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The Gorals are an ethnographic group found in their traditional area of southern Poland, northern Slovakia, in the region of Cieszyn Silesia in the Czech Republic. There is a significant Goral diaspora in the area of Bukovina in western Ukraine and in northern Romania, as well as in Chicago, the seat of the Polish Highlanders Alliance of North America. In Poland, the community inhabits the geographical region of Podhale of the Tatra Mountains and parts of the Beskids. In present-day Slovakia they live in 4 separate groups: in northern Spiš, Orava and Kysuce and smaller groups in 7 other enclave villages in northern Slovakia; the main settlements of Gorals include: Zakopane Poronin Murzasichle Zawoja The West Slavic, Polish dialects spoken by the Gorals share many linguistic features with neighboring East Slavic languages spoken by other Carpathian highlanders the Rusyn language spoken by the Hutsuls and Boykos. The various dialects spoken by the Gorals descend from Proto-Slavic from the Eastern Lechitic, Old Polish area, superimposed by Slovak.

In other words, the language, called the Podhale dialect, is of Polish origin, but has been influenced by Slovak in recent centuries. In addition to Polish, the language contains some vocabulary of other origins, including Slovak, Eastern Romance, words of uncertain origin that have cognates in other languages of the Carpathian region. Jabłonkowanie, a phonological feature similar to mazurzenie, occurs in some Silesian dialects. 14th- and 15th-century palatal consonant pronunciation features are preserved in the Podhale dialect. K. Dobroslowski asserted that the Podhale dialect had loan-words from Romanian and Albanian, as well as similar belief system elements and material culture. In the 16th and 17th centuries Gorals settled the upper Kysuca, Orava rivers, part of northern Spiš; these territories were part of the northern Kingdom of Hungary. The mountainous regions were settled with pastoral Slavs with the "Vlach law". In 1803–19, Gorals migrated to Bukovina. During World War II, Nazi Germany sought to Germanize the Gorals, along with the Estonians and Lithuanians, include them in the resettlement plans.

Under Nazi racial laws, the White Russians and Ukrainians were viewed as "undesirable", thus subject to special statutes in the occupied territories of Eastern Europe, although to a milder degree than other non-German ethnic groups. Nazi racial theorists considered the 27,000 strong Goral population as a separate ethnic group from the Poles. Termed Goralenvolk, they were deemed part of the "Greater Germanic Race" and given separate treatment than other Poles; the Gorals and other West Slavic peoples of the Carpathians show little northern, influence, as opposed to other regions of Poland. Carleton S. Coon grouped the Gorals with the Hutsuls in the southeastern corner of Poland. In the 19th century, Polish scholars viewed the Gorals as linguistically close to the Poles, but having close ties with Slovak folk culture, it was noted that Gorals' economic life resembled that of Vlach shepherd culture. In a wider sense Gorals refers to an ethnographic group comprising certain highlanders in the northern Carpathians, more these ethnic groups: Gorals Żywiec Gorals, of Żywiec Basin in Poland Silesian Gorals of Cieszyn Silesia in Poland and Czech Republic Podhale Gorals of Podhale in Poland Hutsuls of Bukovina and Maramureş in Ukraine and Romania Lemkos of Lemkivshchyna in Poland, Ukraine Boykos, in Ukraine, Slovakia Moravian Vlachs in Moravian Wallachia, Czech Republic For most Gorals today, the decisive factor in their self-identification with a nationality is not ethnic but territorial.

For example, those living in areas under a long tradition of belonging to the Polish state identify themselves as Polish, while those living in Slovakia have identified themselves as Slovaks, with notable exceptions to this rule on both sides of the border. While the origin of the Goral dialect is Polish, the language of Gorals in Slovakia and in the Czech Republic is shifting and becoming more similar to the literary standard in their respective countries. Silesian Gorals of the Czech Republic identify themselves on the nationality level as Poles and are members of the Polish minority in Zaolzie, proved by their communal activity – annual Gorolski Święto festival held in Jablunkov is a showcase of a local Polish Goral traditions and is organized by the PZKO; this Goral festival preserves the traditions of the Polish nationality group in Zaolzie. It is the largest cultural and folklore festival in Zaolzie area gathering thousands of spectators each day of festivities. However, in none of the towns and villages of the area the Poles form a majority and some local Gorals identify themselves on the nationality level as Czechs.

