National Humanities Medal
The National Humanities Medal is an American award that annually recognizes several individuals, groups, or institutions for work that has "deepened the nation's understanding of the humanities, broadened our citizens' engagement with the humanities, or helped preserve and expand Americans' access to important resources in the humanities."The annual Charles Frankel Prize in the Humanities was established in 1988 and succeeded by the National Humanities Medal in 1997. The initial design for the National Humanities Medal was created by a 1995 Frankel Prize winner, David Macaulay, was used for all recipients through 2012. During 2013, The National Endowment for the Humanities ran a public competition for a new medal design, judged by metalsmith Chunghi Choo, coin engraver Don Everhart of the U. S. sculptor George Anthonisen. In June 2013, the agency announced that a design by Paul C. Balan of Illinois had been selected as the winner; the final medal will be unveiled in Washington D. C. in November 2013.
The new design was used for the first time for the 2013 National Humanities Medals, which were presented in mid-2014. Medals are conferred once annually by the U. S. President, to as many as twelve living candidates and existing organizations nominated early in the calendar year; the President selects the winners in consultation with the National Endowment for the Humanities. NEH asks that nominators consult the list of previous winners and consider the National Medal of Arts to recognize contributions in "the creative or performing arts". Medalists are listed by year alphabetically. 2015 Rudolfo Anaya, Author José Andrés, Chef & Entrepreneur Ron Chernow, Author Louise Glück, Poet Terry Gross, Radio Host & Producer Wynton Marsalis, Composer & Musician James McBride, Author Louis Menand, Author Elaine Pagels, Historian & Author Prison University Project, Higher Education Program Abraham Verghese, Professor, & Author Isabel Wilkerson, Journalist & Author2014 The Clemente Course in the Humanities Annie Dillard, author Everett L. Fly and preservationist Rebecca Goldstein and novelist Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham, historian Jhumpa Lahiri, short story writer and novelist Fedwa Malti-Douglas, scholar Larry McMurtry, novelist Vicki Lynn Ruiz, historian Alice Waters and food activist2013 M. H. Abrams, literary critic American Antiquarian Society, historical organization David Brion Davis, historian William Theodore de Bary, East Asian Studies scholar Darlene Clark Hine, historian Johnpaul Jones, architect Stanley Nelson Jr. producer and director Diane Rehm, radio host Anne Firor Scott, historian Krista Tippett, radio host and author2012 Edward L. Ayers, historian William G. Bowen, academic leader Jill Ker Conway and leader in higher education Natalie Zemon Davis, historian Frank Deford, sports writer Joan Didion and essayist Robert D. Putnam, political scientist Marilynne Robinson, novelist Kay Ryan, poet Robert B.
Silvers, editor Anna Deavere Smith and playwright Camilo José Vergara and documentarian2011 Kwame Anthony Appiah, philosopher John Ashbery, poet Robert Darnton and librarian National History Day, program Andrew Delbanco, literary scholar Charles Rosen and scholar Teofilo Ruiz, medieval historian Ramón Saldívar, literary scholar Amartya Sen and Nobel laureate2010 Daniel Aaron, literature professor and publisher Bernard Bailyn, historian Jacques Barzun, historian Wendell Berry and environmentalist Roberto González Echevarría, literature critic Stanley Nider Katz, historian Joyce Carol Oates, novelist Arnold Rampersad and biographer Philip Roth, novelist Gordon S. Wood, historian2009 Robert Caro Annette Gordon-Reed David Levering Lewis William H. McNeill Philippe de Montebello Albert H. Small Ted Sorensen Elie Wiesel2008 Gabor Boritt Richard Brookhiser Harold Holzer Myron Magnet Albert Marrin Milton J. Rosenberg Thomas A. Saunders III and Jordan Horner Saunders Robert H. Smith John Templeton Foundation Norman Rockwell Museum2007 Stephen Balch Russell Freedman Victor Davis Hanson Roger Hertog Cynthia Ozick Richard Pipes Pauline Schultz Henry Snyder Ruth Wisse Monuments Men Foundation for the Preservation of Art2006Fouad Ajami James M. Buchanan Nickolas Davatzes Robert Fagles Mary Lefkowitz Bernard Lewis Mark Noll Meryle Secrest Kevin Starr Hoover Institution on War and Peace, Stanford University2005Walter Berns Matthew