Mickey Mouse is a funny animal cartoon character and the mascot of The Walt Disney Company. He was created by Walt Disney and Ub Iwerks at the Walt Disney Studios in 1928. An anthropomorphic mouse who wears red shorts, large yellow shoes, white gloves, Mickey is one of the world's most recognizable characters. Created as a replacement for a prior Disney character, Oswald the Lucky Rabbit, Mickey first appeared in the short Plane Crazy, debuting publicly in the short film Steamboat Willie, one of the first sound cartoons, he went on to appear in over 130 films, including The Band Concert, Brave Little Tailor, Fantasia. Mickey appeared in short films, but occasionally in feature-length films. Ten of Mickey's cartoons were nominated for the Academy Award for Best Animated Short Film, one of which, Lend a Paw, won the award in 1942. In 1978, Mickey became the first cartoon character to have a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. Beginning in 1930, Mickey has been featured extensively as a comic strip character.
His self-titled newspaper strip, drawn by Floyd Gottfredson, ran for 45 years. Mickey has appeared in comic books such as Disney Italy's Topolino, MM - Mickey Mouse Mystery Magazine, Wizards of Mickey, in television series such as The Mickey Mouse Club and others, he appears in other media such as video games as well as merchandising and is a meetable character at the Disney parks. Mickey appears alongside his girlfriend Minnie Mouse, his pet dog Pluto, his friends Donald Duck and Goofy, his nemesis Pete, among others. Though characterized as a cheeky lovable rogue, Mickey was rebranded over time as a nice guy seen as an honest and bodacious hero. In 2009, Disney began to rebrand the character again by putting less emphasis on his friendly, well-meaning persona and reintroducing the more menacing and stubborn sides of his personality, beginning with the video game Epic Mickey. "I only hope that we never lose sight of one thing – that it was all started by a mouse." Mickey Mouse was created as a replacement for Oswald the Lucky Rabbit, an earlier cartoon character created by the Disney studio for Charles Mintz, a film producer who distributed product through Universal Studios.
In the spring of 1928, with the series going strong, Disney asked Mintz for an increase in the budget. But Mintz instead demanded that Walt take a 20 percent budget cut, as leverage, he reminded Disney that Universal owned the character, revealed that he had signed most of Disney's current employees to his new contract. Angrily, Disney refused the deal and returned to produce the final Oswald cartoons he contractually owed Mintz. Disney was determined to restart from scratch; the new Disney Studio consisted of animator Ub Iwerks and a loyal apprentice artist, Les Clark, who together with Wilfred Jackson were among the few who remained loyal to Walt. One lesson Disney learned from the experience was to thereafter always make sure that he owned all rights to the characters produced by his company. In the spring of 1928, Disney asked Ub Iwerks to start drawing up new character ideas. Iwerks tried sketches of various animals, such as dogs and cats, but none of these appealed to Disney. A female cow and male horse were rejected.
They would turn up as Clarabelle Cow and Horace Horsecollar. A male frog was rejected, it would show up in Iwerks' own Flip the Frog series. Walt Disney got the inspiration for Mickey Mouse from a tame mouse at his desk at Laugh-O-Gram Studio in Kansas City, Missouri. In 1925, Hugh Harman drew some sketches of mice around a photograph of Walt Disney; these inspired Ub Iwerks to create a new mouse character for Disney. "Mortimer Mouse" had been Disney's original name for the character before his wife, convinced him to change it, Mickey Mouse came to be. The actor Mickey Rooney claimed that, during his Mickey McGuire days, he met cartoonist Walt Disney at the Warner Brothers studio, that Disney was inspired to name Mickey Mouse after him; this claim, has been debunked by Disney historian Jim Korkis, since at the time of Mickey Mouse's development, Disney Studios had been located on Hyperion Avenue for several years, Walt Disney never kept an office or other working space at Warner Brothers, having no professional relationship with Warner Brothers, as the Alice Comedies and Oswald cartoons were distributed by Universal.
Disney had Ub Iwerks secretly begin animating a new cartoon while still under contract with Universal. The cartoon was co-directed by Ub Iwerks. Iwerks was the main animator for the short and spent six weeks working on it. In fact, Iwerks was the main animator for every Disney short released in 1928 and 1929. Hugh Harman and Rudolf Ising assisted Disney during those years, they had signed their contracts with Charles Mintz, but he was still in the process of forming his new studio and so for the time being they were still employed by Disney. This short would be the last. Mickey was first seen in a test screening of the cartoon short Plane Crazy, on May 15, 1928, but it failed to impress the audience and, to add insult to injury, Walt could not find a distributor. Though understandably disappointed, Walt went on to produce a second Mickey short, The Gallopin' Gaucho, not released for lack of a distributor. Steamboat Willie was first released on November 1928, in New York, it was co-directed by Ub Iwerks.
