Horse racing is an equestrian performance sport involving two or more horses ridden by jockeys over a set distance for competition. It is one of the most ancient of all sports, as its basic premise – to identify which of two or more horses is the fastest over a set course or distance – has been unchanged since at least classical antiquity. Horse races vary in format and many countries have developed their own particular traditions around the sport. Variations include restricting races to particular breeds, running over obstacles, running over different distances, running on different track surfaces and running in different gaits. While horses are sometimes raced purely for sport, a major part of horse racing's interest and economic importance is in the gambling associated with it, an activity that in 2008 generated a worldwide market worth around US$115 billion. Horse racing has a long and distinguished history and has been practised in civilisations across the world since ancient times. Archaeological records indicate that horse racing occurred in Ancient Greece, Babylon and Egypt.
It plays an important part of myth and legend, such as the contest between the steeds of the god Odin and the giant Hrungnir in Norse mythology. Chariot racing was one of the most popular ancient Greek and Byzantine sports. Both chariot and mounted horse racing were events in the ancient Greek Olympics by 648 BC and were important in the other Panhellenic Games, it continued although chariot racing was dangerous to both driver and horse, which suffered serious injury and death. In the Roman Empire and mounted horse racing were major industries. From the mid-fifteenth century until 1882, spring carnival in Rome closed with a horse race. Fifteen to 20 riderless horses imported from the Barbary Coast of North Africa, were set loose to run the length of the Via del Corso, a long, straight city street. In times, Thoroughbred racing became, remains, popular with aristocrats and royalty of British society, earning it the title "Sport of Kings". Equestrians honed their skills through games and races. Equestrian sports provided entertainment for crowds and displayed the excellent horsemanship needed in battle.
Horse racing of all types evolved from impromptu competitions between drivers. The various forms of competition, requiring demanding and specialized skills from both horse and rider, resulted in the systematic development of specialized breeds and equipment for each sport; the popularity of equestrian sports through the centuries has resulted in the preservation of skills that would otherwise have disappeared after horses stopped being used in combat. There are many different types of horse racing, including: Flat racing, where horses gallop directly between two points around a straight or oval track. Jump racing, or Jumps racing known as Steeplechasing or, in the UK and Ireland, National Hunt racing, where horses race over obstacles. Harness racing, where horses trot or pace while pulling a driver in a sulky. Saddle Trotting, where horses must trot from a starting point to a finishing point under saddle Endurance racing, where horses travel across country over extreme distances ranging from 25 to 100 miles.
Different breeds of horses have developed. Breeds that are used for flat racing include the Thoroughbred, Quarter Horse, Arabian and Appaloosa. Jump racing breeds include the Thoroughbred and AQPS. In harness racing, Standardbreds are used in Australia, New Zealand and North America, when in Europe and French Trotter are used with Standardbred. Light cold blood horses, such as Finnhorses and Scandinavian coldblood trotter are used in harness racing within their respective geographical areas. There are races for ponies: both flat and jump and harness racing. Flat racing is the most common form of racing seen worldwide. Flat racing tracks are oval in shape and are level, although in Great Britain and Ireland there is much greater variation, including figure of eight tracks like Windsor and tracks with severe gradients and changes of camber, such as Epsom Racecourse. Track surfaces vary, with turf most common in Europe, dirt more common in North America and Asia, newly designed synthetic surfaces, such as Polytrack or Tapeta, seen at some tracks.
Individual flat races are run over distances ranging from 440 yards up to two and a half miles, with distances between five and twelve furlongs being most common. Short races are referred to as "sprints", while longer races are known as "routes" in the United States or "staying races" in Europe. Although fast acceleration is required to win either type of race, in general sprints are seen as a test of speed, while long distance races are seen as a test of stamina; the most prestigious flat races in the world, such as the Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe, Melbourne Cup, Japan Cup, Epsom Derby, Kentucky Derby and Dubai World Cup, are run over distances in the middle of this range and are seen as tests of both speed and stamina to some extent. In the most prestigious races, horses are allocated the same weight to carry for fairness, with allowances given to younger horses and female horses running against males; these races offer the biggest purses. There is another category of races called handicap races where each horse is assigned a different weight to carry based on its ability.
