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Gopuram

A Gopuram or gopura is a monumental entrance tower ornate, at the entrance of a Hindu temple, in the Dravidian architecture of the Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala and Telangana states of Southern India. Ancient and early medieval temples feature smaller gopuram, while in temples they are a prominent feature of Hindu temples of the Dravidian style, they are topped by a bulbous stone finial. They function as gateways through the walls. Another towering structure located towards the center of the temple is the Vimanam. Both of them are constructed as per rules given in the texts of Vaastu shastra; the gopuram's origins can be traced back to early structures of the Pallava kings, relate to the central shikhara towers of North India. Between the twelfth and sixteenth century, during the Pandya and Vijayanagara era when Hindu temples became a hub of the urban life, these gateways became a dominant feature of a temple's outer appearance overshadowing the inner sanctuary which became obscured from view by the gopuram's colossal size and courtyards.

It dominated the inner sanctum in amount of ornamentation. A shrine has more than one gopuram. Besides South India in North East India, there is an enchanting gopura in the Shree Angala Parameswari Shree Muneswarar Temple in Moreh, the Indo-Myanmar border town in Manipur, established in the year 1967, built by the Tamil people of the region, they appear in architecture outside India Khmer architecture, as at Angkor Wat. A large Dravidian-style temple, or koil, may have multiple gopurams as the openings into successively smaller walled enclosures around the main shrine, with the largest at the outer edges; the temple compound is square or rectangular with at least the outermost wall having gopuras from the four cardinal directions. The multiple storeys of a gopuram repeat the lower level features on a rhythmic diminishing scale; the inner sanctum and its towering roof is called the Vimanam, although in the south it is smaller than the gopurams in large temples. The Tamil derivation is from the two words: கோ and புறம் meaning'king' and'exterior' respectively.

It originates from the Sangam age when it was known as ஓங்கு நிலை வாயில் meaning'imperishable gateway'. An alternative derivation is from the Sanskrit word gopuram, which can be broken down to go, which means either'a city' or'a cow', puram,'a town', or'a settlement'. Dr. Sthapati explains the meaning of the words vimanam thus. Vimanam means measure, indicating the number of measures made in the construction and design of that structure. Gopuram consist of two words and puram, meaning the place from which all the energy that exists in all living beings comes inside. A gopuram is a tapering oblong in form with ground-level wooden doors richly decorated, providing access. Above is the tapering or "battered" gopuram, divided into many storeys, which diminish in size as the gopuram tower narrows; the tower is topped with a barrel vaulted roof with a finial. The form began rather modestly in the 10th century, as at Shore Temple, with the 11th century Brihadeeswarar Temple in Thanjavur marking a crucial step forward with two multi-storey gopurams from that period, much larger than any earlier ones, though much smaller than the main tower of the temple.

The four gopurams of the Thillai Nataraja Temple, Chidambaram are important early examples, begun in the mid-13th century but completed over a longer period. Gopurams are exquisitely decorated with sculpture and carvings and painted with a variety of themes derived from the Hindu mythology those associated with the presiding deity of the temple where the gopuram is located; the two tallest gopuras are both modern, at least in part. The Ranganathaswamy Temple, Tamil Nadu, has 21 gopurams, including the towering 239.5-foot Rajagopuram, claimed as the tallest temple tower in Asia. The 73-metre -tall 13-tiered Rajagopuram was completed in 1987 and dominates the landscape for kilometers around, while the remaining 20 gopurams were built between the 14th and 17th centuries. Competing for the title of "tallest" is the twenty storey 249-foot gopura at the modern Murdeshwar Temple, unusually, is provided with a lift. List of tallest Gopurams Dallapiccola, Anna L.. Dictionary of Hindu Lore and Legend. London: Thames & Hudson.

ISBN 0-500-51088-1. Harle, J. C; the Art and Architecture of the Indian Subcontinent, 2nd edn. 1994, Yale University Press Pelican History of Art, ISBN 0300062176

The Truth (novel)

The Truth is a fantasy novel by British writer Terry Pratchett, the twenty-fifth book in his Discworld series, published in 2000. The book features the coming of movable type to Ankh-Morpork, the founding of the Discworld's first newspaper by William de Worde, as he invents investigative journalism with the help of his reporter Sacharissa Cripslock; the two investigate the charges of embezzlement and attempted murder against Havelock Vetinari, help vindicate him. The Ankh-Morpork City Watch characters appear in this novel, but have limited roles and are seen from de Worde's perspective. C. M. O. T. Dibbler puts in an appearance. William de Worde is the black sheep of an influential Ankh-Morpork family, scraping out a humble lifestyle as a common scribe and making extra pocket money by producing a gossipy newsletter for foreign notables; this arrangement is soon undermined by the arrival of a team of dwarves to Ankh-Morpork who intend to start a printing business. However, Guild of Engravers is antagonised by the unauthorised efforts of the Times.