Bogdanos Eva Brann John Lewis Gaddis Richard Gilder Mary Ann Glendon Leigh Keno Leslie Keno Alan Charles Kors Lewis Lehrman Judith Martin The Washington Papers, University of Virginia2004Marva Collins Gertrude Himmelfarb Hilton Kramer Madeleine L'Engle Harvey Mansfield John Searle Shelby Steele United States Capitol Historical Society2003Robert Ballard Joan Ganz Cooney Midge Decter Joseph Epstein Elizabeth Fox-Genovese Jean Fritz Hal Holbrook Edith Kurzweil Frank M. Snowden, Jr. John Updike2002Frankie Hewitt Iowa Writers' Workshop Donald Kagan Brian Lamb Art Linkletter Patricia MacLachlan Mount Vernon Ladies' Association Thomas Sowell2001José Cisneros Robert Coles Sharon Darling William Manchester Richard Peck Eileen Jackson Southern Tom Wolfe National Trust for Historic Preservation2000Robert N. Bellah Will D. Campbell Judy Crichton David C.
Driskell Ernest Gaines Herman T. Guerrero Quincy Jones Barbara Kingsolver Edmund S. Morgan Toni Morrison Earl Shorris Virginia Driving Hawk Sneve1999Patricia Battin Taylor Branch Jacquelyn Dowd Hall Garrison Keillor Jim Lehrer John Rawls Steven Spielberg August Wilson1998Stephen E. Ambrose E. L. Doctorow Diana L. Eck Nancye Brown Gaj Henry Louis
Charlie Kelly (It's Always Sunny in Philadelphia)
Charles Rutherford Kelly is a fictional character on the FX series It's Always Sunny in Philadelphia, portrayed by Charlie Day. Charlie is co-owner at a childhood friend of Mac and Dennis, he is Frank's roommate and possible biological son. He is addicted to various harmful substances, is called illiterate by his peers. Charlie is an excitable man-child, prone to emotional outbursts and is confused and flabbergasted by modern-day life, his anger management issues, substance abuse, poor hygiene, lack of common sense and poor grasp of reality prevent him from achieving much success in life. He abuses inhalants such as glue, spray paint and poppers and, like the rest of the Gang, is a heavy drinker, he frequently eats cat food before bed, to induce a feeling of sickness and drowsiness that allows him to fall asleep which his roommate Frank does. Charlie's difficulty reading and writing poor communication skills, poor grasp of grammar and syntax result in constant berating by the rest of the Gang.
He is unable to read or write and keeps a personal journal consisting predominantly of childlike pictures in place of actual sentences. In one instance it was revealed that Charlie wrote his name as "Chrundle," unable to spell his own name, it is quite possible that Charlie has a lifelong case of untreated dyslexia. Mac claims that "no one understands the subtleties of Charlie's retardation better than." Like the rest of the Gang, Charlie has a poor grasp of history, current events, geography, sometimes avoiding conversations on these subjects altogether to salvage some sense of dignity. He once described George Washington as "some old dude who looks like Meryl Streep who chopped down a cherry tree like ten million years ago." During the Gang's fight with an Israeli businessman, Charlie incongruously declared they would send their rival "on the first train back to Israel", unaware that Israel is an entire ocean away from Philadelphia. Despite his other difficulties, Charlie is something of a savant, displaying natural talent as a pianist, music composer, choreographer and hockey player.
He is very capable of devising intricate, Machiavellian schemes, manipulating other characters to his own ends. He displays this when he seduces and manipulates a beautiful and wealthy girl named Ruby before insulting and humiliating her in front of a packed mansion of guests because the Waitress acknowledged his presence in her life, he has orchestrated elaborate schemes when given authority in the bar by Frank in the episode "Mac Bangs Dennis's Mom", where he convinces Dennis to humiliate himself sexually and get in a fight with Mac and convinces Dee to give him favors and assistance in seducing the waitress. Charlie's obsession with the Waitress fuels a surprising capacity for manipulation. Charlie is the only one of the Gang who displays any real work ethic, being the only one taking on less-desirable work around the bar, work referred to as "Charlie work" by the rest of the Gang. In the various episodes where he and the Gang get jobs outside the bar, he tends to have the most hustle. Overall, he seems to be the least morally bankrupt member of the Gang.