Beside the weight they carry, horses' performance can be influenced by position relative to the inside barrier, gender and training. Jump racing in Gr
Australian native police
Australian native police units, consisting of Aboriginal troopers under the command of a single white officer, existed in various forms in all Australian mainland colonies during the nineteenth and, in some cases, into the twentieth centuries. The Native Police were utilised as a cost effective and brutal paramilitary instrument in the expansion and protection of the British colonial frontier in Australia. Mounted Aboriginal troopers of the Native Police, armed with rifles and swords escorted surveying groups and prospectors into frontier areas, they would then establish base camps and patrol these areas to enforce warrants, conduct punitive missions against resisting local aboriginal groups, fulfil various other duties. To maintain the imperial British method of "divide and conquer" and to reduce desertions, the aboriginals within the Native Police were recruited from areas that were distant from the frontier places in which they were deployed; as the troopers were Aboriginal, this benefited the colonists by minimising both the wages of the police and the potential for aboriginal revenge attacks against white people.
It increased the efficiency of the force as the Aboriginal troopers were vastly superior in their ability to track down dissidents in poorly charted and difficult terrain. The first government funded force was the Native Police Corps, established in 1837 in the Port Phillip District of the Australian colony of New South Wales. From 1848 another force was organised in New South Wales, which operated within the borders of the colony of Queensland; this force, sometimes called the "Native Mounted Police Force", was the largest and longest lasting of the mainland forces, is best known for conducting widespread extrajudicial shootings of aboriginal people under the official euphemism of "dispersal". It existed from 1848 to about 1915; the method of "dispersal" against Aboriginals was employed by the Native Police of other colonies and by groups such as pastoral station workers, the colonial British Army and the Border Police. The government of South Australia set up a short-lived Native Police force in 1852, re-established in 1884 and deployed into what is now the Northern Territory.
The colonial Western Australian government initiated a formal Native Police force in 1840 under the command of John Nicol Drummond. Other funded native police systems were occasionally used in Australia, such as the native constabulary organised by the Australian Agricultural Company in the 1830s. Native Police forces were officially implemented in the Papua and New Guinea territories administered by colonial Queensland and Australian governments from 1890 until the 1970s; the Australian government organised a native police force on Nauru during its administration of the island from 1923 until 1968. The general template for native police forces in Australia was the sepoy and sowar armies of the East India Company. However, the more compact forces of the British imperial frontier like the Cape Regiment in southern Africa and the Kaffir and Malay Corps in Ceylon are a closer comparison. Before the creation of the first official Native Police forces, there were some informal and funded examples of utilising Aboriginals as enforcers of colonial British rule in Australia.
The violent process of taking control of the land from the Aboriginals in this area was left to the settlers themselves, who were reinforced, at times of major conflict, with soldiers "to inflict exemplary and severe punishments". Coercing and influencing "friendly" Aboriginals into assisting with the capture or elimination of other "hostile natives" was adopted as a method of improving the efficiency of these punitive missions. In 1805, Hawkesbury chief constable Andrew Thompson exploited intra-clan rivalries by equipping two Darug men with firearms to aid in the destruction of another group of Darug. Seven or eight "hostile natives" were killed as a result and the two mercenaries were each promised a wife from the women seized during the raid. Armed Aboriginals were used to capture runaway convicts in the region and John Macarthur sometimes appeared at public functions with a bodyguard of uniformed Dharawal and Gandangara men. In 1824, at the conclusion of the Bathurst War against the Wiradjuri, Governor Brisbane sent Major James Thomas Morisset, commandant of the British forces at Bathurst, a letter congratulating him on his efforts.
In this letter, Brisbane outlines his desire to give "rewards to the natives who assisted in the police" and advised Morisset that he had "directed £50 subject to detailed accounts of its expenditure" to be at his disposal. Musquito was a Hawkesbury Aboriginal, exiled first to Norfolk Island in 1805 to Van Diemen's Land in 1813, he proved to be a valuable asset to the government there in tracking down bushrangers. He became a renegade and was himself tracked down and shot in the groin by another Hawkesbury aboriginal named Teague. Teague was sent by Hawkesbury settler Edward Luttrell to capture Musquito on the promise of a whaleboat as payment. Teague never received the boat and Musquito was hanged in 1825. In the 1830s, John Batman used armed Aboriginals from the Sydney region such as Pigeon and Tommy to assist in his roving parties to capture or kill indigenous Tasmanians. Up until at least 1830s, Aboriginals around the Newcastle and Port Macquarie penal settlements were utilised to recapture escaped convicts.
