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Gordian Knot

The Gordian Knot is a legend of Phrygian Gordium associated with Alexander the Great. It is used as a metaphor for an intractable problem solved by finding an approach to the problem that renders the perceived constraints of the problem moot: The Phrygians were without a king, but an oracle at Telmissus decreed that the next man to enter the city driving an ox-cart should become their king. A peasant farmer named Gordias drove into town on an ox-cart and was declared king. Out of gratitude, his son Midas dedicated the ox-cart to the Phrygian god Sabazios and tied it to a post with an intricate knot of cornel bark; the knot was described by Roman historian Quintus Curtius Rufus as comprising "several knots all so entangled that it was impossible to see how they were fastened". The ox-cart still stood in the palace of the former kings of Phrygia at Gordium in the fourth century BC when Alexander arrived, at which point Phrygia had been reduced to a satrapy, or province, of the Persian Empire.

An oracle had declared that any man who could unravel its elaborate knots was destined to become ruler of all of Asia. Alexander struggled to do so without success, he reasoned that it would make no difference how the knot was loosed, so he drew his sword and sliced it in half with a single stroke. In an alternative version of the story, Alexander loosed the knot by pulling the linchpin from the yoke. Sources from antiquity agree that Alexander was confronted with the challenge of the knot, but his solution is disputed. Both Plutarch and Arrian relate that, according to Aristobulus, Alexander pulled the knot out of its pole pin, exposing the two ends of the cord and allowing him to untie the knot without having to cut through it; some classical scholars regard this as more plausible than the popular account. Literary sources of the story include Alexander's propagandist Arrian, Quintus Curtius, Justin's epitome of Pompeius Trogus, Aelian's De Natura Animalium 13.1. Alexander went on to conquer Asia as far as the Indus and the Oxus, thus fulfilling the prophecy.

The knot may have been a religious knot-cipher guarded by Gordian/Midas' priestesses. Robert Graves suggested that it may have symbolised the ineffable name of Dionysus that, knotted like a cipher, would have been passed on through generations of priests and revealed only to the kings of Phrygia. Unlike popular fable, genuine mythology has few arbitrary elements; this myth taken as a whole seems designed to confer legitimacy to dynastic change in this central Anatolian kingdom: thus Alexander's "brutal cutting of the knot... ended an ancient dispensation." The ox-cart suggests a longer voyage, rather than a local journey linking Gordias/Midas with an attested origin-myth in Macedon, of which Alexander is most to have been aware. Based on this origin myth, the new dynasty was not immemorially ancient, but had remembered origins in a local, but non-priestly "outsider" class, represented by Greek reports as an eponymous peasant "Gordias" or the locally attested, authentically Phrygian "Midas" in his ox-cart.

Roller separates out authentic Phrygian elements in the Greek reports and finds a folk-tale element and a religious one, linking the dynastic founder with the cults of "Zeus" and Cybele. Other Greek myths legitimize dynasties by right of conquest, but in this myth the stressed legitimising oracle suggests that the previous dynasty was a race of priest-kings allied to the unidentified oracular deity. Archimedean point Egg of Columbus Endless knot Hellenic Army Kobayashi Maru Trefoil knot Media related to Gordian Knot at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of Gordian knot at Wiktionary

Douglas squirrel

The Douglas squirrel is a pine squirrel found in the Pacific Northwest of North America, including the coastal states of the United States as well as the southwestern coast of British Columbia in Canada. It is sometimes known as the chickaree or pine squirrel, although these names are used for the American red squirrel. Variant spellings of the common name are Douglas's squirrel; the Native Americans of Kings River called it the "Pillillooeet", in imitation of its characteristic alarm call. John Muir described the Douglas squirrel, Tamiasciurus douglasii, as "by far the most interesting and influential of the California Sciuridæ". Adults are about 33 cm in length, weigh between 150 and 300 grams, their appearance varies according to the season. In the summer, they are a grayish or greenish brown on their backs, pale orange on the chest and belly, while legs and feet appear brown. In the winter, the coat is browner and the underside is grayer. Like many squirrels, Douglas squirrels have a white eye ring.

