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Lonchodraco

Lonchodraco is a genus of pterodactyloid pterosaur from the Cretaceous of England. The genus includes species that were assigned to other genera. In 1846, James Scott Bowerbank named and described some remains found in a chalk pit at Burham near Maidstone in Kent, as a new species of Pterodactylus: Pterodactylus giganteus; the specific name means "the gigantic one" in Latin. The same pit generated remains of Pterodactylus cuvieri. In 1848 Bowerbank published a histological study of the bone structure of P. giganteus. At the time, the British Association Code of 1843 allowed to change names if they were inappropriate. In 1850, Richard Owen, considering the species not to have been large, renamed it into Pterodactylus conirostris, "the cone-snouted", based on a conical snout, today part of specimen NHMUK PV 39412. However, after insistent objections by Bowerbank, Owen retracted this name in 1851, when he described the finds in more detail. In 1914 Reginald Walter Hooley assigned the species to a new genus Lonchodectes, "the lance biter", as a Lonchodectes giganteus.

In 2013, Taissa Rodrigues and Alexander Wilhelm Armin Kellner concluded that the type species of Lonchodectes, Lonchodectes compressirostris, was a nomen dubium. Therefore, they created a new genus Lonchodraco, combining Greek λόγχη, lonchē, "lance", with Latin draco, "dragon". Pterodactylus giganteus was made the type species of Lonchodraco, resulting in a Lonchodraco giganteus. Two other species assigned to Lonchodectes were moved to the new genus, resulting in a Lonchodraco machaerorhynchus and a Lonchodraco microdon; the question mark in the latter name indicates that the authors were uncertain about the correctness of the assignment. Rodrigues and Kellner considered NHMUK PV 39412 to be the lectotype of Lonchodraco giganteus, after a choice by Peter Wellnhofer in 1978, it was found in a layer of the Chalk Formation. It consists of the front of a snout, the front of a pair of lower jaws, a piece of a scapulocoracoid, the upper parts of a humerus and an ulna, a part of a wing finger phalanx.

In 1869, Harry Govier Seeley named Ptenodactylus machaerorhynchus, at the same time disclaiming the name which makes it invalid by modern standards. In 1870, Seeley had realised that the generic name Ptenodactylus had been preoccupied and renamed the species into Ornithocheirus machaerorhynchus; the specific name means "sabre snout" in Greek. In 1914 Hooley renamed it into Lonchodectes machaeorhynchus, its holotype, CAMSM B54855, was near Cambridge found in a layer of the Cambridge Greensand dating from the Cenomanian but containing reworked fossils from the Albian. It consists of the rear end of a symphysis of the lower jaws. In 1869, Seeley named a Ptenodactylus microdon. In 1870, he renamed it into Ornithocheirus microdon, "small tooth", in 1914 by Hooley made a Lonchodectes microdon, its holotype, CAMSM B54486, has its provenance in the Cambridge Greensand and consists of the front of a snout. The type specimen of Ornithocheirus oweni Seeley 1870, CAMSM B 54439, was referred to Lonchodraco microdon in the same study that named Lonchodraco, following a conclusion by David Unwin in 2001, this species would be a junior synonym.

Rodrigues & Kellner treated Lonchodraco as a clade, which thus could possess synapomorphies, shared derived traits, setting the clade apart from related groups. They established one of these: the tooth sockets are elevated relative to the palate and lower jaw edge. A unique combination of themselves not unique traits was present; the tooth sockets in the front of the jaws are small, with a diameter of no more than four millimetres. These sockets do not vary in size; the distance between the tooth sockets about equals their diameter. The midline ridge on the palate is high. A crest is present below the lower jaws; each of the species of Lonchodraco has its own unique derived traits and sometimes a unique combination of traits. Bowerbank estimated. Rodrigues & Kellner established two autapomorphies of Lonchodraco giganteus. Below the front of the lower jaws a short blade-like crest is present. There is a density of about six tooth sockets per three centimetres of jaw edge. There is a unique combination of traits: the snout bears a crest.