Charlie seems to be the most artistically talented member of The Gang, though his talents are utilized by any of them. In "Pop-Pop: The Final Solution", he is depicted as having a moderate prowess as an artist by painting a German Shepherd Dog over an "original Hitler" painting. In "The Nightman Cometh", he demonstrates his abilities as a playwright, musical composer, director by staging a dramatic musical production, he enjoys most forms of rock and heavy metal, showing a particular interest in artists like Bob Dylan. When he, Frank and Mac try to start a band in the episode "Sweet Dee's Dating a Retarded Person", Charlie dresses as Bob Dylan, he plays the piano quite well, he demonstrates he has perfect pitch in "Charlie Work", exhibiting a natural musical talent. Charlie's musical talents are a reflection of actor Charlie Day's real-life skill as a musician and songwriter. Like Dee, he suffers from stage fright and becomes nauseated when performing in front of live audiences, as in "Dennis Reynolds: An Erotic Life".
Early in the series, Charlie had a fear of leaving the city, claiming that he has never left Philadelphia in the episode "The Gang Hits the Road". He leaves town in the episode "The Gang Gets Stranded in the Woods", after he convinces the gang to tie him up and puts him in the trunk of a car. In "The Gang Gets Invincible", he travels to neighboring Bucks County, outside of the city of Philadelphia but still within the Philadelphia Metro area, where he dresses as Green Man and trips on acid while Dennis and Dee try out for the Philadelphia Eagles, he later returns to New Jersey to visit the Jersey Shore and, unlike Dee and Dennis, has a wonderful time there. In the episode "The Gang Beats Boggs", the gang takes a plane to Los Angeles purely so they could try to beat a drinking record set by Wade Boggs. Charlie's fear of leaving Philadelphia is never brought up again until "The Gang Goes to Hell", where he mentions how he used to only feel safe staying in Philadelphia but that he had been coerced by the rest of the Gang to visit different places, one of the reasons he and everyone else were on a sinking ship.
Charlie and the Gang go skiing in season 11 and hit a waterpark in season 12
Worcester is a city in, the county seat of, Worcester County, United States. Named after Worcester, England, as of the 2010 Census the city's population was 181,045, making it the second most populous city in New England after Boston. Worcester is located 40 miles west of Boston, 50 miles east of Springfield and 40 miles north of Providence. Due to its location in Central Massachusetts, Worcester is known as the "Heart of the Commonwealth", thus, a heart is the official symbol of the city. However, the heart symbol may have its provenance in lore that the Valentine's Day card, although not invented in the city, was mass-produced and popularized by Esther Howland who resided in Worcester. Worcester was considered its own distinct region apart from Boston until the 1970s. Since Boston's suburbs have been moving out further westward after the construction of Interstate 495 and Interstate 290; the Worcester region now marks the western periphery of the Boston-Worcester-Providence U. S. Census Combined Greater Boston.
The city features many examples of Victorian-era mill architecture. The area was first inhabited by members of the Nipmuc tribe; the native people called the region built a settlement on Pakachoag Hill in Auburn. In 1673 English settlers John Eliot and Daniel Gookin led an expedition to Quinsigamond to establish a new Christian Indian "praying town" and identify a new location for an English settlement. On July 13, 1674, Gookin obtained a deed to eight square miles of land in Quinsigamond from the Nipmuc people and English traders and settlers began to inhabit the region. In 1675, King Philip's War broke out throughout New England with the Nipmuc Indians coming to the aid of Indian leader King Philip; the English settlers abandoned the Quinsigamond area and the empty buildings were burned by the Indian forces. The town was again abandoned during Queen Anne's War in 1702. In 1713, Worcester was permanently resettled for a third time by Jonas Rice. Named after the city of Worcester, the town was incorporated on June 14, 1722.