Mating can occur as early as February. Gestation is about four weeks, the young are weaned at about eight weeks of age. There may be up to six kits in a litter. In the southern and lower parts of their range they produce two litters each year. Douglas squirrels live in coniferous forest habitats along the Pacific Coast, from the Sierra Nevada of California, northwards to the southwestern coast of British Columbia. Tamiasciurus douglasii prefer old-growth forests or mature second-growth forests, some authors regard them as dependent on its presence, they replace the American Red Squirrel, which inhabits the coniferous forests of the rest of North American, in these areas. The two species have minimal overlap in territory, they are territorial. Douglas squirrels are active by day, throughout the year chattering noisily at intruders. In summer nights, they sleep in ball-shaped nests that they make in the trees, but in the winter they use holes in trees as nests. Groups of squirrels seen together during the summer are to be juveniles from a single litter.

Douglas squirrels eat seeds of coniferous trees such as Douglas fir, Sitka spruce and shore pine. They eat acorns, mushrooms, the eggs of birds such as yellow warblers, some fruit including strawberries and plums. Douglas squirrels are larder hoarders, storing their food in a single location or'larder' called a midden; as the squirrel peels the scales off cones to get at the seeds, the discarded scales accumulate into piles that can grow to several meters across as the same site is used by generations of squirrels. Their predators include American martens, domestic cats, northern goshawks, owls. However, the squirrels' numbers appear to be unaffected by commercial thinning of forests. Tracks and calls of the Douglas Squirrel John Muir's account of the Douglas Squirrel Smithsonian: "The Douglas Squirrel"

Roger Howarth

Roger Howarth is an American actor. He played character Todd Manning on the daytime drama One Life to Live, he left the series in 2003 and joined soap opera As the World Turns, where he played the character of Paul Ryan until the series final episode in 2010. Howarth returned to OLTL in May 2011 deciding to continue the role on General Hospital in March 2012, he now portrays Franco on General Hospital, the character created and portrayed by James Franco. In addition to his soap opera work, Howarth has guest starred in television shows such as Prey and Dawson's Creek. Howarth was born in New York, his father wrote plays. Exposed to the arts at an early age, Howarth performed in the play The Grand Duke at the age of seven, he performed in numerous plays at school. He played soccer from the time, he took the opportunity to play in other countries with the Puma Shoes U. S. National Soccer Team. In an interview, when asked if he was a professional soccer player, Howarth answered, "No! Heavens no." He reiterated how he had played soccer as a child up to his late teenage years and said he was on a team that played in Europe and other countries, but that it was an amateur team.

Howarth resisted acting as a profession and studied political science at George Washington University. However, after one semester, he dropped out of college to join an intense acting program at the Eugene O'Neill Theatre Center in Connecticut. Howarth was discovered during a nationwide talent search and was cast in the role of Kent Winslow on the ABC daytime drama Loving; the role was short-lived. It was shortly after this that he was cast on the ABC daytime drama One Life to Live as Todd Manning, in what was supposed to be a day-player role, but became one of the genre's most successful and enduring characters; the character has been termed an icon by the press. Howarth portrayed Todd on-and-off since 1992, he was praised for his work on the series, won a Daytime Emmy Award in 1994 for the role. Subsequent attempts to rehabilitate the rapist character of Todd, unnerved Howarth. After a female fan shouted "Rape me, Todd!" at a public appearance, his ambivalence about the role deepened. After attempts were made to pair Todd and the woman he raped, Marty Saybrooke, as a romantic couple, Howarth quit the show in 1995.

He subsequently returned, but Todd was portrayed more as a villain than a hero. His character's pairing with Kassie DePaiva's Blair Cramer won over fans and the two became a supercouple. While with the series, Howarth found time to extend his career to prime time, was cast as the murderous Randall Lynch for 4 episodes of the sci-fi series Prey. In 1998, Howarth departed One Life to Live for a second time, looking to pursue other acting projects both on Broadway and in Hollywood, he made his first Broadway debut in The White Rose, but did some theater work in Henry IV, You Touched Me, Mother Courage, Orestes. A prominent stage appearance for Howarth was in James Goldman's Broadway production of The Lion In Winter; the play opened on Broadway on March 11, 1999 and ended with "its final curtain" on May 30, 1999. During the play's run, Howarth appeared opposite Laurence Fishburne. In 2000, Howarth returned to One Life to Live, he portrayed Professor Greg Hetson on the series Dawson's Creek in 2003 during a brief break from the role of Todd.