Rodrigues & Kellner established four autapomorphies of Lonchodraco machaerorhynchus. A deep crest is present at the underside of the lower jaws. To the rear, the profile of this crest turns upwards. Behind this crest a depression is present at the underside of the jaws; the midline groove at the top of the lower jaws symphysis is deep. Furthermore, there is a density of 4.5 teeth per three centimetres of jaw edge. Rodrigues & Kellner established two autapomorphies of Lonchodraco microdon. A high ridge is present on the midline of the palate; the distance between the tooth sockets exceeds their diameter. There is a unique combination of traits: there is no crest on the snout. Rodrigues & Kellner in 2013 assigned Lonchodraco to a family Lonchodraconidae, not defined as a clade and of which Lonchodraco was the only member. In cladistic analyses the three Lonchodraco species formed a cluster, but it proved impossible to obtain a precise position for it because their inclusion in the dataset made the tree collapse into a polytomy containing, apart from the three species, all Pterodactyloidea and the Rhamphorhynchidae.

List of pterosaur genera Timeline of pterosaur research

Hungary in World War I

At the outbreak of World War I in August 1914, Hungary was part of the dualist monarchy, Austria-Hungary. Although there are no significant battles connected to Hungarian regiments, the troops suffered high losses throughout the war as the Empire suffered defeat after defeat; the result was the breakup of the Empire and Hungary suffered severe territorial losses by the closing Peace Treaty. In 1914, Austria-Hungary was one of the great powers of Europe, with an area of 676,443 km² and a population of 52 million, of which Hungary had 325,400 km² with population of 21 million; the Austro-Hungarian Empire conscripted 7.8 million soldiers during the WW1. Although the Kingdom of Hungary composed only 42% of the population of Austria-Hungary, the thin majority – more than 3.8 million soldiers – of the Austro-Hungarian armed forces were conscripted from the Kingdom of Hungary during the First World War. Austria-Hungary was more urbanized than its actual opponents in the First World War, like the Russian Empire, Serbia or Romania.

Furthermore, the Austro-Hungarian Empire had more industrialized economy and higher GDP per capita than the Kingdom of Italy, economically the far most developed actual opponent of the Empire. On June 28, 1914, Gavrilo Princip assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria. Before entering the war, only the prime minister Count István Tisza hesitated, unconvinced that it was the best time to engage in battle; as soon as Germany promised to neutralize the Kingdom of Romania and promised that no territories of the Kingdom of Serbia would be annexed to Austria-Hungary, he decided to support the war. After the ultimatum sent to Serbia by Franz Josef I, the war broke out and soon spread over much of Europe and beyond; the first line of this multi-ethnic army was based and consisted of: The so-called "common" army and "common" navy, where the language was German, was 87% of the total army The Landwehr of the Austrian army The Royal Hungarian "honvédség", where the language was Hungarian and Croatian.

The second line of the army was the mobilized Landsturm of the Austrians "Népfelkelés" of Hungarians. In 1914, the Austro-Hungarian army was facing its greatest challenge so far in history. After mobilisation, the armed forces were grouped into six armies. Between 1914 and 1918, 9 million served in the army. In comparison to the other armies of Western Europe, Hungary's experienced veteran armed forces, technical equipment, military expenditures were underdeveloped; the artillery was insufficient, but it was developed in the war. The correct supply of ammunition was not solved by the end of the war; the armed forces lacked an adequate air force: it had only 42 military and 40 sport airplanes before the war. Unifying the multi-ethnic units was a serious problem for the military's leaders; the military forces of Austria-Hungary remained unified over the course of the war, in spite of their multi-ethnic nature and some expectations to the contrary. While German support was undoubtedly critical to the success of various offensives, the multi-ethnic armies of Austria-Hungary proved capable in a defensive role in all the theaters of the war in which they were engaged.

The predominantly ethnic German commanders of the army favoured troops of German extraction, but ethnic Hungarian troops were seen as being reliable and were used on the front lines on the Russian front and Italian front. For the most part, troops from other ethnic groups within the empire were less to be placed in strategically critical positions and therefore had lower casualties. Over the course of World War I there was never a documented offensive by purely ethnic Hungarian troops, but such troops did contribute positively to the outcome of various battles, as follows: On December 3–15, 1914 during the Battle of Limanowa, the "Russian steamroller" was held back by the hussars. Lieutenant-general Josef Roth attacked the Russian 3rd army, on the right wing, the 10th Budapest and 11th Debrecen cavalry divisions engaged in a man-to-man fight and were decisive. On December 11, colonel Ottmár Muhr died in a heroic defense leading the Sopron 9th cavalry regiment. Lieutenant-general Artur Arz, together with lieutenant-general Imre Hadfy, leading the 39th Kassa division, destroyed the 15th Russian division in Livno.

