SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Goodwill Games

The Goodwill Games was an international sports competition created by Ted Turner in reaction to the political troubles surrounding the Olympic Games of the 1980s. In 1979, the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan caused the United States and other Western countries to boycott the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow, an act reciprocated when the Soviet Union and other Eastern Bloc countries boycotted the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles. Like the Olympics, the Goodwill Games were held every four years, had a summer and winter component; the Summer Goodwill Games occurred five times, between 1986 and 2001, while the Winter Goodwill Games occurred only once, in 2000. They were cancelled by Time Warner, which had bought ownership of them in 1996, due to low television ratings after the 2001 games in Brisbane; the first Goodwill Games, held in Moscow in 1986, featured 182 events and attracted over 3,000 athletes representing 79 countries. World records were set by Sergey Bubka, Jackie Joyner-Kersee, both the men and women's 200 m cycle racing, by East Germany's Michael Hübner and the Soviet Union's Erika Salumäe, respectively.

World records fell at the 1990 Games in Seattle, to Mike Barrowman in the 200 m breaststroke and Nadezhda Ryashkina in the 10 km walk. The 1994 Games in Saint Petersburg, Russia were the first competition held since the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Russians set five world records in the weightlifting section, the games were the first major international event to feature beach volleyball, which would appear at the Olympics for the first time at the 1996 Atlanta Games. In October 1996, Turner's company, the Turner Broadcasting System, merged with Time Warner, thus bringing the Goodwill Games under the control of the latter. Ted Turner's last games were in 1998 in New York City, with memorable highlights including Joyner-Kersee winning her fourth straight heptathlon title, the U. S. 4 × 400 m relay team setting a world's best time, plus Michelle Kwan and Todd Eldridge winning the gold in figure skating, Dominique Moceanu capturing the women's gymnastics gold medal with a dominant performance.

Time Warner organized the 2001 Games in Brisbane, before announcing that this would be the last edition of the games. With the cancellation of the games, Phoenix and Calgary lost their respective summer and winter games, scheduled for 2005; the 2001 edition witnessed Australia winning the most medals with 75, but it received low television ratings in the United States. Critics praised Turner Network Television for showing the games live, rather than on tape delay. During a live interview at the 2009 Denver SportAccord conference, Turner blamed the demise of the games on the short-sighted management of Time Warner, stated, "If I'd have stayed there the Goodwill Games would not have been canceled." Turner expressed hope that the games would return as a bridge to restore cultural contact between Russia and the U. S. stating that the relationship between the two had disintegrated since the Cold War, which he called a dangerous situation due to both countries' massive nuclear arsenals. He reiterated his belief in the power of international sporting competitions to prevent war, saying that "as long as the Olympics are taking place and not being boycotted, it's impossible to have a world war", because the nations involved "wouldn't want a war to mess up their chances".

Liberty Bell Classic Media related to Goodwill Games at Wikimedia Commons Goodwill Games 1986. Opening show

International Criminal Court investigation in Mali

The International Criminal Court investigation in Mali or the Situation in the Republic of Mali is an ongoing investigation by the International Criminal Court into war crimes and other crimes within the ICC's jurisdiction that are alleged to have occurred during the Northern Mali conflict since January 2012. The investigation was requested by the government of Mali in July 2012; as the first person who pleaded guilty to a charge of the ICC, al-Mahdi made a statement expressing remorse and advising others not to commit similar acts. On 27 September 2016, al-Mahdi was sentenced to nine years in prison for the destruction of cultural world heritage in the Malian city of Timbuktu. At least nine mausoleums and one mosque were destroyed. Several human rights organisations reported on human rights abuses during the Northern Mali conflict that started in early 2012; the International Federation for Human Rights and its Malian member organisation Association Malienne des Droits de l'Homme published a detailed report in December 2012, referring to evidence of a rape campaign in Gao and Timbuktu after their takeover by the National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad, recruitment of 12- to 15-year-old children as child soldiers by Ansar Dine, the summary execution of up to 153 Malian soldiers by the MNLA and Ansar Dine on 24 January 2012.

