The mountains were formed over tens of millions of years as the African and Eurasian tectonic plates collided. Extreme shortening caused by the event resulted in marine sedimentary rocks rising by thrusting and folding into high mountain peaks such as Mont Blanc, Mont Blanc spans the French–Italian border, and at 4,810 m is the highest mountain in the Alps. The Alpine region area contains about a hundred peaks higher than 4000 metres, the altitude and size of the range affects the climate in Europe, in the mountains precipitation levels vary greatly and climatic conditions consist of distinct zones. Wildlife such as live in the higher peaks to elevations of 3,400 m. Evidence of human habitation in the Alps goes back to the Palaeolithic era, a mummified man, determined to be 5,000 years old, was discovered on a glacier at the Austrian–Italian border in 1991. By the 6th century BC, the Celtic La Tène culture was well established, Hannibal famously crossed the Alps with a herd of elephants, and the Romans had settlements in the region.
In 1800 Napoleon crossed one of the passes with an army of 40,000. The 18th and 19th centuries saw an influx of naturalists, writers, in World War II, Adolf Hitler kept a base of operation in the Bavarian Alps throughout the war. The Alpine region has a cultural identity. The Winter Olympic Games have been hosted in the Swiss, French, at present, the region is home to 14 million people and has 120 million annual visitors. The English word Alps derives from the Latin Alpes, maurus Servius Honoratus, an ancient commentator of Virgil, says in his commentary that all high mountains are called Alpes by Celts. The term may be common to Italo-Celtic, because the Celtic languages have terms for high mountains derived from alp and this may be consistent with the theory that in Greek Alpes is a name of non-Indo-European origin. According to the Old English Dictionary, the Latin Alpes might possibly derive from a pre-Indo-European word *alb hill, Albania, a name not native to the region known as the country of Albania, has been used as a name for a number of mountainous areas across Europe.
In Roman times, Albania was a name for the eastern Caucasus, in modern languages the term alp, albe or alpe refers to a grazing pastures in the alpine regions below the glaciers, not the peaks. An alp refers to a mountain pasture where cows are taken to be grazed during the summer months and where hay barns can be found. The Alps are a crescent shaped geographic feature of central Europe that ranges in a 800 km arc from east to west and is 200 km in width, the mean height of the mountain peaks is 2.5 km. The range stretches from the Mediterranean Sea north above the Po basin, extending through France from Grenoble, the range continues onward toward Vienna and east to the Adriatic Sea and Slovenia. To the south it dips into northern Italy and to the north extends to the border of Bavaria in Germany
Three-phase electric power
Three-phase electric power is a common method of alternating-current electric power generation and distribution. It is a type of system and is the most common method used by electrical grids worldwide to transfer power. It is used to large motors and other heavy loads. The three-phase system was invented by Galileo Ferraris, Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky, Jonas Wenström. The common reference is usually connected to ground and often to a current-carrying conductor called the neutral. Due to the difference, the voltage on any conductor reaches its peak at one third of a cycle after one of the other conductors. This phase delay gives constant power transfer to a linear load. It makes it possible to produce a magnetic field in an electric motor. In a three-phase system feeding a balanced and linear load, the sum of the currents of the three conductors is zero. In other words, the current in each conductor is equal in magnitude to the sum of the currents in the two, but with the opposite sign. The return path for the current in any phase conductor is the two phase conductors.5 times as many wires.