Iwerks again served as the head animator, assisted by Johnny Cannon, Les Clark, Wilfred Jackson and Dick Lundy. This short was intended as a parody of Buster Keaton'
Wolfgang Reitherman known and sometimes credited as Woolie Reitherman, was a German-American animator and producer, one of Disney's Nine Old Men. Reitherman was hired at Walt Disney Productions on May 21, 1933, his first project was working as an animator on the Silly Symphonies cartoon, Funny Little Bunnies. Reitherman continued to work on a number of Disney shorts, including The Band Concert, Music Land, Elmer Elephant, he animated the Slave in the Magic Mirror in the Seven Dwarfs. His next assignments was animating Monstro in Pinocchio, the climactic dinosaur fight in Igor Stravinsky's The Rite of Spring in Fantasia, several scenes of Timothy Q. Mouse in Dumbo. Starting in 1942, Reitherman had left Disney to serve in World War II for the United States Air Force, earning the Distinguished Flying Cross after serving in Africa, China and the South Pacific, he was discharged in February 1946 having earned the rank of Major. Reitherman rejoined Disney in April 1947, where he animated the Headless Horseman chase in "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" section in The Adventures of Ichabod and Mr. Toad.
Around this same time, he had claimed he was instrumental in helping Walt Disney commit to producing Cinderella. Reitherman recalled, "I just went in his office which I did, I said,'Gee, that looks great. We ought to do do it.' It might have been a little nudge to say,'Hey, let's get going again and let's do a feature'." On Cinderella, he was the directing animator of the sequence in which Jaq and Gus laboriously push and pull the key up the stairs to Cinderella. On Alice in Wonderland, he animated the scene in which the White Rabbit's home is destroyed by an enlarged Alice. On Peter Pan, he animated the scene of Captain Hook attempting to escape the crocodile. For Lady and the Tramp, Reitherman animated the alley dog fight sequence and Tramp's fight with the rat in the nursery room. Reitherman served as the sequence director of Prince Phillip's climatic fight against Maleficent as a dragon in Sleeping Beauty, directed the "Twilight Bark" sequence for One Hundred and One Dalmatians. Beginning with The Sword in the Stone, he became the first sole director of a Disney animated feature, in direct contrast to having several directors over an animated feature.
Animator Ward Kimball had claimed it was because Reitherman's work compatibility and willingness to accept any project "with a smile" while animator Bob Carlson noted that Disney had trusted Reitherman's decision-making before he would embark on a film project. He would continue to direct The Jungle Book, The Aristocats, Robin Hood, The Rescuers. Additionally, he would direct several animated shorts such as Goliath II and the first two Winnie the Pooh shorts, Winnie the Pooh and the Honey Tree and Winnie the Pooh and the Blustery Day, which had won the Academy Award for Best Animated Short Film. While directing The Jungle Book, Reitherman followed the procedure to keep production costs low recalling Walt advising him to "keep the costs down because going to price themselves out of business. So with that piece of advice, with the way he pointed to Jungle Book into entertainment and character development rather than complicated stories that needed a lot of production qualities, he set the course for ten years after his death."
During his tenure, he used "recycled" or limited animation from prior works because it was a safer method for a quality product, though it was in fact more labor-intensive, not because it was cheaper. Reitherman's use of recycling animation proved to be controversial within the studio as animator Milt Kahl lamented its use stating "I detest the use of—it just breaks my heart to see animation from Snow White used in The Rescuers, it kills me, it just embarrasses me to tears." Note this is similar to, but not the same as, rotoscoping. Following The Rescuers, he was slated to direct The Fox and the Hound, but following creative conflicts with co-director Art Stevens, he was taken off the project. Reitherman moved on to several undeveloped animation projects such as Catfish Bend based on the book series by Ben Lucien Burman and Musiciana, a follow-up project to Fantasia in which he co-developed with artist Mel Shaw. In 1980, he developed an adaptation of the children's novel The Little Broomstick by Mary Stewart, but work was discontinued due to the studio's desire for ambitious films such as The Black Cauldron.
