Sejong the Great
Sejong the Great was the fourth king of the Joseon dynasty of Korea. He was the third son of Queen consort Min, he was designated as heir-apparent, Crown Prince, after his older brother Prince Yangnyeong was stripped of his title. He ascended to the throne in 1418. During the first four years of his reign, Taejong governed as regent, after which his father-in-law, Sim On, his close associates were executed. Sejong reinforced Confucian policies and executed major "legal amendments", he personally created and promulgated the Korean alphabet Hangul, encouraged advancements of scientific technology, instituted many other efforts to stabilize and improve prosperity. He dispatched military campaigns to the north and instituted the Samin policy to attract new settlers to the region. To the south, he captured Tsushima Island. During his reign from 1418 to 1450, he governed along with his father, the King Emeritus Taejong from 1418 to 1422 governing as the sole monarch from 1422 to 1450. Since 1442, the king was ill so his son Crown Prince Munjong acted as regent for him.
Although the appellation "the Great" / "" was given posthumously to every ruler of Goryeo and Joseon, this title is associated with Gwanggaeto and Sejong. Sejong was born on 7 May 1397, the third son of King Taejong; when he was twelve, he became Grand Prince Chungnyeong. As a young prince, Sejong excelled in various studies and was favored by King Taejong over his two older brothers; as the third son of Taejong, Sejong's ascension to the throne was unique. Taejong's eldest son, was named heir apparent in 1404. However, Yangnyeong's free spirited nature as well as his preference for hunting and leisure activities resulted in his removal from the position of heir apparent in June 1418. Though it is said that Yangnyeong abdicated in favor of his younger brother, there are no definitive records regarding Yangnyeong's removal. Taejong's second son Grand Prince Hyoryeong became a monk upon the elevation of his younger brother Sejong. Following the removal of Yangnyeong as heir apparent, Taejong moved to secure his youngest son's position as heir apparent.
The government was purged of officials. In August 1418, Taejong abdicated in favour of Sejong; however in retirement Taejong continued to influence government policy. Sejong's surprising political skill and creativity did not become apparent until after Taejong's death in 1422. King Sejong revolutionized the Korean government by appointing people from different social classes as civil servants. Furthermore, he performed official government events according to Confucianism, he encouraged people to behave according to the teachings of Confucianism; as a result, Confucianism became the social norm of Korea at the time. He published books about Confucianism. At first, he suppressed Buddhism by banning all Buddhist monks from Seoul, drastically reducing the power and wealth of the Buddhist hierarchy, but he alleviated his action by building temples and accepting Buddhism by making a test to become a monk. In 1427, Sejong ordered a decree against the Huihui community that had had special status and stipends since the Yuan dynasty.
The Huihui were forced to abandon their headgear, to close down their "ceremonial hall" and worship like everyone else. No further mention of Muslims exist during the era of the Joseon. In relationship with the Chinese Ming, he made some successful agreements. In relationship with Jurchen people, he installed 10 military posts, 4 counties and 6 garrisons, in the northern part of the Korean Peninsula, he maintained good relations with Japan by allowing trade with them. But he suppressed Tsukishima island with military forces in order to stop pirating in the South Sea since Tsushima island was a base for Japanese pirates. King Sejong was an effective military planner, he created various military regulations to strengthen the safety of his kingdom, supported the advancement of Korean military technology, including cannon development. Different kinds of mortars and fire arrows were tested as well as the use of gunpowder. In May 1419, King Sejong, under the advice and guidance of his father Taejong, embarked upon the Gihae Eastern Expedition, the ultimate goal of this military expedition to remove the nuisance of Japanese pirates, operating out of Tsushima Island.
During the expedition, 245 Japanese were killed, another 110 were captured in combat, while 180 Korean soldiers were killed. 146 Chinese and 8 Korean kidnapped were liberated by this expedition. In September 1419 a truce was made and the Korean army returned to Korea, but the Treaty of Gyehae was signed in 1443, in which the Daimyo of Tsushima promised to pay tribute to the King of Joseon. In 1433, Sejong sent a prominent general, north to destroy the Jurchens. Kim's military campaign captured several castles, pushed north, expanded Korean territory, to the Songhua River. 4 counties and 6 garrisons were established to safeguard the people from the Jurchens. Sejong is credited with great advances in science during his reign, he wanted to help farmers. The book—the Nongsa jikseol —contained information about the different farming techniques that he tol
History of Korea
The Lower Paleolithic era in the Korean Peninsula and Manchuria began half a million years ago. The earliest known Korean pottery dates to around 8000 BCE, the Neolithic period began after 6000 BCE, followed by the Bronze Age by 2000 BCE, the Iron Age around 700 BCE. According to the mythic account recounted in the Samguk yusa, the Gojoseon kingdom was founded in northern Korea and southern Manchuria in 2333 BCE; the Gija Joseon state was purportedly founded in 12th century BCE. Its existence and role has been controversial in the modern era, seen as mythology; the first written historical record on Gojoseon can be found from the early 7th century BCE. The Jin state was formed in southern Korea by the 3rd century BCE. In the 2nd century BCE, Gija Joseon was replaced by Wiman Joseon, which fell to the Han dynasty of China near the end of the century; this resulted in the fall of Gojoseon and led to succeeding warring states, the Proto–Three Kingdoms period that spanned the Iron Age. From the 1st century, Goguryeo and Silla grew to control the peninsula and Manchuria as the Three Kingdoms of Korea, until unification by Silla in 676.