Human Rights Watch reported the use of "several hundred" child soldiers by the Movement for Unity and Jihad in West Africa, Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb. Amnesty International published a detailed report in May 2012, describing the human rights situation as "Mali's worst human rights situation in 50 years". On 13 July 2012, the government of Mali, represented by its Minister of Justice Malick Coulibaly, made a formal request to the ICC to investigate war crimes and crimes against humanity that took place in Mali since January 2012; the ICC's Office of the Prosecutor gathered evidence, on 16 January 2013, the Court formally started a full investigation led by Chief Prosecutor Fatou Bensouda. Bensouda has determined that there is a reasonable basis to believe the following crimes were committed during the conflict: murder; the 16 January 2013 ICC report listed evidence for suspected crimes that include some attributed to the MNLA, such as the executions at Aguelhok of about 100 Malian army soldiers on 24 January 2012, some attributed to the Malian army, such as the Diabaly September 2012 massacre of 16 unarmed preachers.

On 18 September 2015, the court issued an arrest warrant for Ahmad al-Faqi al-Mahdi, accused of the war crime of intentionally directing attacks against buildings dedicated to religion the mausoleums and mosques located in Timbuktu. They were destroyed by members of Ansar Dine and other Islamist groups in 2012. On 26 September 2015, he was sent from Niger to the court's detention center in The Hague. On 27 September 2016, al-Mahdi was sentenced to nine years in prison for the destruction of cultural world heritage in the Malian city of Timbuktu. Situation in the Republic of Mali – International Criminal Court

Messerschmitt P.1099

The Messerschmitt P.1099 was a two-seat prototype jet plane designed by Messerschmitt for the Luftwaffe before the end of the Second World War. The design of the Me P.1099 was begun in the summer of 1943 and was intended as an improvement to the Messerschmitt Me 262. The Me P.1099 was planned in a way which could be developed into high-speed bomber, reconnaissance plane, night fighter and trainer versions. The Messerschmitt P.1099 was a 12 m long, conventional-looking aircraft with a wingspan of 12.6 m. It had a wider fuselage than the Messerschmitt Me 262 and was equipped with a cockpit for two pilots, located at the front end; the planned powerplants were two Junkers Jumo 004 turbojet engines to be replaced by Heinkel HeS 011 turbojets in a further development with swept wings, the Messerschmitt P.1100. None of the variants were built, but this project was developed into the Messerschmitt P.1100 all-weather fighter project, which in turn would lead to the single-seat, single-jet Messerschmitt P.1101 design for the Emergency Fighter Program in July 1944.

The Messerschmitt P.1099 project had different versions of two-seat fighters which retained the tail and the wing design of the Me 262. All of the projected aircraft variants would be powered by two Junkers Jumo 004 turbojets. Jet-powered fighter with a crew of two, developed in January 1944, it with a wider fuselage. There were three planned versions, differing in armament: Version A with four MK 108 30 mm cannon. Version B with two MK 103 30 mm cannon and Version C with two MK 108 and two MK 103 cannon in the nose. A armed variant, developed from the Me 262, of which two versions were foreseen: Version A would be armed with a MK 108 cannon and a MK 112 55 mm cannon. Version B was armed with a MK 114 50 mm cannon; the radio equipment would be a FuG 16, Peil G6, FuG 101 radio altimeter, FuBl 2 blind landing equipment, as well as the FuG 25a Erstling identification friend or foe transceiver. There was a night fighter version equipped with two upward-firing MK 108 cannons. List of German aircraft projects, 1939–45 Media related to Messerschmitt P.1099 at Wikimedia Commons German WW2 Secret Projects – Vol. 3 Models Revell Germany 1/72 Messerschmitt P.1099B/I "Wildgans", "Libelle", "Wespe", P.1106: bogus Messerschmitt Projects