In the following year, he retired. Born in Munich, German Empire, Reitherman's family moved to America. After attending Pasadena Junior College and working as a draftsman for Douglas Aircraft, Reitherman returned to school at the Chouinard Art Institute, graduating in 1933. Following his discharge from the Air Force, he married Janie Marie McMillan in November 1946. All three of Reitherman's sons — Bruce and Robert — provided voices for Disney characters, including Mowgli in The Jungle Book, Christopher Robin in Winnie the Pooh and the Honey Tree, Wart in The Sword in the Stone. On May 22, 1985, Reitherman died in a single-car accident near his Burbank, California home, aged 75. Reitherman was posthumously named a Disney Legend in 1989. Barrier, Michael. Hollywood Cartoons: American Animation in Its Golden Age. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-802079-0. Barrier, Michael; the Animated Man: A Life of Walt Disney. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0520256194.</ref> Canemaker, John. Walt Disney's the Art of Animation.
Disney Editions. ISBN 978-0786864966. Wolfgang Reitherman on IMDb
Walt Disney Animation Studios
Walt Disney Animation Studios referred to as Disney Animation, headquartered at the Walt Disney Studios in Burbank, California, is an American animation studio that creates animated feature films, short films and television specials for The Walt Disney Company. Founded on October 16, 1923, it is a division of Walt Disney Studios; the studio has produced 57 feature films, from Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs to Ralph Breaks the Internet. It was founded as the Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio in 1923 and incorporated as Walt Disney Productions in 1929; the studio was dedicated to producing short films until it expanded into feature production in 1934. In 1983, Walt Disney Productions named its live action film studio Walt Disney Pictures. During a corporate restructuring in 1986, Walt Disney Productions was renamed The Walt Disney Company and the animation division, renamed Walt Disney Feature Animation, became a subsidiary of its film division, The Walt Disney Studios. In 2007, Walt Disney Feature Animation took on its current name, Walt Disney Animation Studios after Pixar was acquired by Disney in the same year.
For much of its existence, the studio was recognized as the premier American animation studio. The studio pioneered the art of storyboarding, now a standard technique used in both animated and live-action filmmaking; the studio's catalog of animated features is among Disney's most notable assets, with the stars of its animated shorts – Mickey Mouse, Minnie Mouse, Donald Duck, Daisy Duck and Pluto – becoming recognizable figures in popular culture and mascots for The Walt Disney Company as a whole. Walt Disney Animation Studios continues to produce films using both traditional animation and computer-generated imagery. Kansas City, natives Walt Disney and Roy O. Disney founded the Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio in Los Angeles in 1923 and got their start producing a series of silent Alice Comedies short films featuring a live-action child actress in an animated world; the Alice Comedies were distributed by Margaret J. Winkler's Winkler Pictures, which also distributed a second Disney short subject series, the all-animated Oswald the Lucky Rabbit, through Universal Pictures starting in 1927.
Upon relocating to California, the Disney brothers started working in their uncle Robert Disney's garage at 4406 Kingswell Avenue in the Los Feliz neighborhood of Los Angeles in October 1923 formally launched their studio in a small office on the rear side of a real estate agency's office at 4651 Kingswell Avenue. In February 1924, the studio moved next door to office space of its own at 4649 Kingswell Avenue. In 1925, Disney put down a deposit on a new location at 2719 Hyperion Avenue in the nearby Silver Lake neighborhood, which came to be known as the Hyperion Studio to distinguish it from the studio's other locations, in January 1926 the studio moved there and took on the name the Walt Disney Studio. Meanwhile, after the first year's worth of Oswalds, Walt Disney attempted to renew his contract with Winkler Pictures, but Charles Mintz, who had taken over Margaret Winkler's business after marrying her, wanted to force Disney to accept a lower advance payment for each Oswald short. Disney refused, as Universal owned the rights to Oswald rather than Disney, Mintz set up his own animation studio to produce Oswald cartoons.
Most of Disney's staff was hired away by Mintz to move over, once Disney's Oswald contract was done in mid-1928. Working in secret while the rest of the staff finished the remaining Oswalds on contract and his head animator Ub Iwerks led a small handful of loyal staffers in producing cartoons starring a new character named Mickey Mouse; the first two Mickey Mouse cartoons, Plane Crazy and The Galloping Gaucho, were previewed in limited engagements during the summer of 1928. For the third Mickey cartoon, Disney produced a soundtrack, collaborating with musician Carl Stalling and businessman Pat Powers, who provided Disney with his bootlegged "Cinephone" sound-on-film process. Subsequently, the third Mickey Mouse cartoon, Steamboat Willie, became Disney's first cartoon with synchronized sound and was a major success upon its November 1928 debut at the West 57th Theatre in New York City; the Mickey Mouse series of sound cartoons, distributed by Powers through Celebrity Productions became the most popular cartoon series in the United States.
