Channel 4 is a British public-service free-to-air television network that began transmission on 2 November 1982. Although commercially-self-funded, it is publicly-owned. With the conversion of the Wenvoe transmitter group in Wales to digital terrestrial broadcasting on 31 March 2010, Channel 4 became a UK-wide TV channel for the first time; the channel was established to provide a fourth television service to the United Kingdom in addition to the licence-funded BBC One and BBC Two, the single commercial broadcasting network ITV. Before Channel 4 and S4C, Britain had three terrestrial television services: BBC1, BBC2, ITV; the Broadcasting Act 1980 began the process of adding a fourth, Channel 4, along with its Welsh counterpart, was formally created by an Act of Parliament in 1982. After some months of test broadcasts, it began scheduled transmissions on 2 November 1982; the notion of a second commercial broadcaster in the United Kingdom had been around since the inception of ITV in 1954 and its subsequent launch in 1955.
Indeed, television sets sold throughout the 1970s and early 1980s had a spare tuning button labelled "ITV/IBA 2". Throughout ITV's history and until Channel 4 became a reality, a perennial dialogue existed between the GPO, the government, the ITV companies and other interested parties, concerning the form such an expansion of commercial broadcasting would take, it was most politics which had the biggest impact in leading to a delay of three decades before the second commercial channel became a reality. One clear benefit of the "late arrival" of the channel was that its frequency allocations at each transmitter had been arranged in the early 1960s, when the launch of an ITV2 was anticipated; this led to good coverage across most of the country and few problems of interference with other UK-based transmissions. At the time the fourth service was being considered, a movement in Wales lobbied for the creation of dedicated service that would air Welsh-language programmes only catered for at "off peak" times on BBC Wales and HTV.
The campaign was taken so by Gwynfor Evans, former president of Plaid Cymru, that he threatened the government with a hunger strike were it not to honour the plans. The result was that Channel 4 as seen by the rest of the United Kingdom would be replaced in Wales by Sianel Pedwar Cymru. Operated by a specially created authority, S4C would air programmes in Welsh made by HTV, the BBC and independent companies. Limited frequency space meant that Channel 4 could not be broadcast alongside S4C, though some Channel 4 programmes would be aired at less popular times on the Welsh variant, a practice that carried on up until the closure of S4C's analogue transmissions in 2010 when S4C became a Welsh channel. Since carriage on digital cable and digital terrestrial has introduced Channel 4 to Welsh homes where it is now universally available; the first voice heard on Channel 4's opening day of Tuesday 2 November 1982 was that of continuity announcer Paul Coia who said: Good afternoon. It's a pleasure to be able to say to you, welcome to Channel Four.
Following the announcement, the channel headed into a montage of clips from its programmes set to the station's signature tune, "Fourscore", written by David Dundas, which would form the basis of the station's jingles for its first decade. The first programme to air on the channel was the teatime game show Countdown, at 16:45 produced by Yorkshire Television; the first person to be seen on Channel 4 was Richard Whiteley with Ted Moult being the second. The first woman on the channel, contrary to popular belief, was not Whiteley's Countdown co-host Carol Vorderman but a lexicographer only identified as Mary. Whiteley opened the show with the words: As the countdown to a brand new channel ends, a brand new countdown begins. On its first day, Channel 4 broadcast controversial soap opera Brookside, which ran until 2003. On its launch, Channel 4 committed itself to providing an alternative to the existing channels, an agenda in part set out by its remit which required the provision of programming to minority groups.
In step with its remit, the channel became well received both by minority groups and the arts and cultural worlds during this period under founding chief executive Jeremy Isaacs, where the channel gained a reputation for programmes on the contemporary arts. Channel 4 co-commissioned Robert Ashley's ground-breaking television opera Perfect Lives, which it premiered over several episodes in 1984; the channel did not receive mass audiences for much of this period, however, as might be expected for a station focusing on minority interest. Channel 4 began the funding of independent films, such as the Merchant-Ivory docudrama The Courtesans of Bombay, during this time. In 1992, Channel 4 faced its first libel case by Jani Allan, a South African journalist, who objected to her representation in Nick Broomfield's documentary The Leader, His Driver and the Driver's Wife. In September 1993, the channel broadcast the direct-to-TV documentary film Beyond Citizen Kane, in which it displayed the dominant position of the Rede Globo television network, discussed its influence and political connections in Brazil.