In 698, Go of Balhae established the Kingdom of Balhae in old territories of Goguryeo, which led to the North–South States Period of Balhae and Silla coexisting. In the late 9th century, Silla was divided into the Later Three Kingdoms, which ended with the unification by Wang Geon's Goryeo dynasty. Meanwhile, Balhae fell after invasions by the Khitan Liao dynasty and the refugees including the last crown prince emigrated to Goryeo, where the crown prince was warmly welcomed and included into the ruling family by Wang Geon, thus unifying the two successor states of Goguryeo. During the Goryeo period, laws were codified, a civil service system was introduced, culture influenced by Buddhism flourished. However, Mongol invasions in the 13th century brought Goryeo under its influence until the mid-14th century. In 1392, General Yi Seong-gye established the Joseon dynasty after a coup d'état that overthrew the Goryeo dynasty in 1388. King Sejong the Great implemented numerous administrative, social and economic reforms, established royal authority in the early years of the dynasty, is attributed with creating Hangul, the Korean alphabet.
After enjoying a period of peace for nearly two centuries, the Joseon dynasty faced foreign invasions and internal factional strife from 1592 to 1637. Most notable of these invasions is the Japanese invasions of Korea, which marked the end of the Joseon dynasty's early period; the combined force of Ming dynasty of China and the Joseon dynasty repelled these Japanese invasions, but at cost to the countries. Henceforth, Joseon became more and more isolationist and stagnant. By the mid 19th century, with the country unwilling to modernize, under encroachment of European powers, Joseon Korea was forced to sign unequal treaties with foreign powers. After the assassination of Empress Myeongseong in 1895, the Donghak Peasant Revolution, the Gabo Reforms of 1894 to 1896, the Korean Empire came into existence, heralding a brief but rapid period of social reform and modernization. However, in 1905, the Korean Empire signed a protectorate treaty and in 1910, Japan annexed the Korean Empire. Korean resistance manifested in the widespread nonviolent March 1st Movement of 1919.
Thereafter the resistance movements, coordinated by the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea in exile, became active in neighboring Manchuria and Siberia, influenced by Korea's peaceful demonstrations. Figures from these exile organizations would become important in post-WWII Korea. After the end of World War II in 1945, the Allies divided the country into a northern area and a southern area. In 1948, when the powers failed to agree on the formation of a single government, this partition became the modern states of North and South Korea; the peninsula was divided at the 38th Parallel: the "Republic of Korea" was created in the south, with the backing of the US and Western Europe, the "Democratic People's Republic of Korea" in the north, with the backing of the Soviets and the communist People's Republic of China. The new premier of North Korea, Kim il-Sung, launched the Korean War in 1950 in an attempt to reunify the country under Communist rule. After immense material and human destruction, the conflict ended with a cease-fire in 1953.
In 2018, the two nations agreed to work toward a final settlement to formally end the Korean War. In 1991, both states were accepted into the United Nations. While both countries were under military rule after the war, South Korea liberalized. Since 1987 it has had a competitive electoral system; the South Korean economy has prospered, the country is now considered to be developed, with a similar capital economic standing to Western Europe and the United States. North Korea has maintained a militarized dictatorship rule, with a cult of personality constructed around the Kim family. Economically, North Korea has remained dependent on foreign aid. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, that aid fell precipitously; the country's economic situation has been quite marginal since. No fossil proven to be Homo erectus has been found in the Korean Peninsula, though a candidate has been reported. Tool-making artifacts from the Palaeolithic period have been found in present-day North Hamgyong, South Pyongan and north and south Chungcheong Provinces of Korea, which dates the Paleolithic Age to half a million years ago, though it may have begun as late as 400,000 years ago or as early as 600,000–700,000
Jeong In-ji was a Korean Neo-Confucian scholar, historian who served as Vice Minister of Education or Deputy Chief Scholar during the reign of King Sejong the Great, Minister of Rites during the reign of King Munjong and Danjong, Left or Second State Councillor or Vice Prime Minister from 1453 to 1455 during the reign of King Danjong, Chief State Councillor or Prime Minister from 1455 to 1458 during the reign of King Sejo. He was nicknamed Hagyeokjae, he is best known for having written the postscript of the Hunmin Jeongeum Haerye, the commentary on and explanation of the native alphabet Hangeul invented by King Sejong in 1443. He contributed to the Goryeo-sa, the official history of Goryeo dynasty, the Yongbi Eocheon-ga, his second son, Jeong Hyeon-jo, was married to Princess Uisuk, the second daughter of King Sejo of Joseon. Hunminjeongeum Hunminjeongeum yehae Hagyeokjaejip Yeokdae yeokbeop Goryeosa Goryeosa jeolyo Yeokdae byeongyo Saryun ojip Jachitonggam hunui Sejong sillok Portrayed by Park Hyuk-kwon in the 2011 SBS TV series Deep Rooted Tree.