A second Disney series of sound cartoons, the Silly Symphonies, debuted in 1929 with The Skeleton Dance. In 1930, disputes over finances between Disney and Powers led to Disney's studio, reincorporated on December 16, 1929, as Walt Disney Productions, signing a new distribution contract with Columbia Pictures. Powers in return signed away Ub Iwerks, who began producing cartoons at his own studio although he would return to Disney in 1940. Columbia distributed Disney's shorts for two years before the Disney studio entered a new distribution deal with United Artists in 1932; the same year, Disney signed a two-year exclusive deal with Technicolor to utilize its new 3-strip color film process, which allowed for fuller-color reproduction where previous color film processors could not. The result was the Silly Symphony Flowers and Trees, the first film commercially released in full Technicolor. Flowers and Trees was a major success, all Silly Symphonies were subsequently produced in Technicolor. By the early 1930s, Walt Disney had realized that the success of animated films depended upon telling gripping stories that would grab the audience and not let go, this realization led him to create a separate "story department" with storyboard artists dedicated to story development.
Not to be confused with Hawaiian Vacation, a Pixar short. Hawaiian Holiday is a 1937 American animated short film produced by Walt Disney Productions and released by RKO Radio Pictures; the cartoon stars an ensemble cast of Mickey Mouse, Minnie Mouse, Donald Duck, Goofy while vacationing in Hawaii. The film was directed by Ben Sharpsteen, produced by John Sutherland and features the voices of Walt Disney as Mickey, Marcellite Garner as Minnie, Clarence Nash as Donald, Pinto Colvig as Goofy and Pluto, it was Disney's first film to be released by RKO, ending a five-year distributing partnership with United Artists. Mickey and his friends are vacationing in Hawaii. Minnie dances in a grass skirt while Mickey plays a slide guitar, Donald plays a ukulele, Pluto chases the waves. Meanwhile, Goofy decides to go surfing, but when he rushes toward the wave it seems to have a mind of its own, running backwards as soon as Goofy starts running toward it, causing Goofy to hit his head on a rock; the wave comes back in and washes Goofy around leaving his head stuck in the sand.
Mickey begins to have a problem with his while Minnie and Donald trade places. However, when Donald takes his turn with the skirt, he dances too close to the fire and accidentally sets the skirt on fire, he goes to a pool to put the blaze out, but in the process, he pulls up a starfish. Donald throws the starfish off his bottom and it lands right in front of Pluto. After Pluto sniffs at it, it begins to run away. Pluto chases it right up to the waves; the starfish hops right over him, hits him on the nose, escapes while Pluto looks on in frustration. Goofy tries his luck with the waves again and is able to get a swell, but it breaks beneath him and washes his board away; as Goofy searches underwater for his board, another wave comes it and drives his board into his pants, leaving him struggling to get it out. Meanwhile, Pluto is sniffing at a seashell. A wave comes in and knocks him off his feet, which leaves the shell stuck to his nose. Pluto tries to shake the shell off, he tries to get it off, but can't seem to.