After control of the station passed from the Channel Four Television Co
Chichester is a cathedral city in West Sussex, in South-East England. It is its county town, it was important in Anglo-Saxon times. It is the seat of the Church of England Diocese of Chichester, with a 12th-century cathedral; the city is a hub of several main road routes, has a railway station, hospital and museums. The River Lavant runs through, beneath, the city; the area around Chichester is believed to have played significant part during the Roman Invasion of A. D. 43, as confirmed by evidence of military storage structures in the area of the nearby Fishbourne Roman Palace. The city centre stands on the foundations of the Romano-British city of Noviomagus Reginorum, capital of the Civitas Reginorum; the Roman road of Stane Street, connecting the city with London, started at the east gate, while the Chichester to Silchester road started from the north gate. The plan of the city is inherited from the Romans: the North, South and West shopping streets radiate from the central market cross dating from medieval times.
The original Roman city wall was over 6½ feet thick with a steep ditch. It survived for over one and a half thousand years but was replaced by a thinner Georgian wall; the city was home to some Roman baths, found down Tower Street when preparation for a new car park was under way. A museum, The Novium, preserving the baths was opened on 8 July 2012. An amphitheatre was built outside the city walls, close to the East Gate, in around 80 AD; the area is now a park, but the site of the amphitheatre is discernible as a gentle bank oval in shape. In January 2017, archaeologists using underground radar reported the discovery of the untouched ground floor of a Roman townhouse and outbuilding; the exceptional preservation is due to the fact the site, Priory Park, belonged to a monastery and has never been built upon since Roman times. According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle it was captured towards the close of the fifth century, by Ælle, renamed after his son, Cissa, it was the chief city of the Kingdom of Sussex.
The cathedral for the South Saxons was founded in 681 at Selsey. Chichester was one of the burhs established by Alfred the Great in 878-9, making use of the remaining Roman walls. According to the Burghal Hidage, a list written in the early 10th century, it was one of the biggest of Alfred's burhs, supported by 1500 hides, units of land required to supply one soldier each for the garrison in time of emergency; the system was supported by a communication network based on hilltop beacons to provide early warning. It has been suggested; when the Domesday Book was compiled, Cicestre consisted of 300 dwellings which held a population of 1,500 people. There was a mill named Kings Mill that would have been rented to local villeins. After the Battle of Hastings the township of Chichester was handed to Roger de Mongomerie, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury, for courageous efforts in the battle, but it was forfeited in 1104 by the 3rd Earl. Shortly after 1066 Chichester Castle was built by Roger de Mongomerie to consolidate Norman power.
In around 1143 the title Earl of Arundel became the dominant local landowner. In 1216, Chichester Castle, along with Reigate Castle, was captured by the French, but regained the following year, when the castle was ordered to be destroyed by the king. Between 1250 and 1262, the Rape of Chichester was created from the western half of Arundel rape, with the castle as its administrative centre. At Christmas 1642 during the First English Civil War the city was besieged and St Pancras church destroyed by gunfire. A military presence was established in the city in 1795 with the construction of a depot on land where the Hawkhurst Gang had been hanged, it was named the Roussillon Barracks in 1958. The military presence had ceased by 2014 and the site was being developed for housing. Chichester was a city and liberty, thereby self-governing. Although it has retained its city status, in 1888 it became a municipal borough, transferring some powers to West Sussex administrative county. In 1974 the municipal borough became part of the much larger Chichester District.