In this respect the village of Hrčava, with vast majority of citizens declaring Czech nationality, can be mentioned. In this village the Poles form only a 2% minority. Local Gorals formed a majority in the past, they speak the regional dialect in everyday communication. The issue of their ethnic identity has been controversial and


Etoxadrol is a dissociative anaesthetic drug, found to be an NMDA antagonist and produce similar effects to PCP in animals. Etoxadrol, along with another related drug dexoxadrol, were developed as analgesics for use in humans, but development was discontinued in the late 1970s after patients reported side effects such as nightmares and hallucinations. Phenicyclidine, tenocyclidine and its precursor, dexoxadrol have related chemical structures; these drugs all act on the nervous system, acting as dissociative hallucinogens with anesthetic and analgesic properties. Etoxadrol is a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, it binds with high affinity to the PCP binding site on the NMDA receptor. The inactivated NMDA receptor possesses a magnesium block in the channel, blocking the passage of cations; when the neurotransmitter glutamate binds to the NMDA receptor, the postsynaptic cell membrane is depolarized, the magnesium block in the NMDA receptor channel is displaced. Calcium and sodium can enter the cell via the open channel.

Etoxadrol antagonizes the NMDA receptor by binding to the PCP site, located just above the magnesium block in the ion channel. In the event that the magnesium block is displaced, etoxadrol blocks the NMDA receptor channel, preventing cations from entering or exiting the channel; this mechanism of action applies to PCP, TCP, ketamine and dexoxadrol. Etoxadrol binding does not affect the binding affinity of other sites on the NMDA receptor, as found by binding studies showing the displacement of radiolabeled TCP by etoxadrol. Despite its anesthetic and analgesic effects, etoxadrol does not interact with benzodiazepine, muscarinic acetylcholine, or mu opioid receptors. However, etoxadrol may act in the dopamine reward pathway. Etoxadrol goes into effect 90 seconds after intravenous administration, its anesthetic effects last for half an hour to an hour. Since etoxadrol is administered intravenously, the bioavailable dose is always the same as the administered dose. Etoxadrol’s analgesic effects can last for up to 2 hours or more after patients have regained consciousness.

Etoxadrol is lipophilic and can cross the blood–brain barrier. Because of its lipophilic structure, etoxadrol can be absorbed by fat organs. Etoxadrol acts on the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Etoxadrol was intended as an anesthetic for patients requiring long periods of anesthesia for surgery; as an anesthetic, etoxadrol is more potent than ketamine, but less potent than PCP. Etoxadrol is a potent analgesic. Patients given etoxadrol reported that they were aware of experiencing pain upon waking from anesthesia, but it did not bother them. Post-operative analgesics are required after patients undergoing surgery are administered etoxadrol. Etoxadrol is an anticonvulsant, preventing tonic seizures in mice that are administered pentylenetetrazol, which induces seizures. Like ketamine, etoxadrol produces increases in respiratory rate. Etoxadrol may cause vomiting. At high enough doses, etoxadrol exhibits effects on the muscular system such as convulsions or loss of the righting reflex; when administered in excess, etoxadrol can be lethal on the respiratory system.

Monkeys given high doses of etoxadrol died of apparent respiratory failure. Etoxadrol produces a wide variety of dreams, ranging from pleasant to aversive. Half of patients given etoxadrol report pleasant dreams, 25% report unpleasant dreams, the remaining 25% experience no dreams at all; such dreams were described as “floating,” “puffy” or “out of this world." Dreams and hallucinations may persist for as long as 18 to 24 hours. In rare cases, etoxadrol can induce periods of psychotic activity during this recovery period. In the brain, etoxadrol slows down the synthesis of serotonin to 50-60% of control rates and speeds up the rate of dopamine synthesis by up to 200% of the normal rate 4–6 hours after intravenous administration. Like a number of other drugs, etoxadrol has been found to exhibit reinforcing properties. Monkeys will self-administer etoxadrol, dexoxadrol or PCP in a lever-pressing paradigm