On April 2, 1731, Worcester was chosen as the county seat of the newly founded Worcester County government. Between 1755 and 1758, future U. S. president John Adams studied law in Worcester. In the 1770s, Worcester became a center of American revolutionary activity. British General Thomas Gage was given information of patriot ammunition stockpiled in Worcester in 1775. In 1775, Massachusetts Spy publisher Isaiah Thomas moved his radical newspaper out of British occupied Boston to Worcester. Thomas would continuously publish his paper throughout the American Revolutionary War. On July 14, 1776, Thomas performed the first public reading in Massachusetts of the Declaration of Independence from the porch of the Old South Church, where the 19th century Worcester City Hall stands today, he would go on to form the American Antiquarian Society in Worcester in 1812. During the turn of the 19th century Worcester's economy moved into manufacturing. Factories producing textiles and clothing opened along the nearby Blackstone River.
However, the manufacturing industry in Worcester would not begin to thrive until the opening of the Blackstone Canal in 1828 and the opening of the Worcester and Boston Railroad in 1835. The city transformed into a transportation hub and the manufacturing industry flourished. Worcester was chartered as a city on February 29, 1848; the city's industries soon attracted immigrants of Irish, French and Swedish descent in the mid-19th century and many immigrants of Lithuanian, Italian, Greek and Armenian descent. Immigrants moved into new three-decker houses which lined hundreds of Worcester's expanding streets and neighborhoods. In 1831 Ichabod Washburn opened the Moen Company; the company would become the largest wire manufacturing in the country and Washburn became one of the leading industrial and philanthropic figures in the city. Worcester would become a center of machinery, wire products and power looms and boasted large manufacturers, Washburn & Moen, Wyman-Gordon Company, American Steel & Wire, Morgan Construction and the Norton Company.
In 1908 the Royal Worcester Corset Company was the largest employer of women in the United States. Worcester would claim many inventions and firsts. New England Candlepin bowling was invented in Worcester by Justin White in 1879. Esther Howland began the first line of Valentine's Day cards from her Worcester home in 1847. Loring Coes invented the first monkey wrench and Russell Hawes created the first envelope folding machine. On June 12, 1880, Lee Richmond pitched the first perfect game in Major league baseball history for the Worcester Ruby Legs at the Worcester Agricultural Fairgrounds. On June 9, 1953 an F4 tornado touched down in Massachusetts northwest of Worcester; the tornado tore through 48 miles of Worcester County including a large area of the city of Worcester. The tornado killed 94 people; the Worcester Tornado would be the most deadly tornado to hit Massachusetts. Debris from the tornado landed as far away as Massachusetts. After World War II, Worcester began to fall into decline as the city lost its manufacturing base to cheaper alternatives across the country and overseas.
Worcester felt the national trends of movement away from historic urban centers. The city's population would drop over 20% from 1950 to 1980. In the mid-20th century large urban renewal projects were undertaken to try and reverse the city's decline. A huge area of downtown Worcester was demolished for new office towers and the 1,000,000 sq. ft. Wor
Charlottesville, colloquially known as C'ville and named the City of Charlottesville, is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia. It is the county seat of Albemarle County, which surrounds the city, though the two are separate legal entities; this means a resident will list city on official paperwork. It is named after the British Queen consort Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, who as the wife of George III was Virginia's last Queen. In 2016, an estimated 46,912 people lived within the city limits; the Bureau of Economic Analysis combines the City of Charlottesville with Albemarle County for statistical purposes, bringing its population to 150,000. Charlottesville is the heart of the Charlottesville metropolitan area, which includes Albemarle, Fluvanna and Nelson counties. Charlottesville was the home of Thomas Jefferson and James Monroe. During their terms as Governor of Virginia, they lived in Charlottesville, traveled to and from Richmond, along the 71-mile historic Three Notch'd Road.