There is a city council but it only has the powers of a parish council. The City Council consists of twenty elected members serving four wards of the city – North, South and West. Chichester Council House on North Street dates from 1731. In addition to its own council offices, those of the Chichester District and the West Sussex County Council are located in the City; the current MP for the Chichester Constituency is Gillian Keegan. Chichester has an unusual franchise in its history. Chichester's residents had enjoyed political enfranchisement for 300 years before the 19th century Reform Bills expanded the right to vote for members of Parliament to include most ordinary citizens. However, when the mayor restricted the vote to Freemen in the election of 1660 for the Convention Parliament that organised the restoration of the monarchy, the House of Commons noted that "for One-and-twenty Parliaments, the Commonalty, as well as the Citizens, had had Voice in the electing of Members to serve in Parliament.
West Sussex is a county in the south of England, bordering East Sussex to the east, Hampshire to the west and Surrey to the north, to the south the English Channel. West Sussex is the western part of the historic county of Sussex a medieval kingdom. With an area of 1,991 square kilometres and a population of over 800,000, West Sussex is a ceremonial county, with a Lord Lieutenant and a High Sheriff. Chichester in the south-west is the only city in West Sussex. West Sussex has a range of scenery, including wealden and coastal; the highest point of the county is at 280 metres. It has a number of stately homes including Goodwood, Petworth House and Uppark, castles such as Arundel Castle and Bramber Castle. Over half the county is protected countryside, offering walking and other recreational opportunities. Although the name Sussex, derived from the Old English'Sūþsēaxe', dates from the Saxon period between AD 477 to 1066, the history of human habitation in Sussex goes back to the Old Stone Age; the oldest hominin remains known in Britain were found at Boxgrove.
Sussex has been occupied since those times and has succumbed to various invasions and migrations throughout its long history. Prehistoric monuments include the Devil's Jumps, a group of Bronze Age burial mounds, the Iron Age Cissbury Ring and Chanctonbury Ring hill forts on the South Downs; the Roman period saw the building of Fishbourne Roman Palace and rural villas such as Bignor Roman Villa together with a network of roads including Stane Street, the Chichester to Silchester Way and the Sussex Greensand Way. The Romans used the Weald for iron production on an industrial scale; the foundation of the Kingdom of Sussex is recorded by the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle for the year AD 477. The foundation story is regarded as somewhat of a myth by most historians, although the archaeology suggests that Saxons did start to settle in the area in the late 5th century; the Kingdom of Sussex became the county of Sussex. With its origins in the kingdom of Sussex, the county of Sussex was traditionally divided into six units known as rapes.
By the 16th century, the three western rapes were grouped together informally, having their own separate Quarter Sessions. These were administered by a separate county council from 1888, the county of Sussex being divided for administrative purposes into the administrative counties of East and West Sussex. In 1974, West Sussex was made a single ceremonial county with the coming into force of the Local Government Act 1972. At the same time a large part of the eastern rape of Lewes was transferred into West Sussex; until 1834 provision for the poor and destitute in West Sussex was made at parish level. From 1835 until 1948 eleven Poor Law Unions, each catering for several parishes, took on the job. Most settlements in West Sussex are either along the south coast or in Mid Sussex, near the M23/A23 corridor; the town of Crawley is the largest in the county with an estimated population of 106,600. The coastal settlement of Worthing follows with a population of 104,600; the seaside resort of Bognor Regis and market town Horsham are both large towns.
Chichester, the county town, has a cathedral and city status, is situated not far from the border with Hampshire. Other conurbations of a similar size are Burgess Hill, East Grinstead and Haywards Heath in the Mid Sussex district, Littlehampton in the Arun district, Lancing and Shoreham in the Adur district. Much of the coastal town population is part of the Brighton/Worthing/Littlehampton conurbation. Rustington and Southwater are the next largest settlements in the county. There are several more towns in West Sussex; the smaller towns of the county are Arundel, Petworth and Steyning. The larger villages are Billingshurst, Crawley Down, Henfield, Hurstpierpoint, Lindfield and Storrington; the current total population of the county makes up 1.53% of England's population. West Sussex is bordered by Hampshire to Surrey to the north and East Sussex to the east; the English Channel lies to the south. The area has been formed from Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous rock strata, part of the Weald–Artois Anticline.
