 as one of the world's most cited economists Profile at the Department of Geography, Cambridge


Saygus is an American developer of smartphones headquartered in South Jordan, Utah. Founded by Chad Sayers. Saygus developed two smartphone devices: VPhone and V², neither of which were released. Saygus' VPhone, featuring a 3.5 inch touchscreen and slide-out keyboard, was first revealed in 2009, but did not go to market. The VPhone was presented at the 2010 Consumer Electronics Show, winning the Best of Innovations Award in the Wireless Handsets category; the second device developed by Saygus was named V². The V² smartphone was announced at CES 2015 and was reported to ship in the first quarter of 2015; the device could be pre-ordered directly from Saygus during January 2015. In June 2015 a crowdfunding campaign was launched for the Saygus V² with the company citing manufacturing issues in delivering the finished product to pre-order customers. After several years of delays in delivering the device to backers, Saygus made a further plea for investment in November 2018. Saygus at CeBIT 2015 presents V² smartphone Saygus presents V² at CES 2015 Saygus presents V² at MWC 2015 Saygus presents last hardware update of V² at Los Angeles Saygus VIP Penthouse Lounge near E3