Orange, located 26 miles northeast of the city, was the hometown of President James Madison. The University of Virginia, founded by Jefferson and one of the original Public Ivies, straddles the city's southwestern border. Monticello, 3 miles southeast of the city, is, along with the University of Virginia, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, attracting thousands of tourists every year. At the time of European encounter, part of the area that became Charlottesville was occupied by a Monacan village called Monasukapanough. An Act of the Assembly of Albemarle County established Charlottesville in 1762. Thomas Walker was named its first trustee, it was situated along a trade route called Three Notched Road, which led from Richmond to the Great Valley. The town took its name from Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, who became queen consort of Great Britain when she married King George III in 1761. During the American Revolutionary War, Congress imprisoned the Convention Army in Charlottesville at the Albemarle Barracks between 1779 and 1781.
The Governor and legislators had to temporarily abandon the capitol and on June 4, 1781, Jack Jouett warned the Virginia Legislature meeting at Monticello of an intended raid by Colonel Banastre Tarleton, allowing a narrow escape. Unlike much of Virginia, Charlottesville was spared the brunt of the American Civil War; the only battle to take place in Charlottesville was the skirmish at Rio Hill, an encounter in which George Armstrong Custer engaged local Confederate Home Guards before retreating. The mayor surrendered the city to Custer's men to keep the town from being burned; the Charlottesville Factory, founded c. 1820–30, was accidentally burnt during General Sheridan's 1865 raid through the Shenandoah Valley. The factory had been taken over by the Confederacy and used to manufacture woolen clothing for the soldiers, it caught fire when some coals taken by Union troops to burn the nearby railroad bridge dropped on the floor. The factory was rebuilt and was known as the Woolen Mills until its liquidation in 1962.
After the Civil War, emancipated enslaved persons who stayed in Charlottesville established communities in neighborhoods such as Vinegar Hill. In 1943, there were at least three theaters in Charlottesville: Paramount, La Fayette. In July 1957, the first real estate firm owned and operated by African Americans, opened for business; the company, named Ideal Realty Company, was owned and operated by James N. Fleming, Roy C. Preston, Vassar Tarry, it was located in the Preston Building, 115 Fourth Street, N. W. James Fleming was a graduate of Jefferson High School. After Reconstruction ended, Charlottesville's black population suffered under Jim Crow laws that segregated public places and limited opportunity. Schools were segregated by race and blacks were not served in many local businesses. Public parks were planned separately for the white and black populations: four for the whites, one, built on the site of a former dump, for blacks; the Ku Klux Klan had chapters in the Charlottesville area beginning at least in the early twentieth century, events such as lynchings and cross burnings occurred in the Charlottesville area.
In 1898, Charlottesville resident John Henry James was lynched in the nearby town of Ivy. In August 1950, three white men were observed burning a cross on Cherry Avenue, a street in a African-American neighborhood in Charlottesville, it was speculated that the cross burning might be a reaction to "a white man had been known to socialize with one of the young Negro women in that vicinity." In 1956, crosses were burned outside a progressive church and the home of white integration activist Sarah Patton Boyle. In the fall of 1958, Charlottesville closed its segregated white schools as part of Virginia's strategy of massive resistance to federal court orders requiring integration as part of the implementation of the Supreme Court of the United States decision Brown v. Board of Education; the closures were required by a series of state laws collectively known as the Stanley plan. Negro schools remained open, however; the first African American member of the Charlotteville School Board was Raymond Bell in 1963.
In 1963 than many southern cities, civil rights activists in Charlottesville began protesting segregated restaurants with sit-ins, such as one that occurred at Buddy's Restaurant near the University of Virginia. In the summer of 1940 the first Field Day event was held in Washington Park. In 1947 Charlottesville organized a local NAACP branch. In 2001, the Charlottesville and Albemarle Branches of the NAACP merged to form the Albemarle-Charlottesvi
Tufts University is a private research university in Medford and Somerville, Massachusetts. A charter member of the New England Small College Athletic Conference, Tufts College was founded in 1852 by Christian universalists who worked for years to open a nonsectarian institution of higher learning, it was a small New England liberal arts college until its transformation into a larger research university in the 1970s. The university emphasizes active citizenship and public service in all its disciplines, is known for its internationalism and study abroad programs. Tufts is organized into ten schools, including two undergraduate degree programs and eight graduate divisions, on four campuses in the Boston metropolitan area and the French Alps. Among its schools is the United States' oldest graduate school of international relations, the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Tufts' largest school is the School of Arts and Sciences, which offers undergraduate and graduate degrees and includes both the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences and the School of the Museum of Fine Arts at Tufts University, affiliated with the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.