Men such as Biraban and Jemmy Jackass would track down the runaways, disable them with spears, strip them and return them to the soldiers for payment of blankets and corn. At nearby Port Stephens, the A
The Macintyre River, a perennial river that forms part of the Border Rivers group, is part of the Barwon catchment of the Murray-Darling basin, located in the Northern Tablelands and North West Slopes regions of New South Wales, the Southern Downs region of Queensland, Australia. Part of the course of the river marks the boundary between New South Wales; the Macintyre River rises on the western slopes of the Great Dividing Range, west of Guyra and south of Glen Innes, flows northwest and west, joined by twenty-two tributaries, including the Severn River and Dumaresq River, before reaching its confluence with the Weir River to form the Barwon River, west of Goondiwindi. In 1914, the current Goondiwindi Border Bridge was opened, it replaced a timber structure, built in 1878. The Macintyre River descends 1,040 metres over its 319-kilometre course; the flow of the river is impounded by Boggabilla Weir. The Macintyre River, together with Pike Creek, the Mole, Severn and Dumaresq rivers are all part of the Border Rivers group.
Named the Dumaresq River by Allan Cunningham. The name Macintyre was given by Cunningham to. Peter Macintyre was the overseer at Segenhoe Station; the Macintyre River is affected by floods and the town of Goondiwindi is protected by levee banks that can cope with a water level rise of nearly 11 metres. During the 2010–2011 Queensland floods the river peaked at 10.64 metres. Previous peaks have occurred during 1996, at 10.6 metres and during 1976. List of rivers of New South Wales Rivers of Queensland Media related to Macintyre River at Wikimedia Commons "Border Rivers catchment". Office of Environment and Heritage. Government of New South Wales. Border Rivers Daily Report - website Border Rivers-Gwydir Catchment Management Authority - website
W.S. Cox Plate
The W. S. Cox Plate is a Moonee Valley Racing Club Group 1 Thoroughbred horse race for horses aged three years old and over under Weight for age conditions, over a distance of 2040 metres, held at Moonee Valley Racecourse, Australia in late October; the race is Australia's richest weight-for-age race with stakemoney of A$5,000,000. The race is named in honour of W. S. Cox, the racing club's founder. Between 1999–2005 the event was included in the Emirates World Series Racing Championship, a global "grand prix" of horse racing; the series included the King George VI and Queen Elizabeth Stakes at Ascot, the Japan Cup, the Dubai World Cup, the Arlington Million, the Hong Kong Cup, the Canadian International Stakes, the Grosser Preis von Baden, the Irish Champion Stakes, the Breeders' Cup Turf and the Breeders' Cup Classic. Past winners of the Cox Plate include many of the champion racehorses of New Zealand. Winx has been the most successful, winning four years in a row and Kingston Town won the race three times.
Many horses have won the race twice, including Phar Lap, Tobin Bronze, Northerly, Fields of Omagh and So You Think. Only one horse has won the race in the same year as winning the Melbourne and Caulfield cups, Rising Fast, considered by many to be the greatest-ever horse from New Zealand; the double with the Melbourne Cup has only been achieved by seven horses: Makybe Diva and Power, Nightmarch, Phar Lap and Rising Fast. Only three horses have won the Melbourne Cup and gone on to win the Cox Plate the following year: Phar Lap and Power and Makybe Diva; the first Cox Plate was run in 1922 and won by the English horse Violoncello, who won his next three starts during the Melbourne Spring Racing Carnival. The 1925 race was taken out by three-year-old Manfred, who went on to win the VRC Derby and ran second to Windbag in the Melbourne Cup; the class gallopers Heroic and Amounis were successful in 1926 and 1927. Champion New Zealand-bred Nightmarch won in 1929 before Phar Lap took out the race in 1930 and 1931.