The eastern part of this ridge, the Weald of Kent and Surrey has been eroded, with the chalk surface removed to expose older Lower Cretaceous rocks of the Wealden Group. In West Sussex the exposed rock becomes older towards the north of the county with Lower Greensand ridges along the border with Surrey including the highest point of the county at Blackdown. Erosion of softer sand and clay strata has hollowed out the basin of the Weald leaving a north facing scarp slope of the chalk which runs east and west across the whole county, broken only by the valleys of the River Arun and River Adur. In addition to these two rivers which drain most of the county a winterbourne, the River Lavant, flows intermittently from springs on the dip slope of the chalk downs north of Chichester; the county makes up 1.52% of the total land of England, making it the 30th largest county in the country. West Sussex is the sunniest county in the United Kingdom, according to Met Office records. Over the last 29 years it has averaged 1902 hours of sunshine per year.
Sunshine totals are highest near the coast wi
ITV (TV network)
ITV is a British free-to-air television network with its headquarters in London, it was launched in 1955 as Independent Television under the auspices of the Independent Television Authority to provide competition to BBC Television, established in 1932. ITV is the oldest commercial network in the UK. Since the passing of the Broadcasting Act 1990, its legal name has been Channel 3, to distinguish it from the other analogue channels at the time, namely BBC 1, BBC 2 and Channel 4. In part, the number 3 was assigned because television sets would be tuned so that the regional ITV station would be on the third button, with the other stations being allocated to the number within their name. ITV is a network of television channels that operate regional television services as well as sharing programmes between each other to be displayed on the entire network. In recent years, several of these companies have merged, so the fifteen franchises are in the hands of two companies; the ITV network is to be distinguished from ITV plc, the company that resulted from the merger of Granada plc and Carlton Communications in 2004 and which holds the Channel 3 broadcasting licences in England, southern Scotland, the Isle of Man, the Channel Islands and Northern Ireland.
With the exception of Northern Ireland, the ITV brand is the brand used by ITV plc for the Channel 3 service in these areas. In Northern Ireland, ITV plc uses the brand name UTV. STV Group plc uses the STV brand for its two franchises of northern Scotland; the origins of ITV lie in the passing of the Television Act 1954, designed to break the monopoly on television held by the BBC Television Service. The act created the Independent Television Authority to regulate the industry and to award franchises; the first six franchises were awarded in 1954 for London, the Midlands and the North of England, with separate franchises for Weekdays and Weekends. The first ITV network to launch was London's Associated-Rediffusion on 22 September 1955, with the Midlands and North services launching in February 1956 and May 1956 respectively. Following these launches, the ITA awarded more franchises until the whole country was covered by fourteen regional stations, all launched by 1962; the network has been modified several times through franchise reviews that have taken place in 1963, 1967, 1974, 1980 and 1991, during which broadcast regions have changed and service operators have been replaced.
Only one service operator has been declared bankrupt, WWN in 1963, with all other operators leaving the network as a result of a franchise review. Separate weekend franchises were removed in 1968 and over the years more services were added; the Broadcasting Act 1990 changed the nature of ITV. This criticised part of the review saw four operators replaced, the operators facing different annual payments to the Treasury: Central Television, for example, paid only £2000—despite holding a lucrative and large region—because it was unopposed, while Yorkshire Television paid £37.7 million for a region of the same size and status, owing to heavy competition. Following the 1993 changes, ITV as a network began to consolidate with several companies doing so to save money by ceasing the duplication of services present when they were all separate companies. By 2004, ITV was owned by five companies, of which two and Granada had become major players by owning between them all the franchises in England, the Scottish borders and the Isle of Man.
That same year, the two merged to form ITV plc with the only subsequent acquisitions being the takeover of Channel Television, the Channel Islands franchise, in 2011. and UTV, the franchise for Northern Ireland, in 2015. The ITV network is not owned or operated by one company, but by a number of licensees, which provide regional services while broadcasting programmes across the network. Since 2016, the fifteen licences are held by two companies, with the majority held by ITV Broadcasting Limited, part of ITV plc; the network is regulated by the media regulator Ofcom, responsible for awarding the broadcast licences. The last major review of the Channel 3 franchises was in 1991, with all operators' licences having been renewed between 1999 and 2002 and again from 2014 without a further contest. While this has been the longest period that the ITV Network has gone without a major review of its licence holders, Ofcom announced that it would split the Wales and West licence from 1 January 2014, creating a national licence for Wales and joining the newly separated West region to Westcountry Television, to form a new licence for the enlarged South West of England region.