The School of Engineering has an entrepreneurial focus with the Gordon Institute and maintains close connections with the original college. The university has a campus in Downtown Boston that houses the medical and nutrition schools, affiliated with several medical centers in the area; the university offers joint undergraduate degree programs with the New England Conservatory, the Sciences Po Paris with additional programs with the University of Paris, University of Oxford and constituents of the University of London. Several of its programs have affiliations with the nearby institutions of Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Alumni and affiliates include Nobel laureates, heads of state, senators, representatives and Academy Award winners, National Academy members. Tufts has graduated several Rhodes, Fulbright, Goldwater scholars. Other notable alumni include numerous CEOs and founders of Fortune 500 companies, high ranking U. S. diplomats, Pulitzer Prize winners.
In the 1840s, the Universalist Church wanted to open a college in New England, Charles Tufts donated 20 acres to the church in 1852 to help them achieve this goal. Charles Tufts had inherited the land, a barren hill, one of the highest points in the Boston area, called Walnut Hill, when asked by a family member what he intended to do with the land, he said "I will put a light on it", his 20-acre donation is still at the heart of Tufts' now-150 acre campus, straddling Somerville and Medford. It was in 1852 that the Commonwealth of Massachusetts chartered Tufts College, noting the college should promote "virtue and piety and learning in such of the languages and liberal and useful arts as shall be recommended". During his tenure, Ballou spent a year studying in the United Kingdom; the methods of instruction which he initiated were based on the tutorials that were conducted in the University of Oxford and the University of Edinburgh. Now more than 160 years old, Tufts is the third-oldest college in the Boston area.
Having been one of the biggest influences in the establishment of the College, Hosea Ballou II became the first president in 1853, College Hall, the first building on campus, was completed the following year. That building now bears Ballou's name; the campus opened in August 1854. President Ballou was succeeded by Alonzo Ames Miner. Though not a college graduate, his presidency was marked by several advances; these include the establishment of preparatory schools for Tufts which include Goddard Seminary, Westbrook Seminary, Dean Academy. During the Civil War the college supported the Union cause; the mansion of Major George L. Stearns which stood on part of the campus was a station on the Underground Railroad. In addition to having the largest classes spring up, 63 graduates served in the Union army; the first course of a three-year program leading to a degree in civil engineering was established in 1865, the same year MIT was founded. By 1869, the Crane Theological School was organized. Miner's successor, Elmer Capen was the first president to be a Tufts alumnus.
During his time, one of the earliest innovators was Amos Dolbear. In 1875, as chair of the physics department, he installed a working telephone which connected his lab in Ballou Hall to his home on Professors Row. Two years Alexander Graham Bell would receive the patent. Dolbear's work in Tufts was continued by Marconi and Tesla. Other famous scholars include William Leslie Hooper who in addition to serving as acting president, designed the first slotted armature for dynamos, his student at the college, Frederick Stark Pearson, would become one of America's pioneers of the electrical power industry. He became responsible for the development of the electric power and electric street car systems which many cities in South America and Europe used. Another notable figure is Stephen M. Babcock who developed the first practical test to determine the amount of butterfat in milk. Since its development in the college, the Babcock Test has hardly been modified. Expansion of the chemistry and biology departments were led by scholars Arthur Michael, one of the first organic chemists in the U.