Another dual winner of the race was Chatham in 1932 and 1934, as was Young Idea in 1936 and 1937. The 1938 race was won by Ajax in race record time. Outstanding New Zealand champion Beau Vite, a winner of 31 races, won in 1940 and 1941. Due to restrictions on interstate travel due to World War II, the race was only contested by local horses from 1942 to 1944. In 1946, the Cox Plate was run in two divisions with the mare Flight winning the stronger division, she became a dual winner following her victory a year earlier. Hydrogen became the seventh dual winner of the race with victories in 1952 and 1953; the dual Caulfield Cup and Melbourne Cup winner Rising Fast won in 1954. Redcraze, a 32-race winner and New Zealand champion, took out the Plate in 1957 as a seven-year-old, ridden by George Moore. Noholme took nearly a second off the race record in a front-running display to win in 1959. Tulloch, compared to Phar Lap and Carbine, won the following year and again set a new race record. Tobin Bronze became a dual winner of the race with victories in 1966 and 1967.
The 1969 Cox Plate was won by the New Zealand three-year-old colt Daryl's Joy, who went on to race in the USA. The popular Goondiwindi grey, was trainer Tommy Smith's third winner of the Cox Plate in 1972, the New Zealand Derby winner Fury's Order staggered to victory on a bog track in 1975. Surround became the first three-year-old filly to win the race in 1976, when she defeated the VRC Derby winner Unaware; the ill-fated Dulcify strode away to win by seven lengths in 1979. He started favourite in the Melbourne Cup but had to be put down after breaking a pelvis during the race. One of only two triple winners of the Cox Plate, Kingston Town, won in 1980, 1981 and 1982. On each occasion he was ridden by a different jockey: Malcolm Johnston in 1980, Ron Quinton in 1981, Peter Cook in 1982. After winning in 1983, Strawberry Road raced in Europe and the US, where he ran fifth in the Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe at Longchamp and third to Seattle Song in the 1984 Washington, D. C. International at Laurel.
In 1984, Red Anchor became trainer T. J. Smith's seventh Cox Plate winner; the 1986 Cox Plate was a two-horse war over the final 800 metres before Bonecrusher triumphed over Our Waverley Star by a neck. This encounter became known as the Race of the Century. Rubiton, the winner in 1987, went on to a successful stud career where he sired a future Cox Plate winner in Fields of Omagh. Better Loosen Up was 30 lengths from the lead, with 1000 metres to run, before winning the 1990 Plate in record time, he became the first – and remains the only – Australian horse to win the Japan Cup. The eight-year-old Super Impose won in 1992 and defeated a top-class field which included Better Loosen Up, Let's Elope and favourite Naturalism, who lost his rider. Naturalism went on to run second in the Japan Cup. Australian Horse of the Year Octagonal defeated Mahogany in 1995, while Saintly gave Bart Cummings his second winner of the race in 1996 and Dane Ripper his third winner the following year. The'People's Champion' Might and Power led throughout to win in 1998, setting a new track record not to be broken for 17 years.
In a front-running display, Sunline won the 1999 Cox Plate and returned in 2000 to win again by seven lengths, before West Australian champion Northerly defeated her in 2001 and 2002. In 2004, Savabeel became the first 3-year-old to win since Octagonal. In 2005, Makybe Diva triumphed and became one of the most popular horses in Australian racing history with an unprecedented third Melbourne Cup win 10 days later. Fields of Omagh won his second Cox Plate in 2006, ha
Toowoomba is a regional city in the Darling Downs region in the Australian state of Queensland. It is 125 km west of Queensland's capital city Brisbane by road; the estimated urban population of Toowoomba as of June 2017 was 135,631. A university and cathedral city, it hosts the Toowoomba Carnival of Flowers each September and national championship events for the sports of mountain biking and motocross. There are gardens in Toowoomba, it has developed into a regional centre for government services. It is referred to as the capital of the Darling Downs. Toowoomba is served by the smaller Toowoomba City Aerodrome. Toowoomba is the second most populous inland city in the country after the national capital of Canberra. In the last five years, it has become one of the fastest growing towns in the country, with low unemployment and an increase in infrastructure leading to employment generation. Giabal and Jarowair are recognised as the two main Aboriginal language groups of the Toowoomba with Giabal extending south of the city while Jarowair extends north of the city.