All companies holding a licence were part of the non-profit body ITV Network Limited, which commissioned and scheduled network programming, with compliance handled by ITV plc and Channel Television. However, due to amalgamation of several of these companies since the creation of ITV Network Limited, it has been replaced by an affiliation system. Approved by Ofcom, this results in ITV plc commissioning and funding the network schedule, with STV and UTV paying a fee to broadcast it. All licensees have the right to opt out of network programming (except fo
Trundle (hill fort)
The Trundle is an Iron Age hill fort on Saint Roche's Hill about 3 miles north of Chichester, England. The fort was built around a Neolithic causewayed enclosure, of which little can be seen on the ground. St Roche's Hill has been used for several purposes; the hill fort was a Neolithic causewayed enclosure before the Iron Age hill fort was built around the pre-existing structure. It is unknown for what purpose the fort was built, but the site was used in 1645 by the Clubmen as a military base and subsequently as a beacon site to warn against attack by the French; this beacon was lit in 1745. The hill was the site of a small chapel, until it was left to ruin, it is thought the chapel was built at some point in the 15th century and destroyed during the Reformation. A windmill was present on the site of the hill-fort, it is not known when it was built, but in 1773, the windmill burnt down in a storm, along with a windmill on Portsdown Hill. In World War II, it was the site for a radar early warning system.
The summit of St Roche's Hill is now the site of two large radio masts. The Trundle's northeast slope is a viewing area for Goodwood Racecourse and the top of the hill offers panoramic views of parts of Sussex and the English Channel beyond. In June/July 2010, The Trundle was temporary host to'Artemis', a 30 ft tall bronze sculpture of a horse designed by sculptor Nic Fiddian-Green; the sculpture was taken to Australia in 2011. During archaeological excavations of the hill fort, numerous objects have been discovered: Middle Iron-Age pottery, human bones, animal bones, various iron objects and several quern-stone fragments. Torberry Hill
Duke of Richmond
Duke of Richmond is a title in the Peerage of England, created four times in British history. It has been held by members of the royal Stuart families; the current dukedom of Richmond was created in 1675 for Charles Lennox, the illegitimate son of King Charles II of England and a Breton noblewoman, Louise de Penancoët de Kérouaille. The Duke of Richmond and Lennox was furthermore created Duke of Gordon in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in 1876, meaning that the Duke holds three dukedoms— plus, in pretence, the French Duchy of Aubigny-sur-Nère— more than any other person in the realm. Prior to the creation of the Dukedom the early nobles of England associated with Richmondshire were Lords and Earls of Richmond. At times the honour of Richmond was held without a title; the Dukedom of Richmond emerged under King Henry VIII. The first creation of a dukedom of Richmond was made in 1525 for Henry FitzRoy, an illegitimate son of King Henry VIII, his mother was Elizabeth Blount. Upon the Duke's death without children in 1536, his titles became extinct.
The second creation was in 1623 for Ludovic Stuart, 2nd Duke of Lennox, who held other titles in the peerage of Scotland. He was created Earl of Richmond and Baron Settrington in 1613 and Duke of Richmond in the peerage of England in 1623 as a member of the Lennox line in the House of Stuart; these became extinct at his death in 1624, but his Scottish honours devolved on his brother Esmé, Earl of March, who thus became 3rd Duke of Lennox in the peerage of Scotland. Esmé's son James, 4th Duke of Lennox subsequently received the third creation of the dukedom of Richmond in 1641, when the two dukedoms again became united. In 1672, on the death of James' nephew Charles, 3rd Duke of Richmond and 6th Duke of Lennox, both titles again became extinct; the fourth creation of the dukedom of Richmond was in August 1675, when Charles II granted the title to Charles Lennox, his illegitimate son by Louise de Keroualle, Duchess of Portsmouth. Charles Lennox was further created Duke of Lennox a month later.