Thus, the ratio of capacity to conductor material is doubled, the same ratio of capacity to conductor material can be attained with a center-grounded single-phase system. However, two-phase power results in a smooth torque in a generator or motor. Three-phase systems may have a wire, particularly in low-voltage distribution. The neutral allows three separate single-phase supplies to be provided at a constant voltage and is used for supplying groups of domestic properties which are each single-phase loads. The connections are arranged so that, as far as possible in each group, further up the distribution system, the currents are usually well balanced. Transformers may be wired in a way that they have a secondary but a three-wire primary while allowing unbalanced loads. This makes it possible to reduce the size of the neutral conductor because it carries little or no current, with a balanced load, all the phase conductors carry the same current and so can be the same size
Stadler Rail AG, known as Stadler Rail Group, is a Swiss manufacturer of railway rolling stock, with an emphasis on regional train multiple units and trams. Stadler is headquartered in Bussnang, Stadler Rail is focused on niche products and is one of the last European manufacturers of rack railway rolling stock. The holding company consists of eight subsidiaries with locations in Algeria, Italy, the cars will be similar in design to the Colorado Railcar Ultra Dome. New driver only operated electric multiple units for Merseyrail, Stadler Metelica tram for Ostrava Stadler Rail Stadler Winterthur
A rack railway is a steep grade railway with a toothed rack rail, usually between the running rails. The trains are fitted with one or more cog wheels or pinions that mesh with this rack rail and this allows the trains to operate on steep grades above around 7 to 10%, which is the maximum for friction-based rail. Most rack railways are mountain railways, although a few are transit railways or tramways built to overcome a steep gradient in an urban environment. The first cog railway was the Middleton Railway between Middleton and Leeds in West Yorkshire, England, UK, where the first commercially successful steam locomotive and this used a rack and pinion system designed and patented in 1811 by John Blenkinsop. The first mountain cog railway was the Mount Washington Cog Railway in the US state of New Hampshire, the track was completed to reach the summit of Mount Washington in 1869. The first mountain railway in continental Europe was the Vitznau-Rigi-Bahn on Mount Rigi in Switzerland. A number of different rack systems have been developed, the majority of rack railways use the Abt system.
Blenkinsops system remained in use for 25 years on the Middleton Railway, Rack systems place the rack rail halfway between the running rails, with the exception of some early Morgan rack installations. The first successful rack railway in the US was the Mount Washington Cog Railway, the first public trial of the Marsh rack on Mount Washington was made on August 29,1866, when only one quarter of a mile of track had been completed. The Mount Washington railway opened to the public on August 14,1868, the Riggenbach rack system was invented by Niklaus Riggenbach working at about the same time as, but independently from Marsh. Riggenbach was granted a French patent in 1863 based on a model which he used to interest potential Swiss backers. During this time, the Swiss Consul to the United States visited Marshs Mount Washington Cog Railway, eager to boost tourism in Switzerland, the government commissioned Riggenbach to build a rack railway up Rigi Mountain. Following the construction of a locomotive and test track in a quarry near Bern.
The Riggenbach system is similar in design to the Marsh system and it uses a ladder rack, formed of steel plates or channels connected by round or square rods at regular intervals. The Riggenbach system suffers from the problem that its fixed ladder rack is more complex, following the success of the Vitznau-Rigi-Bahn, Riggenbach established the Maschinenfabrik der Internationalen Gesellschaft für Bergbahnen - a company that produced rack locomotives to his design. The Strub rack system was invented by Emil Strub in 1896 and it uses a rolled flat-bottom rail with rack teeth machined into the head approximately 100 mm apart. Safety jaws fitted to the locomotive engage with the underside of the head to prevent derailments, strubs US Patent, granted in 1898, includes details of how the rack rail is integrated with the mechanism of a turnout. The best-known use of the Strub system is on the Jungfraubahn in Switzerland and it is the simplest rack system to maintain and has become increasingly popular
An overhead line or overhead wire is used to transmit electrical energy to trams, trolleybuses, or trains. Overhead line is designed on the principle of one or more overhead wires situated over rail tracks, the feeder stations are usually fed from a high-voltage electrical grid. Electric trains that collect their current from overhead lines use a device such as a pantograph and it presses against the underside of the lowest overhead wire, the contact wire. Current collectors are electrically conductive and allow current to flow through to the train or tram, non-electric locomotives may pass along these tracks without affecting the overhead line, although there may be difficulties with overhead clearance. Alternative electrical power transmission schemes for trains include third rail, ground-level power supply and this article does not cover regenerative braking, where the traction motors act as generators to retard movement and return power to the overhead. To achieve good high-speed current collection, it is necessary to keep the wire geometry within defined limits.
This is usually achieved by supporting the wire from a second wire known as the messenger wire or catenary. This wire approximates the path of a wire strung between two points, a catenary curve, thus the use of catenary to describe this wire or sometimes the whole system. This wire is attached to the wire at regular intervals by vertical wires known as droppers or drop wires. It is supported regularly at structures, by a pulley, the whole system is subjected to a mechanical tension. As the contact wire makes contact with the pantograph, the insert on top of the pantograph is worn down. The straight wire between supports will cause the wire to cross over the whole surface of the pantograph as the train travels around the curve, causing uniform wear. On straight track, the wire is zigzagged slightly to the left. The movement of the wire across the head of the pantograph is called the sweep. The zigzagging of the line is not required for trolley poles. Depot areas tend to have only a wire and are known as simple equipment or trolley wire.