S. and John Sterling Kingsley, one of the first scholars of comparative anatomy. P. T. Barnum was one of the earliest benefactors of Tufts College, the Barnum Museum of Natural History was constructed in 1884 with funds donated by him to house his collection of animal specimens and the stuffed hide of Jumbo the elephant, who would become the university'
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, with about 6,700 undergraduate students and about 15,250 postgraduate students. Established in 1636 and named for its first benefactor, clergyman John Harvard, Harvard is the United States' oldest institution of higher learning, its history and wealth have made it one of the world's most prestigious universities; the Harvard Corporation is its first chartered corporation. Although never formally affiliated with any denomination, the early College trained Congregational and Unitarian clergy, its curriculum and student body were secularized during the 18th century, by the 19th century, Harvard had emerged as the central cultural establishment among Boston elites. Following the American Civil War, President Charles W. Eliot's long tenure transformed the college and affiliated professional schools into a modern research university. A. Lawrence Lowell, who followed Eliot, further reformed the undergraduate curriculum and undertook aggressive expansion of Harvard's land holdings and physical plant.
James Bryant Conant led the university through the Great Depression and World War II and began to reform the curriculum and liberalize admissions after the war. The undergraduate college became coeducational after its 1977 merger with Radcliffe College; the university is organized into eleven separate academic units—ten faculties and the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study—with campuses throughout the Boston metropolitan area: its 209-acre main campus is centered on Harvard Yard in Cambridge 3 miles northwest of Boston. Harvard's endowment is worth $39.2 billion, making it the largest of any academic institution. Harvard is a large residential research university; the nominal cost of attendance is high, but the university's large endowment allows it to offer generous financial aid packages. The Harvard Library is the world's largest academic and private library system, comprising 79 individual libraries holding over 18 million items; the University is cited as one of the world's top tertiary institutions by various organizations.
Harvard's alumni include eight U. S. presidents, more than thirty foreign heads of state, 62 living billionaires, 359 Rhodes Scholars, 242 Marshall Scholars. As of October 2018, 158 Nobel laureates, 18 Fields Medalists, 14 Turing Award winners have been affiliated as students, faculty, or researchers. In addition, Harvard students and alumni have won 10 Academy Awards, 48 Pulitzer Prizes and 108 Olympic medals, have founded a large number of companies worldwide. Harvard was established in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1638, it acquired British North America's first known printing press. In 1639, it was named Harvard College after deceased clergyman John Harvard, an alumnus of the University of Cambridge, who had left the school £779 and his scholar's library of some 400 volumes; the charter creating the Harvard Corporation was granted in 1650. A 1643 publication gave the school's purpose as "to advance learning and perpetuate it to posterity, dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches when our present ministers shall lie in the dust".
It offered a classic curriculum on the English university model—many leaders in the colony had attended the University of Cambridge—but conformed to the tenets of Puritanism. It was never affiliated with any particular denomination, but many of its earliest graduates went on to become clergymen in Congregational and Unitarian churches; the leading Boston divine Increase Mather served as president from 1685 to 1701. In 1708, John Leverett became the first president, not a clergyman, marking a turning of the college from Puritanism and toward intellectual independence. Throughout the 18th century, Enlightenment ideas of the power of reason and free will became widespread among Congregational ministers, putting those ministers and their congregations in tension with more traditionalist, Calvinist parties; when the Hollis Professor of Divinity David Tappan died in 1803 and the president of Harvard Joseph Willard died a year in 1804, a struggle broke out over their replacements. Henry Ware was elected to the chair in 1805, the liberal Samuel Webber was appointed to the presidency of Harvard two years which signaled the changing of the tide from the dominance of traditional ideas at Harvard to the dominance of liberal, Arminian ideas.