Charles' son Charles, succeeded to the French title Duke of Aubigny on the death of his grandmother in 1734. The 6th Duke of Richmond and Lennox was created Duke of Gordon in 1876. Thus, the Duke holds more than any other person in the realm; the subsidiary titles of the dukedom created in 1675 are Earl of March, Earl of Darnley, Earl of Kinrara, Baron Settrington, of Settrington in the County of York, Lord Torbolton. The Dukes of Richmond and Gordon are styled Duke of Richmond and Gordon. Before the creation of the Dukedom of Gordon they were styled Duke of Lennox; the titles Earl of March and Baron Settrington were created in the peerage of England along with the Dukedom of Richmond. The titles Earl of Darnley and Lord Torbolton were created in the Peerage of Scotland along with the Dukedom of Lennox; the title Earl of Kinrara was created in the peerage of the United Kingdom with the Dukedom of Gordon. The eldest son of the Duke uses the courtesy title Earl of Kinrara. Before the creation of the Dukedom of Gordon, the courtesy title used was Earl of March.
The family seat is Goodwood House near West Sussex. The heir apparent is Charles Henry Gordon-Lennox, Earl of March and Kinrara, eldest son of the 11th Duke. Charles Henry Gordon-Lennox, Earl of March and Kinrara, eldest son of the 11th Duke Lord William Rupert Gordon-Lennox, second son of the 11th Duke Lord Frederick Lysander Gordon-Lennox, third son of the 11th Duke James David Charles Gordon-Lennox, great-grandson of the 7th Duke Henry Charles Gordon-Lennox, great-great grandson of the 7th Duke Charles William Gordon-Lennox, great-great-great grandson of the 7th Duke Thomas Edward Charles Gordon-Lennox, great-great-great grandson of the 7th Duke Edward Charles Gordon-Lennox, great-great grandson of the 7th Duke Alexander Charles Gordon-Lennox, great-great-great grandson of the 7th Duke Angus Charles Gordon-Lennox, great-great grandson of the 7th Duke Geordie Charles Gordon-Lennox, great-great-great grandson of the 7th Duke Charles Bernard Gordon-Lennox, great-great grandson of the 7th Duke Archie Clement Gordon-Lennox, great-great-great grandson of the 7th Duke Col. David Henry Charles Gordon-Lennox, great-grandson of the 7th Duke Henry George Charles Gordon-Lennox, great-grandson of the 6th Duke Ian Charles Gordon-Lennox, great-great grandson of the 6th Duke Philip George Hugh Gordon-Lennox, great-great grandson of the 6th Duke Thomas Charles Gordon-Lennox, great-great-great grandson of the 6th Duke Alec George Gordon-Lennox, great-great-great grandson of the 6th Duke The earlier dukes bore: Quarterly 1 and 4 azure three fleurs-de-lis and a bordure engrailed Or.
Henry Fitzroy, Duke of Richmond and Somerset, bore the Tudor royal arms with a border quarterly ermine and compony azure and argent, a baton sinister argent for bastardy, overall an escutcheon of Nottingham. Earl of Newcastle Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Lennox". Encyclopædia Britannica. 16. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 419–420. ThePeerage.com Tillyard, Stella. Aristocrats
Horse racing in Great Britain
Horse racing is the second largest spectator sport in Great Britain, one of the longest established, with a history dating back many centuries. It generates over £3.7 billion for the British economy, the major horse racing events such as Royal Ascot and Cheltenham Festival are important dates in the British and international sporting and society calendar. The sport has taken place in the country since Roman times and many of the sport's traditions and rules originated there; the Jockey Club, established in 1750, codified the Rules of Racing and one of its members, Admiral Rous laid the foundations of the handicapping system for horse racing, including the weight-for-age scale. Britain is home to some of the world's iconic racecourses including Newmarket and Cheltenham and many of the world's iconic races including The Derby at Epsom, The Grand National and Cheltenham Gold Cup; the UK has produced some of the greatest jockeys, including Fred Archer, Sir Gordon Richards and Lester Piggott. Britain has historically been a hugely important centre for thoroughbred racehorse breeding.