That year, he decided it was time for him to move on from the role of Todd, he signed on with CBS daytime drama As the World Turns, taking over the role of Paul Ryan in July 2003. In August 2010, it was reported that Howarth would be returning to One Life to Live some time in January 2011, though other sources disputed this. On April 4, 2011, it was confirmed. Before reclaiming his previous role, it was unknown if he would be returning as Todd or someone connecting him to the character. "I am looking forward to returning to One Life to Live," stated Howarth. "We are going to have a lot of fun telling this story, I am excited to see how it will unfold." Howarth made his onscreen return on May 13, 2011. Howarth, Michael Easton and Kristen Alderson appeared on General Hospital from 2012 to 2013, their characters of Todd Manning, John McBain and Starr Manning would return to One Life to Live and be recast with new actors with the current actors receiving new characters once they return to General Hospital.

Prospect Park owned the rights to all One Life to Live characters. ABC announced that the actors would be returning to General Hospital on May 13, 2013, but without naming the characters they would portray. Howarth continued to portray Todd Manning on Prospect Park's online version of One Life to Live. On May 29, 2013, Howarth's new character on General Hospital was revealed. Howarth is listed as a full-time contract cast member. Howarth met actress Cari Stahler in New York City, she asked him out on a date. They married, now have two children. Todd Manning and Blair Cr


Replot is an island in the Kvarken, the narrowest part of the Gulf of Bothnia in the northern part of the Baltic sea. It has about 2,100 inhabitants only Swedish-speaking; the size is one of the largest islands of Finland. Replot was an independent municipality until 1973, when it was consolidated to the municipality of Korsholm, near Vaasa; the area has been inhabited since before the time of Swedish dominion over Finland. Today there are four major communities on the island, Replot kyrkoby, Norra Vallgrund, Södra Vallgrund and Söderudden, most of which are served by their own elementary schools, although some closures have occurred in recent years. Since 1997, Replot has been connected to the mainland via the Replot Bridge, replacing the earlier ferry connection, in place since 1952; the bridge is as of 2009 the longest bridge built in Finland, with a length of 1,045 metres. Replot is part of a larger archipelago and most of the smaller islands around Replot have traditionally been used as fishing camps.

Today the buildings are used as summer cottages since maritime activities play a large part in the culture of the region. Fishing is nowadays a recreational activity, but there are still a number of professional fishermen active in Replot. North of Replot is the island of Björkö, which belonged to the municipality of Björköby, the name of its main village. A large part of the Replot archipelago has been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. – Site with tourist information for the Replot area – Information about the archipelago area around Replot – Live webcam of Replot bridge

Jane Aronson

Jane Aronson, D. O. is a physician, with expertise in adoption medicine. Jane Aronson grew up on New York. After graduating from Hunter College in New York City, she was a school teacher for ten years, she became a physician after earning her Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine degree from the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey in 1986. She completed several residencies, including a pediatric residency and chief residency in New Jersey, a fellowship in pediatric infectious diseases at Columbia Presbyterian/Babies Hospital in New York City. From 1992 to 2000, she was the Chief of Pediatric Infectious Diseases and Director of the International Adoption Medical Consultation Services in Mineola, New York. In July 2000, Dr. Aronson went into private practice as Director of International Pediatric Health Services in New York City, she is Clinical Assistant Professor of Pediatrics at the Weill Medical College of Cornell University and has evaluated over 4,000 children adopted from abroad as an adoption medicine specialist.

She has traveled to orphanages in Azerbaijan, China, Romania, Russia and throughout Latin America. In 1997, Aronson founded Worldwide Orphans Foundation. WWO's mission is to transform the lives of orphaned children and it accomplishes this through programs that address the medical and developmental conditions of children living in orphanages abroad. WWO was the first NGO to provide HIV+ orphans in Ethiopia and Vietnam with ARVs and has a medical mentoring program that ensures follow up treatment. WWO's major programs are in Bulgaria, in Vietnam. WWO Ranger programs include the Orphan Rangers, likened to a Peace Corps for orphanages, Global Arts Rangers, which brings in-country and US artists to provide workshops, teacher training, integrated arts curricula, Service Rangers, through which families and teens can work at an orphanage to complete a project identified by the orphanage itself. Since 1997, WWO Rangers have worked in Russia, Kazakhstan, India, Vietnam, Serbia and Ethiopia. Tottenham, N. Hare, T. Quinn, B.