When overhead line systems were first conceived, good current collection was only at low speeds. Compound equipment - uses a second wire, known as the auxiliary
The Brig-Visp-Zermatt-Bahn – officially known between 1991 and 2002 as the BVZ Zermatt-Bahn – is a metre gauge railway in the Canton of Valais, Switzerland. Its 44 kilometre long links the communities of Brig and Visp in the Rhone Valley with Täsch. The BVZ forms part of the much travelled and admired route of the Glacier Express between St. Moritz and Zermatt, opened in 1891 as the Visp-Zermatt-Bahn, the BVZ merged on 1 January 2003 with the Furka-Oberalp-Bahn to form the Matterhorn-Gotthard-Bahn. The Gornergratbahn is connected with the BVZ at Zermatt, the mountain village of Zermatt first gained major recognition in Europe in light of the inaugural ascent of the Matterhorn by Edward Whymper in 1865. From onwards, the number of visitors rose steadily. Even the simple mule ride as far as St. Niklaus took a long time, nevertheless, by the 1880s there were already as many as 12,000 tourist visits to Zermatt each year. To promote tourism in the valley, and especially in Zermatt itself, on 21 September 1886, the Swiss Federal Council granted the banking house Masson, Chavannes & Co.
in Lausanne and the Basler Handelsbank an initial concession. The original request was for a 750 mm narrow gauge railway from Visp to Zermatt, using a mixture of adhesion, at the insistence of the Bundesrat, the gauge was finally altered to metre gauge. The railway was at the outset to be operated from the start of June to the end of September, additionally, it was only in summer that there were prospects of significant numbers of passengers, as in those days winter tourism was still of no great importance. Nevertheless, the Bundesrat reserved the right to extend the operating season, on 10 October 1888, the Compagnie du Chemin de Fer de Viège à Zermatt SA emerged as the operating company. The exact route and mode of operation was initially the subject of intense debate and these visits led to a decision to equip the line with the system used on the Rübelandbahn, and using a maximum gradient of 12. 5%. A total of six sections of track were to be out with a total of 7450 m of rack railway. Construction began on 27 November 1888 in Visp, the work was entrusted to the western Swiss contractors Julius Chappuis, while the SOS undertook the purchase of land and the procurement of rolling stock.
Acquisition of the land turned out to be difficult, particularly in the municipalities of Stalden and St. Niklaus. Tedious expropriation procedures therefore became necessary, land in the entire valley was divided into a myriad of tiny plots, and usually the actual owners of the plots were not recorded in official documents. The absence of a made it necessary to transport the building materials almost exclusively over the already completed parts of the railway tracks to the construction sites. On 3 July 1890, rail traffic on the first part of the line, by 26 August of the same year, the first trains reached St. Niklaus. In the following months, however, a severe winter delayed the completion of the remaining sections
In rail transport, track gauge is the spacing of the rails on a railway track and is measured between the inner faces of the load-bearing rails. All vehicles on a network must have running gear that is compatible with the track gauge, as the dominant parameter determining interoperability, it is still frequently used as a descriptor of a route or network. There is a distinction between the gauge and actual gauge at some locality, due to divergence of track components from the nominal. Railway engineers use a device, like a caliper, to measure the actual gauge, the nominal track gauge is the distance between the inner faces of the rails. In current practice, it is specified at a distance below the rail head as the inner faces of the rail head are not necessarily vertical. In some cases in the earliest days of railways, the company saw itself as an infrastructure provider only. Colloquially the wagons might be referred to as four-foot gauge wagons and this nominal value does not equate to the flange spacing, as some freedom is allowed for.