In fact all racehorses are called the breed having been created in England. All modern thoroughbred racehorses can trace a line back to three foundation sires which were imported to Britain in the late 17th/early 18th centuries and the General Stud Book first published by James Weatherby still records details of every horse in the breed. Gambling on horseraces has been one of the cornerstones of the British betting industry and the relationship between the two has been one of mutual dependence; the betting industry is an important funder of horse racing in Great Britain, through the betting levy administered by the Horserace Betting Levy Board and through media rights negotiated by racecourses and betting shops. There are two main forms of horse racing in Great Britain. Flat racing, run over distances between 5 furlongs and 2 miles 5 furlongs 159 yards on courses without obstacles National Hunt racing, races run over distances between 2 miles and 4 1⁄2 miles, where horses jump either hurdles or fences.
There is a category of National Hunt races known as National Hunt flat races, which are run under National Hunt rules, but where no obstacles are jumped. Collectively, the above racing is referred to as racing "under rules", since there is another form of racing, run on an altogether more informal and ad hoc basis, known as point-to-point racing. Point-to-point is a form of steeplechasing for amateur riders. All the above forms of the sport are run under the auspices of the governing and regulatory body for horse racing in Great Britain, the British Horseracing Authority. With the exception of point-to-pointing, administered by the Point-to-Point Authority with the BHA taking on regulatory functions. There is a limited amount of harness racing which takes place under the auspices of the British Harness Racing Society and Arabian racing which takes place under the auspices of the Arabian Racing Organisation. Horses were used as beasts of burden in pre-Roman times, but it is thought that the first horse races to take place in Britain were organised by Carl in Yorkshire around 200 AD.
It is believed that Romans at the encampment at Wetherby matched horses against Arabian horses brought to England by Emperor Severus Septimus. The Venerable Bede reports that the English began to saddle their horses about the year 631; the earliest written mention of'running-horses' is a record of Hugh, from the French House of Capet, gifting some as a present to King Athelstan of England in the 9th/10th century. During Athelstan's reign a ban was placed on the export of English horses, such was supposed to be their superiority to continental ones. Continental ones were still permitted for import, many were brought to England by William the Conqueror. Roger de Montgomerie, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury introduced Spanish stallions to the country; the first recorded race meetings were during the reign of Henry II at Smithfield, during the annual St Bartholomew's horse fair. The event is attested by William Fitzstephen writing at some time after the poet Drayton; the Middle English romance Sir Bevis of Hampton has couplets which refer to races taking place in the time of Richard I.
For the next three centuries there are numerous records of Kings of England keeping'running horses'. Edward III bought horses at £13 6s 8d each, was gifted two by the King of Navarre; the royal stud continued to grow throughout the reign of Henry VII. Records become more substantial during the time of Henry VIII, he passed a number of laws relating to the breeding of horses and imported a large number of stallions and mares for breeding. He kept a training establishment at a stud at Eltham. Formal race meetings began to be instigated too, it is believed that the first occurrence of a trophy being presented to the winner of a race was in 1512 by organisers of a fair in Chester and was a small wooden ball decorated with flowers. Meanwhile, the oldest horse race still in existence, the Kiplingcotes Derby was first run in 1519; the Carlisle Bells, reputedly the oldest sporting trophy in the world, were first competed for in the 16th century, in a race that still bears their name. One of the bells is inscribed "The sweftes horse thes bel tak".
Racing was established at Chester, the oldest surviving racecourse in England, by 1540. In the 1580s Queen Elizabeth I is recorded as attending races on Salisbury Plain.. Leith Races were established by 1591, at Doncaster by 1595. During the reign of Elizabeth, interest in horse racing appears to have waned, for reasons unrecorded, although she is noted to have attended races on Salisbu