This traditional landscape changed with the settlement of Drayton in the 1840s and the pastoral expansion west. Those Aboriginal Australians that survived the frontier conflict of this time were pushed to the fringe of society in camps and moved to missions such as Deebing Creek and Barambah. There is evidence that local Aboriginal Australians were working on the properties to the west of Toowoomba in this contact period. Ceremonies such as the Bonye Bonye festival remained active until the late 19th century – groups from south east and south west Queensland as well as northern New South Wales gathered at Gummingurru, near Gowrie prior to attending the festival; the Gummingurru site is being restored and remains an important ceremonial place for not only the traditional groups but neighbouring groups. Toowoomba's colonial history traces back to 1816 when English botanist and explorer Allan Cunningham arrived in Australia from Brazil and in June 1827 discovered 4 million acres of rich farming and grazing land, which became known as the Darling Downs, bordered on the east by the Great Dividing Range and 160 kilometres west of the settlement of Moreton Bay.
Thirteen years when George and Patrick Leslie established Toolburra Station 56 miles south-west of Toowoomba the first settlers arrived on the Downs and established a township of bark-slab shops called The Springs, soon renamed Drayton. Land for the town was first surveyed in 1849 again in 1853. Towards the end of the 1840s Drayton had grown to the point where it had its own newspaper, general store, trading post and the Royal Bull's Head Inn, built by William Horton and still stands today. Horton is regarded as the true founder of Toowoomba, despite the fact that he was not the first man to live there. Drovers and wagon masters spread the news of the new settlement at Toowoomba. By 1858 Toowoomba was growing fast, it had a population of three hotels and many stores. Land selling at £4 per acre in 1850 was by £150 per acre. Governor Bowen granted the wish of locals and a new municipality was proclaimed on 24 November 1860; the first town council election took place on 4 January 1861 and William Henry Groom won.
The railway from Ipswich was opened in 1867. In 1892, the Under Secretary of Public Land proclaimed Toowoomba and the surrounding areas as a township and in 1904 Toowoomba was declared a city. Pastoralism replaced dairying by the 1900s. Toowoomba was named as Australia's Tidiest Town in 2008. Toowoomba is around 700 metres above sea level. A few streets are on the eastern side of the edge of the range, but most of the city is west of the divide; the city occupies the low ridges behind it. Two valleys run north from the southern boundary, each arising from springs either side of Middle Ridge near Spring Street at an altitude of around 680 m; these waterways, East Creek and West Creek, flow together just north of the CBD to form Gowrie Creek. Gowrie Creek drains to the west across the Darling Downs and is a tributary of the Condamine River, part of the Murray–Darling basin; the water flowing down Gowrie Creek makes its way some 3,000 km to the mouth of the Murray River near Adelaide in South Australia.
Rain which falls on the easternmost streets of Toowoomba flows east to Moreton Bay a distance of around 170 km. The rich volcanic soil in the region helps maintain the 150 public parks that are scattered across the city. Jacaranda, camphor laurel and plane trees line many of the city streets; the city's reputation as'The Garden City' is highlighted during the Australian Carnival of Flowers festival held in September each year. Deciduous trees from around the world line many of the parks, giving a display of autumn colour; the City of Toowoomba includes the following suburbs: 2 - from former Shire of Jondaryan Toowoomba has a warm humid subtropical climate with warm summers and cool winters. Compared to other parts of Queensland, Toowoomba experiences more frequent high winds and fog and is considered cooler than many other towns and cities in Queensland, having more similarities with the climate of Sydney in southern New South Wales; the city is rather sunny. Daily maximum temperatures in Toowoomba average 17 °C in winter.
Unlike most of inland Queensland, summer temperatures above 35 °C are uncommon, whilst winter days warm abo
2016 Australian census
The 2016 Australian census was the seventeenth national population census held in Australia. The census was conducted with effect on Tuesday, 9 August 2016; the total population of the Commonwealth of Australia was counted as 23,401,892 – an increase of 8.8 per cent or 1,894,175 people since the 2011 census. Norfolk Island joined the census for the first time in 2016; the ABS annual report revealed that there were $24 million additional expenses accrued due to the outage on the census website. Results from the 2016 census were available to the public on 11 April 2017, from the Australian Bureau of Statistics website, two months earlier than for any previous census; the second release of data occurred on 27 June 2017 and a third data release was from 17 October 2017. Australia's next census is scheduled for 2021; the 2016 census had a response rate of 95.1% and a net undercount of 1.0%, with 63% of people completing the Census online. In the period leading up to census date the Australian Government decided that the retention period for names and addresses would be increased to up to four years, from 18 months in the 2006 and 2011 censuses, leading to concerns about privacy and data security.