Meanwhile, a conspiracy is afoot in the city to depose Lord Vetinari. The wealthy and powerful Committee to Unelect the Patrician hire Mr. Pin and Mr. Tulip, a pair of villainous mercenaries from outside Ankh-Morpork known as the New Firm, to frame Vetinari with a staged embezzlement. Pin and Tulip manage to catch off-guard the impassible Patrician with Charlie, a witless Vetinari look-alike that they had kidnapped and forced to collaborate; the plan starts going south, when Drumknott, Vetinari's clerk returns in the middle of the scene and the New Firm is forced to stab him and render Vetinari unconscious, hoping to frame him for murder. William makes the mistake of advertising a reward for information leading to Wuffles' recovery, causing a frenzy among the local Ankh Morpork population. Realising that the job is much harder than their employers had suggested, the New Firm decides to skip town. Although the job is unfinished they extort from their employers's zombie lawyer and representative Mr. Slant their promised payment and a big "bonus" in jewels, using compromising previous voice recordings captured with a dis-organiser Mk II.

An anonymous tipster named "Deep Bone", helps William track down Wuffles and "translate" his testimony, giving William the last pieces of the puzzle. In the meantime, Sacharissa accidentally discovers the New Firm’s hideout in William's own family manor and is captured by the pair of thugs, they head back to the Times hoping to exchange her for Wuffles and silence all witnesses. In the ensuing struggle a lamp explodes and the Times' offices catch fire. William and the others manage to escape outside while Tulip hide in the cellar. Pin, now only sane, emerges from the cellars and attacks William once the fire is out, only to be killed when he is impaled on the memo spike from William's desk. William retrieves the fortune in jewels, the dis-organiser, the last bit of evidence. However, with the press and office destroyed, it seems like the Times will not be able to go live with their break-out reportage in time; the liberal application of a crossbow wielded by a daring Saccharisa, dwarven axes, bribery in jewels, Otto's sense of dramatic atmosphere helps the crew borrow one of the Inquirer's presses for the evening.

The big story breaks the next day and Lord Vetinari's name is cleared just before a new, Guild-controlled Patrician would have seized power. The recordings on the dis-organizer help William to discover the identity of the man behind the Committee to Unelect, his father Lord de Worde, he decides to confront him. A tense argument, blackmail with the threat of exposure, a fortune in jewels, threats from Otto fail to intimidate Lord de Worde into leaving the city in exile as William demands. However, after learning that his machinations nearly killed his own son, he admits defeat and walks away. William is ambivalent about the new and unexpected role of the free press in his life and in the world but resolves that someone must tell the public the truth about what goes on in the city if the public doesn't want to hear it; the Times comes to be recognized, if not welcomed, by the powers that be in the city, William and Sacharissa make plans to expand further, hiring new staff, establishing offices in other cities, one day squeezing in time for a lunch date in between deadlines.

At the SF Site, Steven H Silver judged that Pratchett's decision to present the novel from William's viewpoint "infused with a freshness, lacking from many of Pratchett's recent books". CNN called it "technically an unconventional one, and a funny one — the laugh-out-loud kind of funny that comes along all too infrequently," stating that Pratchett was a "master at wordplay" and that the novel was full of "striking example of linguistic gymnastics". Infinity Plus described it as an "excellently plotted tale of mystery and murder" and "an hilarious take on the newspaper business", faulting only that the book's title was "descriptive" but insufficiently "fun". Publishers Weekly considered it "Pratchett's best one yet", noted parodic similarities to Pulp Fiction and His Girl Friday. MIT Technology Review observed that it "combines humor and political satire to

Pere Tarradellas

Pedro'Pere' Tarradellas Cámara is a Spanish retired footballer who played as a left winger. Born in Mollet del Vallès, Catalonia, Tarradellas started playing as a senior with local EC Granollers, he represented teams in his native region, playing for AEC Manlleu, UE Figueres, RCD Espanyol B, CE Mataró and UE Lleida. On 31 August 2004, Tarradellas signed for SD Ponferradina, appearing for the Castile and León team in his only season, which finished in promotion, he moved to CF Badalona in the 2005 summer, was an ever-present figure over the course of three campaigns. In July 2009, Tarradellas joined UE Sant Andreu, after a short spell at neighbouring CF Gavà. Again a regular, he scored a career-best nine goals in 2009–10. In August 2011, Tarradellas moved to fellow league team UE Llagostera, achieving promotion to Segunda División at the end of the 2013–14 campaign. On 23 August 2014, aged 34, he made his debut as a professional, starting in a 0–2 away loss against UD Las Palmas. On 8 June 2015, after appearing in 14 matches during the campaign, Tarradellas announced his retirement.

Pere Tarradellas at BDFutbol Pere Tarradellas at Soccerway