It is revealed that there is a crab living in the shell, which clamps onto Pluto's tail. Although he can feel something on his tail, Pluto does not notice the crab until it pinches him, which makes him yelp in pain; the crab begins walking in a certain pattern which Pluto follows until they reach the surf, where a wave comes in and buries Pluto. As with the starfish, the crab tortures him by hitting him on the nose before departing. Meanwhile, Goofy tries one last time to catch a wave but the wave throws him off his board, hits him with it, catapults him into the sand where he is stopped by his board, making it look as if it is his grave. Mickey and Donald laugh at him, when he pops out unharmed, they continue enjoying their vacation. 1937 – theatrical release 1956 – Disneyland, episode #2.22: "On Vacation" c. 1972 – The Mouse Factory, episode #7 "Water Sports" 1978 – "Walt Disney Presents On Vacation with Mickey Mouse and Friends" 1981 – "On Vacation with Mickey and Friends" 1981 – "Mickey Mouse and Donald Duck Cartoon Collections Volume Two" c. 1983 – Good Morning, Mickey!, episode #14 1987 – "Cartoon Classics: Starring Mickey and Minnie" c. 1992 – Mickey's Mouse Tracks, episode #10 c. 1992 – Donald's Quack Attack, episode #19 1997 – The Ink and Paint Club, episode #1.10: "Mickey, Donald & Goofy: Friends to the End" 2001 – "Mickey Mouse in Living Color" 2005 – "Classic Cartoon Favorites: Starring Mickey" 2010 – Have a Laugh!, episode #13 2010 – YouTube video 2011 – "Have a Laugh!: Volume 4" Hawaiian Holiday' on YouTube Hawaiian Holiday at The Big Cartoon DataBase Hawaiian Holiday on IMDb
Mickey's Revue is a 1932 Walt Disney cartoon, directed by Wilfred Jackson, which features Mickey Mouse, Minnie Mouse, Horace Horsecollar and Clarabelle Cow performing a song and dance show. This was the anonymous debut of Goofy in the animated movie; the short begins as a typical Mickey cartoon of the time, but is set apart from all that had come before by the inclusion of a new character, whose behavior served as a running gag. This cartoon introduced Goofy anonymously as a member of the audience, he irritated his fellow spectators by noisily crunching peanuts and laughing loudly, until two spectators knocked him out with their mallets. Tokyo Disneyland's Mickey Mouse Revue Mickey's Revue on IMDb
Moving Day (1936 film)
Moving Day is a 1936 American animated short film produced by Walt Disney Productions and released by United Artists. The cartoon, set during the contemporary Great Depression, follows the antics of Mickey Mouse, Donald Duck, Goofy as they frantically pack their belongings after being dispossessed from their home; the film was directed by Ben Sharpsteen and includes the voices of Walt Disney as Mickey, Clarence Nash as Donald, Pinto Colvig as Goofy, Billy Bletcher as Sheriff Pete. Mickey and Donald are six months overdue on their rent payments for their home. Sheriff Pete punches Mickey in the face when he goes to answer. Pete gives them a "Notice to Dispossess" authorizing him not only to evict them, but to sell off their belongings as collateral, he furiously strikes a match on Donald's bill to light his cigar, throws it into his mouth and leaving to put signs for cheap furniture. As Donald and Mickey decide to move before Pete can sell all their belongings, employed as an iceman, arrives with a delivery.
Mickey and Donald decide to have him help with the relocation. While Mickey struggles with an overloaded suitcase, Goofy attempts to load an upright piano onto the truck, but the piano keeps rolling out of the truck when he leaves it unattended or when he does not notice it. Goofy discovers the piano to have a mind of its own after it runs over him like a car and battles it around the house. Meanwhile, Donald, in his haste to pack everything he sees, grabs a gas heater, attached to a gas line in the wall. Seeing the leaking gas, he casually plugs it with a plunger, but the pressure in the line shoots the plunger out and it sticks to Donald's buttocks, he struggles to remove the plunger, but squeezes it so hard it flies upward like an airplane propeller and cuts through a lamp, making Donald hang from the wall and once again get stuck in a fish tank. As Donald struggles with the tank, Goofy learns that he can control it if just his hat is visible to the piano. However, after Goofy taunts the piano, it rolls out of the truck off-screen, smashes through the door, strikes him in the back again, which catapults him into the icebox and makes him end up eating a watermelon.
Donald frees himself from the fish tank, only to get catapulted across the room and gets his head stuck on the gas valve, which makes his body fill up with air like a balloon, get launched and flies around the room, knocking over dishes and throwing Mickey and Goofy's clothes everywhere. Outside, Pete hears the commotion and storms into the room to scold the trio for making a mess. Unaware of the gas leak, he strikes another match on Donald's bill, but the heat caused by the leaking gas causes his match to destroy the house and somehow catapulting the furniture and items, Mickey and Goofy into the truck and they drive away. Pete ends up in a bathtub, as he tries to get the trio to come back and arrest them for their vandalism, he accidentally turns the hot water on. Donald is satisfied with his victory, but the toilet plunger once again lands on his tail, causing him to lose his temper while trying to remove it from his feathers. Walt Disney as Mickey Mouse Clarence Nash as Donald Duck Pinto Colvig as Goofy Billy Bletcher as Pete 1936 – original theatrical release 1955 – Disneyland, episode #2.12: "The Goofy Success Story" c. 1960 – "Walt Disney Character Films" 1972 – The Mouse Factory, episode #8: "Men at Work" c. 1983 – Good Morning, Mickey!, episode #21 1986 – "Mickey Knows Best" c. 1992 – Donald's Quack Attack, episode #16 1997 – The Ink and Paint Club, episode #26 "Classic Donald" 2001 – "Mickey Mouse in Living Color" 2005 – "Classic Cartoon Favorites: Starring Mickey" Moving Day on IMDb Moving Day at the Big Cartoon DataBase Moving Day at The Encyclopedia of Animated Disney Shorts Moving Day] at the Disney Film Project
Walter Elias Disney was an American entrepreneur, voice actor and film producer. A pioneer of the American animation industry, he introduced several developments in the production of cartoons; as a film producer, Disney holds the record for most Academy Awards earned by an individual, having won 22 Oscars from 59 nominations. He was presented with two Golden Globe Special Achievement Awards and an Emmy Award, among other honors. Several of his films are included in the National Film Registry by the Library of Congress. Born in Chicago in 1901, Disney developed an early interest in drawing, he took art classes as a boy and got a job as a commercial illustrator at the age of 18. He moved to California in the early 1920s and set up the Disney Brothers Studio with his brother Roy. With Ub Iwerks, Walt developed the character Mickey Mouse in 1928, his first popular success; as the studio grew, Disney became more adventurous, introducing synchronized sound, full-color three-strip Technicolor, feature-length cartoons and technical developments in cameras.