As such, some Australian Senate crossbenchers said they would not complete those specific sections of the census, despite the fines associated with incorrect completion of the census. According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics the first release of census data became available to the public on the ABS website on 11 April 2017, two months earlier than for any previous census; the second release of data occurred on 27 June 2017 and a third data release was from 17 October 2017. For the first time, the ABS favoured internet submission of census forms over the traditional paper forms, claiming it expected more than 65% of Australians would complete the census online. Reflecting this new preference, the tagline of the ad campaign for the census was the rhyming slogan "Get online on August 9". Across many regions, paper forms were no longer delivered by default to homes, households that wished to complete a paper census had to order such forms via an automated hotline. Letters were sent to each dwelling with unique code numbers that people would need to either login to the census website, or order a paper form if they preferred.
By census night, many households had still not received such a letter. Contrary to previous years where censuses were both delivered and retrieved from households by dedicated census employees, in 2016 most of the paperwork relating to the census was delivered from and to the ABS by Australia Post; the 2016 census was met by a significant controversy, which meant that many Australians could not complete the census online on the designated census day. The ABS census website shut down at about 7:30 pm AEST on the night the census was to be completed. According to the ABS, throughout 9 August the census website received four denial-of-service attacks. At 7:30 pm, when the site was being used, a software failure meant that the ABS was unable to keep blocking the denial-of-service attacks, leading to the failure of a router; as a result, the ABS decided to close down the system as a precaution. The 15th Chief Statistician, David Kalisch stated; the Australian Signals Directorate assisted the ABS to bring the infrastructure back online more than 24 hours after the closure.
The census website was restored at 2:30 pm on 11 August. On the same day Australian Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull stated his unhappiness over the event, which had "been a failure of the ABS", with his expectation that "heads will roll" once a review was complete. Leader of the opposition Bill Shorten said that the 2016 census had been the "worst-run... in the history of Australia". The ABS blamed service provider IBM for the failure in the online census, saying that IBM had advised on the preparedness and resilience to DDoS attacks and had not offered any further protections that could be employed. On 31 August, Parliament initiated an inquiry into the 2016 census, it released its findings on 24 November and found that no individual party was responsible but it was shared between the government, IBM, the sub-contractors. The census forms were able to be submitted online until 23 September. Once collection was complete, the ABS issued an announcement which confirmed that in spite of the initial online problems, there was a preliminary response rate of more than 96%.
This consisted of 3.5 million paper forms. The preliminary response rate was similar to the previous two census response rates of 95.8% in 2006 and 96.5% in 2011. An independent panel established by the Australian Statistician to quality assure the data from the 2016 census found it was fit for purpose, comparable to previous Australian and international censuses and can be used with confidence. "The Independent Assurance Panel I established to provide extra assurance and transparency of Census data quality concluded that the 2016 Census data can be used with confidence." The Census form had 51 questions relating to the characteristics of individuals, plus an extra nine questions relating to households. Of the sixty questions, the following two questions were optional: What is the person's religion? Does each person agree to his/her name and address and other information on this form being kept by the National Archives of Australia and made publicly available after 99 years? The population counts for Australian states and territories were that New South Wales remains the most populous state, with 7,480,228 people counted, ahead of Victoria and Queensland.
Australian Capital Territory experienced the lar
Customs House Museum
Customs House Museum is a heritage-listed former detached house and now museum at 1 McLean Street, Goondiwindi Region, Australia. It was built from 1860s circa to 1900s circa, it was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 21 October 1992. The Goondiwindi Customs House Museum is located on the town side of the main bridge crossing the Macintyre River at Goondiwindi; the town developed on the site of a teamsters' camp established where the boundaries of 3 pastoral properties met. Allan Cunningham explored the area around Goondiwindi in 1827. In the 1830s pastoral settlement in New South Wales pushed northwards as graziers looked for new land and in the early 1840s sheep runs were established on the Darling Downs. Early stations were supplied from the south, rather than from Brisbane. Teamsters bringing supplies to the Goondiwindi area came from Maitland and they camped on a rise where the boundaries of Umbercollie and Old Goondiwindi stations met; this hill became the basis for a small settlement, which came to include some permanent residents.