An infrastructure manager might specify new or replacement track components at a variation from the nominal gauge for pragmatic reasons. Track is defined in old Imperial units or in universally accepted metric units or SI units, Imperial units were established in United Kingdom by The Weights and Measures Act of 1824. In addition, there are constraints, such as the load-carrying capacity of axles. Narrow gauge railways usually cost less to build because they are lighter in construction, using smaller cars and locomotives, as well as smaller bridges, smaller tunnels. Narrow gauge is often used in mountainous terrain, where the savings in civil engineering work can be substantial. Broader gauge railways are generally expensive to build and require wider curves. There is no single perfect gauge, because different environments and economic considerations come into play, a narrow gauge is superior if ones main considerations are economy and tight curvature. For direct, unimpeded routes with high traffic, a broad gauge may be preferable, the Standard, and 46 gauges are designed to strike a reasonable balance between these factors.
In addition to the general trade-off, another important factor is standardization, once a standard has been chosen, and equipment and training calibrated to that standard, conversion becomes difficult and expensive. This makes it easier to adopt an existing standard than to invent a new one and this is true of many technologies, including railroad gauges. The reduced cost, greater efficiency, and greater economic opportunity offered by the use of a common standard explains why a number of gauges predominate worldwide
Gornergrat railway station
Gornergrat is the upper terminal railway station of the Gornergrat railway, a rack railway which links it with the resort of Zermatt. The station is situated at the summit of the Gornergrat, in the Swiss municipality of Zermatt, at an altitude of 3,089 m above mean sea level, it is the highest open-air railway station in Europe. Near the station is the Kulm Hotel, a hotel and observatory, List of highest railway stations in Switzerland List of buildings and structures above 3000 m in Switzerland Media related to Gornergrat railway station at Wikimedia Commons
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a federal republic in Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, and the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in western-Central Europe, and is bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning an area of 41,285 km2. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. The country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation, it has not been in a state of war internationally since 1815, nevertheless, it pursues an active foreign policy and is frequently involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to international organisations.
On the European level, it is a member of the European Free Trade Association. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties, spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions, French and Romansh. Due to its diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names, Suisse, Svizzera. On coins and stamps, Latin is used instead of the four living languages, Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Zürich and Geneva have each been ranked among the top cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the former ranked second globally, according to Mercer. The English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, a term for the Swiss. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse, in use since the 16th century.
The name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, the Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for Confederates, used since the 14th century. The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes, ultimately related to swedan ‘to burn’
Stalden is a municipality in the district of Visp in the canton of Valais in Switzerland. It lies at the foot of the Mischabelhörner and Dom, Stalden is first mentioned in 1213 as Morgi. In 1224 it was mentioned as Staldun, Stalden has an area, as of 2011, of 10.5 square kilometers. Of this area,10. 0% is used for agricultural purposes, of the rest of the land,6. 4% is settled and 11. 7% is unproductive land. The municipality is located in the Visp district, at the branching of the Matter and it consists of three formerly independent villages Stalden Dorfmark and Niederrusen. The blazon of the coat of arms is Gules, two Lions rampant regaurdant Or both holding a Sword Argent on Coupeaux Vert. Stalden has a population of 1,098, as of 2008,4. 2% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of -9. 8% and it has changed at a rate of -8. 9% due to migration and at a rate of -0. 6% due to births and deaths. Most of the population speaks German as their first language, Albanian is the second most common, there are 6 people who speak French.
As of 2008, the population was 46. 1% male and 53. 9% female, the population was made up of 488 Swiss men and 33 non-Swiss men. There were 581 Swiss women and 27 non-Swiss women, of the population in the municipality,728 or about 63. 4% were born in Stalden and lived there in 2000. There were 300 or 26. 1% who were born in the canton, while 46 or 4. 0% were born somewhere else in Switzerland. As of 2000, children and teenagers make up 26. 7% of the population, while adults make up 55. 8%, as of 2000, there were 469 people who were single and never married in the municipality. There were 583 married individuals,71 widows or widowers and 26 individuals who are divorced, as of 2000, there were 432 private households in the municipality, and an average of 2.6 persons per household. There were 109 households that consist of one person and 41 households with five or more people. In 2000, a total of 406 apartments were permanently occupied, the vacancy rate for the municipality, in 2010, was 1. 11%. The historical population is given in the chart, The Kinbrücke over the Mattervispa along with its wayside shrine is listed as a Swiss heritage site of national significance.
The village of Stalden and the Neubrück area are part of the Inventory of Swiss Heritage Sites