Carolyn Waldo

Carolyn Jane Waldo, is a former synchronized swimmer from Canada. Competing both as a solo and as part of a duo with Michelle Cameron, Waldo experienced tremendous success in international competition, she was the first Canadian female to win two gold medals at one Olympic Games, winning both the solo and duo competitions at the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul, South Korea. She won a silver medal at the earlier 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles; as part of the duo with Cameron, Waldo won at the 1985 Rome and Spanish Opens, 1985 FINA World Cup, 1986 Spanish Open, 1986 Commonwealth Games, 1986 World Championships, 1987 Pan Pacific Championships and the 1987 FINA World Cup. An Officer of the Order of Canada, a four-time winner of the Velma Springstead Trophy, Waldo retired in 1988 and worked as a sportscaster for the television station CJOH in Ottawa, until being laid off on 17 November 2015. List of members of the International Swimming Hall of Fame

Australasian Legal Information Institute

The Australasian Legal Information Institute is an institution operated jointly by the Faculties of Law of the University of Technology Sydney and the University of New South Wales. Its public policy purpose is to improve access to justice through access to legal information. AustLII was established in 1995. Founded as joint program of the University of Technology Sydney and the University of New South Wales law schools, its initial funding was provided by the Australian Research Council, its public policy purpose is to improve access to justice through access to legal information. AustLII content is publicly available legal information, its primary source information includes legislation and decisions of courts and tribunals. It hosts secondary legal materials, including law reform and Royal Commission reports, as well as legal journals; the AustLII databases include the complete text of all of the decisions of the High Court, decisions of the Federal Court from 1977 onwards, decisions of the Family Court from 1988 onwards, as well as a number of other federal and state courts and tribunals.

ComLaw Free Access to Law Movement Legal Information Institute Australasian Legal Information Institute

1956–57 York City F.C. season

The 1956–57 season was the 34th season of competitive association football and 27th season in the Football League played by York City Football Club, a professional football club based in York, England. They finished in seventh position in the 24-team 1956–57 Football League Third Division North, they lost in the second to Hull City. 21 players made at least one appearance in nationally organised first-team competition, there were nine different goalscorers. Goalkeeper Tommy Forgan and forward Peter Wragg played in all 49 first-team matches over the season. Arthur Bottom finished as leading goalscorer with 22 goals, of which 21 came in league competition and one came in the FA Cup. Players with names marked left the club during the playing season. Key to positions: GK – Goalkeeper. C. seasons General Batters, David. York City: The Complete Record. Derby: Breedon Books. ISBN 978-1-85983-633-0. Windross, Dave. Citizens and Minstermen, A Who's Who of York City FC 1922–1997. Selby: Citizen Publications. ISBN 978-0-9531005-0-7.

Source for match dates, league positions and results: "York City 1956–1957: Results". Statto Organisation. Archived from the original on 7 September 2015. Source for appearances and attendances: Batters. York City: The Complete Record. Pp. 306–307. Source for player details: Jarred. Citizens and Minstermen, A Who's Who of York City FC 1922–1997. Pp. 13–115. Specific


Coproica is a genus of flies belonging to the family Lesser Dung flies. C. acutangula C. albiseta Papp, 2008 C. aliena Papp, 2008 C. bispinosa Papp, 2008 C. brevivenosa Papp, 2008 C. cacti C. coreana Papp, 1979 C. demeteri Papp, 2008 C. dentata Papp, 1973 C. digitata C. ferruginata C. flavifacies Papp, 2008 C. ghanensis Papp, 1979 C. hirticula Collin, 1956 C. hirtula C. hirtuloidea C. insulaepasqualis Enderlein, 1938 C. lacteipennis Hayashi, 2005 C. lugubris C. microps Papp, 2008 C. mitchelli C. pappi Carles-Tolrá, 1990 C. perlugubris Papp, 2008 C. pseudolacteipennis Papp, 2008 C. pusio C. rohaceki Carles-Tolrá, 1990 C. rufifrons Hayashi, 1991 C. ruwenzoriensis C. saprophaga Papp, 2008 C. serra C. setulosa C. thaii Papp, 2008 C. unispinosa Papp, 2008 C. urbana C. vagans