Portrayed by Jeong Eui-gap in the 2016 KBS1 TV series Jang Yeong-sil. Jeons Inji's family home 문성공 정인지의 생애 문성공 정인지의 업적과 사상 Sejo of Joseon Sin Suk-ju Jeong Hyeon-jo Han Myeong-hoe
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The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul, has been used to write the Korean language since its creation in the 15th century by King Sejong the Great. It may be written as Hangeul following the standard Romanization, it is the official writing system of Korea, both North. It is a co-official writing system in the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture and Changbai Korean Autonomous County in Jilin Province, China, it is sometimes used to write the Cia-Cia language spoken near the town of Indonesia. The Hangul alphabet consisted of 28 letters with 17 consonant letters and 11 vowel letters when it was created; as four became obsolete, the modern Hangul consists of total 24 letters with 14 consonant letters and 10 vowel letters. In North Korea the total is counted 40, it consists of 19 consonant letters and 21 vowel letters as it additionally includes 5 tense consonants and 20. The Korean letters are written in syllabic blocks with each alphabetic letter placed vertically and horizontally into a square dimension.
For example, the Korean word for "honeybee" is written 꿀벌, not ㄲㅜㄹㅂㅓㄹ. As it combines the features of alphabetic and syllabic writing systems, it has been described as an "alphabetic syllabary" by some linguists; as in traditional Chinese writing, Korean texts were traditionally written top to bottom, right to left, are still written this way for stylistic purposes. Today, it is written from left to right with spaces between words and western-style punctuation; some linguists consider it among the most phonologically faithful writing systems in use today. One interesting feature of Hangul is that the shapes of its consonants mimic the shapes of the speaker's mouth when pronouncing each consonant; the Korean alphabet was called Hunminjeong'eum, after the document that introduced the script to the Korean people in 1446. The Korean alphabet is called hangeul, a name coined by Korean linguist Ju Si-gyeong in 1912; the name combines the ancient Korean word han, meaning "great", geul, meaning "script".
The word han is used to refer to Korea in general, so the name means "Korean script". It has been romanized in multiple ways: Hangeul or han-geul in the Revised Romanization of Korean, which the South Korean government uses in English publications and encourages for all purposes. Han'gŭl in the McCune–Reischauer system, is capitalized and rendered without the diacritics when used as an English word, Hangul, as it appears in many English dictionaries. Hānkul in the Yale romanization, a system recommended for technical linguistic studies. In North Korea it is called Chosŏn'gŭl after Chosŏn, the North Korean name for Korea after the old name of Korea; the McCune–Reischauer system is used there. Until the mid-20th century, the Korean elite preferred to write using Chinese characters called Hanja, they referred to Hanja as jinseo or "true letters". Some accounts say the elite referred to the Korean alphabet derisively as'amkeul meaning "women's script", and'ahaetgeul meaning "children's script", though there is no written evidence of this.
Supporters of the Korean alphabet referred to it as jeong'eum meaning "correct pronunciation", gukmun meaning "national script", eonmun meaning "vernacular script". Before the creation of the new Korean alphabet, Koreans wrote using Classical Chinese alongside native phonetic writing systems that predate the modern Korean alphabet by hundreds of years, including Idu script, Hyangchal and Gakpil. However, due to fundamental differences between the Korean and Chinese languages, the large number of characters, many lower class Koreans were illiterate. To promote literacy among the common people, the fourth king of the Joseon dynasty, Sejong the Great created and promulgated a new alphabet; the Korean alphabet was designed so that people with little education could learn to write. A popular saying about the alphabet is, "A wise man can acquaint himself with them before the morning is over; the project was completed in late December 1443 or January 1444, described in 1446 in a document titled Hunminjeong'eum, after which the alphabet itself was named.
The publication date of the Hunminjeongeum, October 9, became Hangul Day in South Korea. Its North Korean equivalent, Chosŏn'gŭl Day, is on January 15. Another document published in 1446 and titled Hunminjeong'eum Haerye was discovered in 1940; this document explains that the design of the consonant letters is based on articulatory phonetics and the design of the vowel letters are based on the principles of yin and yang and vowel harmony. The Korean alphabet faced opposition in the 1440s by the literary elite, including politician Choe Manri and other Korean Confucian scholars, they believed. They saw the circulation of the Korean alphabet as a threat to their status. However, the Korean alphabet entered popular culture as King Sejong had intended, used by women and writers of popular fiction. King Yeonsangun banned the study and publication of the Korean alphabet in 1504, after a document criticizing the king entered the public. King Jungjong abolished the Ministry of Eonmun, a governmental institution related to Hangul research, in 1506.
The late 16th century, saw a revival of the Korean alphabet as gasa and sijo poetry flourished. In the 17th century, the Korean alphabet novels became a major genre. However, the use of the Korea