The initial site for government services was at Callandoon where a Native Police camp was established in 1849 and from 1859 there was a police station and a post office in operation utilising station buildings. In 1858 the government was petitioned to commission a township survey so that land for settlement could be purchased at the site of the teamsters camp. A survey of the area in 1859 shows no buildings on the town area at that time; the first sale of land at Goondiwindi was held in August 1860 at which 50 residential blocks were sold. By this time Queensland had become a separate colony to New South Wales and the Macintyre River formed part of the border. In 1861 the postal service shifted to Goondiwindi and a courthouse and police station were built. Matthew Maher, a mail contractor, who purchased several other lots, first purchased the land on which the Customs House Museum stands, in 1863. By 1868, Samuel Droughton was working as a mail contractor based on Goondiwindi. In March 1872 he purchased the property from Maher.
It remained in the ownership of Droughton, who acted as a dairyman, that of his widow, until 1901 when it was sold to the editor of the local newspaper, Edward Drake. In December 1859, Queensland was formally proclaimed as a new colony. In 1862 the New South Wales Border Customs Act no 22 was introduced to allow arrangements to be made "for establishing a mutual system of collecting and accounting for all Customs Duties payable upon goods crossing this boundary." At first, the flow of goods into Queensland through the inland routes was not sufficient in either quantity or value to warrant the cost of collecting customs duty in remote areas. However, as settlement increased, the Queensland Government began to feel concern at the amount of revenue, being lost in this way. Not only did more goods travel north than went south into New South Wales, but duty on such everyday commodities as tea and tobacco was twice as high in Queensland and a considerable amount of smuggling across the border took place.
Discussions between the colonies with a view to making adjustment payments were held but came to nothing. In late 1870, the Queensland Government decided to establish a means of control so that an estimated revenue loss of £15,000 per year could be prevented. In December 1870 A Bill to Provide for the Collection of Customs Duties on Goods Imported Overland was passed; as a first step to implementing this, a border patrol consisting of a police inspector, sub-inspector and 4 constables was appointed with powers to collect duties from 1 January 1871. They were to move along the border between Queensland and New South Wales, collecting duties and keeping careful records regarding the type and value of goods and the amount of monies collected, they were to note the places were crossings existed and recommend places where Customs offices could be most usefully established. The Inspector, William Parry-Okeden, made a report on their findings in April 1871. 11 places were recommended for setting up customs offices, including Goondiwindi.
On 12 April 1871, Richard Marshall Police Magistrate, Clerk of Petty Sessions, Land Agent and Land Commissioner at Goondiwindi, was appointed to act as Customs Officer. He died the following year and was replaced by John Murphy, a sub-inspector of the Customs Border Patrol, it was soon reported that the effect of increased vigilance on the border was to deflect the importation of goods to Brisbane, reducing the amount of such trade through inland centres. Goondiwindi continued to develop however, in 1880 a bridge, a joint project of the New South Wales and Queensland governments, replaced the ferry service across the Macintyre River; the bridge made it possible to cross the river at this point in all weathers and increased the importance of the town as a border crossing. In 1880 Charles F Cumming was appointed as Customs Officer for Goondiwindi. Cumming was the Police Magistrate and had held this job and that of Land Agent in Goondiwindi the previous year. In 1881 a second Customs Officer was appointed and there were two officers at Goondiwindi until one was sent to Swan Creek following a reorganisation of staff in 1885.
In 1887, Goondiwindi was listed by the Customs Department as one of 8 customs stations along the New South Wales border and was an important public crossing place. The position of Customs Officer seems to have been an extension of police duties for some time and the books concerning Customs business were kept at the Court House in 1898. There is no formal record of this building being a Customs House and it remained in private hands throughout the period when duties were collected. However, local tradition that it was connected with the Customs service is strong and Customs Offic