McCarry, T. Nurse, M. Gilhooly, T. Millner, A. Galvan, A. Davidson, M. Eigsti, I. M. Thomas, K. M. Freed, P. Booma, E. S. Gunnar, M. Altemus, M. & Aronson, J. Casey, B. J. Prolonged institutional rearing is associated with atypically larger amygdala volume and difficulties in emotion regulation. Developmental Science. 2008. Schulte J, Maloney S, Aronson J, San Gabriel P, Zhou J, Saiman L. Evaluating acceptability ad completeness of overseas immunization records of internationally adopted children. Pediatrics. 2002. Saiman L, Aronson J, Zhou J, Gomez-Duarte C, San Gabriel P, Alonso M, Maloney S, Schulte J. Prevalence of infectious diseases among internationally adopted children. Pediatrics. 2001. Aronson J. Medical evaluation and infectious considerations on arrival. Pediatr Ann. 2000. Committee on Infectious Diseases. Planning for children whose parents are dying of HIV/AIDS. American Academy of Pediatrics. Committee on Pediatric AIDS, 1998-1999. Pediatrics. 1999. Committee on Infectious Diseases and Committee on Pediatric AIDS.

Measles immunization in HIV-infected children. AAP Policy. 1999. Committee on Pediatric AIDS and Infectious Diseases, American Academy of Pediatrics. Issues related to Human Immunodeficiency Virus transmission in schools, child care, medical setting, the home, community. Pediatrics. 1999, 104: 318-324. Aronson J, McSherry G, Hoyt L, Boland M, Oleske J, Connor E, Persaud D, Borkowsky W, Krasinski K, Bakshi S, Pitt J, Gershon A. Varicella does not appear to be a cofactor for human immundefiency virus infection in children. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 1992. Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia in a 15 year old patient with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. Scand J Infect Dis. 1999. Clinical Pediatrics. 1997. Collaborator. 2000, 2006. Alcohol-Related Disorders and Children Adopted from Abroad. Richard P. Barth, Madelyn Freundlich, David Brodzinsky. Adoption & Prenatal Alcohol Drug Exposure: Research and Practice. Evan B. Donaldson Adoption Institute and Child Welfare League Association, 2000. Alcohol-Related Birth Defects and International Adoption.

International Adoption: Challenges and Opportunities. Parent Network for the Post-Institutionalized Child, 1999. Severe Sepsis in Infants and Children. Sepsis and Multiorgan Failure. Alan Fein, ed. Williams and Wilkins, 1997. Luo RF, Barlow M, Nguyen HT, Aronson JE. Growth and developmental delay of HIV-infected children in an orphanage in Vietnam. Pediatric Societies’ Annual Meeting, 2005. Roque Gordon R, Aronson JE. Evaluating immunizations in internationally adopted children. American Academy of Pediatrics 2003 National Conference and Exhibition. Johnson DE, Aronson JE, Federici R, Faber S, Tartaglia M, Daunauer L, Windsor M, Georgieff M. Profound, global growth failure afflicts residents of pediatric neuropsychiatric institutes in Romania; the American Pediatric Society and The Society for Pediatric Research, 1999. Abstract # 734. Aronson JE, Johnson DE, Melnikova M, Alonso M. Catch-up brain growth in children adopted from Eastern Europe

The Best of the Chieftains

The Best of the Chieftains is a 1992 compilation album consisting of songs from three of The Chieftains earlier solo albums, The Chieftains 7, The Chieftains 8 and The Chieftains 9: Boil the Breakfast Early. Bruce Eder of AllMusic concludes his review by saying, "The material, a good distillation of the best of those three albums, all sounds fine and represents the group's virtuoso sound from this period."William Ramoutar writes in his review of the album for Irish Culture and Customs, "This is when The Chieftains were at their strongest and stayed that way for many years. This is the way I want to remember The Chieftains."Scott Hudson of Pop Matters says, "For the uninitiated, The Best of the Chieftains is great place to start, but by all means don't stop there." Paddy MoloneyUilleann Pipes, tin whistle Seán KeaneFiddle Mike Tubridy – Flute, tin whistle, concertina Kevin Cunniffe – Bodhran, lilting Matt Malloy – Flute Martin Fay – Fiddle Derek BellHarp, oboe Seán Potts – Tin whistle Lawrence Cohn – Digital Producer David Mitson – Digital Remastering Penny Armstrong – Product Mamager Gina Companaro – Packaging Coordinator Joel ZimmermanArt Director Cover photo courtesy of Shanachie RecordsTrack information and credits verified from the album's liner notes as well as Discogs, 45 Worlds and AllMusic.

The Chieftains Official Site Columbia Records Official Site