In 1846, the natural history lectures of Louis Agassiz were acclaimed both in New York and on the campus at Harvard College. Agassiz's approach was distinctly idealist and posited Americans' "participation in the Divine Nature" and the possibility of understanding "intellectual existences". Agassiz's perspective on science combined observation with intuition and the assumption that a person can grasp the "divine plan" in all phenomena; when it came to explaining life-forms, Agassiz resorted to matters of shape based on a presumed archetype for his evidence. This dual view of knowledge was in concert with the teachings of Common Sense Realism derived from Scottish philosophers Thomas Reid and Dugald Stewart, whose works were part of the Harvard curriculum at the time; the popularity of Agassiz's efforts to "soar with Plato" also derived from other writings to which Harvard students
Northwestern University Pritzker School of Law
Northwestern University Pritzker School of Law shortened to Northwestern Pritzker School of Law, is one of the professional graduate schools of Northwestern University, located in Chicago, Illinois. Northwestern Law is a group of law schools that have national recognition. Founded in 1859, it was the first law school established in Chicago. Notable alumni include: Arthur Goldberg, United States Supreme Court Justice. S. House of Representatives. Founded in 1859, the school that would become known as the Northwestern University Pritzker School of Law was the first law school established in the city of Chicago; the school was the law department of the Old University of Chicago under the founding direction of Henry Booth and enrolled twenty-three students. The law school became Union College of Law when it jointly affiliated with Northwestern University in 1873. In 1891, the law school formally became Northwestern University School of Law when Northwestern assumed total control. Throughout the 20th century, programs such as the JD-MBA and JD-PhD were added to maintain the law school's position as one of America's top-ranked schools of law.
In October 2015, it was named, Northwestern Pritzker School of Law, after J. B. Pritzker and his wife, M. K. Pritzker, gave $100 million to the law school. Northwestern Law is located on Northwestern University's downtown campus in Chicago's Streeterville/Gold Coast neighborhood; the law school is on Lake Shore Drive and Chicago Avenue, adjacent to Lake Shore Park and Lake Michigan, a few blocks from the John Hancock Center, Magnificent Mile, Water Tower, Oak Street Beach, Navy Pier. The law school's location in the heart of downtown Chicago provides a wealth of part-time employment options for students while in school and a setting in which to study law; the proximity to courts and public interest activities enables students to experience the practice of law, as well as its theory. Admission to Northwestern Law is competitive. For the class entering in the fall of 2016, 821 out of 4,070 applicants were offered admission, with 213 matriculating; the 25th and 75th LSAT percentiles for the 2016 entering class were 163 and 170 with a median of 168.
The 25th and 75th undergraduate GPA percentiles were 3.43 and 3.89 with a median of 3.81. The law school's practical philosophy is manifested in a strong preference for applicants with at least two years of work experience. 90% of the school's students enter with at least one year of full-time work experience. In this respect, Northwestern Law is similar to many business schools. According to U. S. News & World Report's 2017 Edition, 79% of the law school's 2016 graduates obtained prospective, full-time employment prior to graduation, with a median starting salary of $180,000. According to Northwestern's official 2016 ABA-required disclosures, 91% of the Class of 2015 obtained full-time, long-term employment nine months after graduation. Northwestern's Law School Transparency under-employment score is 8.8%, indicating the percentage of the Class of 2013 unemployed, pursuing an additional degree, or working in a non-professional, short-term, or part-time job nine months after graduation. Northwestern Law is well-established among BigLaw firms.
In Vault's 2016 survey, of over 15,000 BigLaw associates, Northwestern Law ranked #2 as a "feeder" school for BigLaw firms, after accounting for school size. According to Vault, Northwestern Law outperforms its expected BigLaw representation by 315%; the law school enrolls 985 students in its J. D. LL. M. S. J. D. and M. S. L. Programs; the school employs an interdisciplinary research faculty, has a low student-faculty ratio. According to Northwestern's 2016 ABA-required disclosures, 93% of the Class of 2016 obtained full-time, long-term employment nine months after graduation; the total cost of attendance at Northwestern Law for the 2015-2016 academic year is $79,904. The Law School Transparency estimated debt-financed cost of attendance for three years is $292,586. Northwestern Law sponsors six student-run scholarly legal journals. Student staff members are selected based on a writing competition, editing competition, first-year grades, or a publishable note or comment on a legal topic; the Journal of International Law and Business has a substantive focus on private international law, as opposed to public international law or human rights.
It seeks scholarship analyzing transnational and international legal problems and their effect on private entities. The Journal's stated goal is to promote an understanding of the future course of international legal developments as they relate to private entities; the Northwestern University Law Review was first published in 1906 when it was called the "Illinois Law Review." Prior editors include: Roscoe Pound, long-time dean of Harvard Law School. The Northwestern Journal of Technology and Intellectual Property addr