The results, seen in features such as Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, Fantasia and Bambi, furthered the development of animated film. New animated and live-action films followed after World War II, including the critically successful Cinderella and Mary Poppins, the latter of which received five Academy Awards. In the 1950s, Disney expanded into the amusement park industry, in 1955 he opened Disneyland. To fund the project he diversified into television programs, such as Walt Disney's Disneyland and The Mickey Mouse Club. In 1965, he began development of another theme park, Disney World, the heart of, to be a new type of city, the "Experimental Prototype Community of Tomorrow". Disney was a heavy smoker throughout his life, died of lung cancer in December 1966 before either the park or the EPCOT project were completed. Disney was a shy, self-deprecating and insecure man in private but adopted a warm and outgoing public persona, he had high expectations of those with whom he worked. Although there have been accusations that he was racist or anti-Semitic, they have been contradicted by many who knew him.
His reputation changed in the years after his death, from a purveyor of homely patriotic values to a representative of American imperialism. He remains an important figure in the history of animation and in the cultural history of the United States, where he is considered a national cultural icon, his film work continues to be adapted. Walt Disney was born on December 5, 1901, in Chicago's Hermosa neighborhood, he was the fourth son of Elias Disney—born in the Province of Canada, to Irish parents—and Flora, an American of German and English descent. Aside from Disney and Flora's sons were Herbert and Roy. In 1906, when Disney was four, the family moved to a farm in Marceline, where his uncle Robert had just purchased land. In Marceline, Disney developed his interest in drawing when he was paid to draw the horse of a retired neighborhood doctor. Elias was a subscriber to the Appeal to Reason newspaper, Disney practiced drawing by copying the front-page cartoons of Ryan Walker. Disney began to develop an ability to work with watercolors and crayons.
He lived near the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway line and became enamored with trains. He and his younger sister Ruth started school at the same time at the Park School in Marceline in late 1909. In 1911, the Disneys moved to Missouri. There, Disney attended the Benton Grammar School, where he met fellow-student Walter Pfeiffer, who came from a family of theatre fans and introduced Disney to the world of vaudeville and motion pictures. Before long, he was spending more time at the Pfeiffers' house than at home. Elias had purchased a newspaper delivery route for Kansas City Times. Disney and his brother Roy woke up at 4:30 every morning to deliver the Times before school and repeated the round for the evening Star after school; the schedule was exhausting, Disney received poor grades after falling asleep in class, but he continued his paper route for more than six years. He attended Saturday courses at the Kansas City Art Institute and took a correspondence course in cartooning. In 1917, Elias bought stock in a Chicago jelly producer, the O-Zell Company, moved back to the city with his family.
Disney enrolled at McKinley High School and became the cartoonist of the school newspaper, drawing patriotic pictures about World War I. In mid-1918, Disney attempted to join the United States Army to fight against the Germans, but he was rejected for being too young. After forging the date of birth on his birth certificate, he joined the Red Cross in September 1918 as an ambulance driver, he was arrived in November, after the armistice. He drew cartoons on the side of his ambulance for decoration and had some of his work published in the army newspaper Stars and Stripes. Disney returned to Kansas City in October 1919, where he worked as an apprentice artist at the Pesmen-Rubin Commercial Art Studio. There, he drew commercial illustrations for advertising, theater programs and ca