During the Siege of Przemysl, which defense was commanded by general Hermann Kusmanek, the main defence line, consisting of Hungarian troops, guarded the fortress for five months from November 1915. The defenders were commanded by Árpád Tamásy. After the depletion of ammunition and food reserves, Przemysl capitulated, leaving 120,000 prisoners of war. On the Isonzo front, Hungarian forces participated in all twelve battles. On the Doberdo plateau and near Karst, the most serious battles were fought by Hungarians, who composed one third of the total armed forces. In particular, the 20th Nagyvárad and 17th Budapest common regiments distinguished themselves. On June 15, 1918, near the river Piave, the 6th army commanded by Archduke József Ágost took over most part of mount Montello and held it until the end of the war. Decisive fights were carried out by the 31st Budapest common regiment and the 11th Debrecen division; the troops raised in the Kingdom of Hungary spent little time defending the actual territory of Hungary, with the exceptions of the Brusilov Offensive in June 1916, a few months when the Romanian army invaded Transylvania, both of which were repelled.

A small number of troops from Austria-Hungary fought in more distant theaters o

Denmark in the Eurovision Song Contest 1966

Denmark was represented by Ulla Pia, with the song'"Stop - mens legen er go'", at the 1966 Eurovision Song Contest, which took place on 5 March in Luxembourg City. "Stop - mens legen er go'" was chosen as the Danish entry at the Dansk Melodi Grand Prix on 6 February. Danish broadcaster DR withdrew from Eurovision following the 1966 contest, would not return to the fold until 1978; the reasons for the withdrawal are unclear, although it is believed that a new programme controller at DR did not consider the expense involved in Eurovision participation to represent value for money. The DMGP was held at the Tivoli in hosted by Annette Faaborg. Six songs took part, with the winner chosen by voting from seven regional juries. Former Danish representatives Gustav Winckler and Dario Campeotto were among the participants, although they ended up sharing last place. On the night of the final Ulla Pia performed second in the running order, following Germany and preceding Belgium. "Stop - mens legen er go'" had a contemporary sound and featured an instrumental break during which two dancers performed an energetic routine.

Each national jury awarded 5-3-1 to their top three songs, at the close "Stop - mens legen er go'" had received 4 points, placing Denmark 14th of the 18 entries. The Danish jury awarded its 5 points to Sweden, one of many instances of neighbourly voting in the first contest in which this phenomenon was remarked on by observers. Denmark in the Eurovision Song Contest Eurovision Song Contest 1966

Jimmy O'Connor (author)

Jimmy O'Connor was a playwright for The Wednesday Play and Play for Today television series on the BBC. He was born James O'Connor in Paddington, west London, England in 1918, his father, James O'Connor, was a merchant fish monger from Ireland. Growing up in the slums of West London, O'Connor learned the trade of petty theft. Doing the "honorable thing" he married Mary Agnes Davey, four years his senior, in the spring of 1936, she was Church of England. Their son, James William O'Connor, was born on 19 September 1936. Mary O'Connor divorced her husband in 1946 after he attempted to have their son removed from her care and raised Catholic. With the beginning of World War II, O'Connor enlisted and served with the British Expeditionary Forces in France, he was one of the few survivors of the sinking of the ship RMS Lancastria on 17 June 1941, shared a life raft with Cunard Line Captain Harry Grattidge. After an honorable discharge, he went back to theft and was sentenced to six months in prison in late 1941.

When O'Connor was released in 1952, his son, not eager for a reunion, went to sea and served for a few years on The Queen Mary under Capt. Grattidge. Grattidge wrote about both O'Connor and his son. In January 1942, O'Connor was arrested for the murder of George Ambridge on 14 April 1941. In spite of questionable testimony and poor forensic evidence, he was found guilty and sentenced to death. Two days before he was to hang which would have been on his birthday O'Connor was given a reprieve. While in Dartmoor Prison, O'Connor entered into a correspondence course through Ruskin College; when O'Connor was released from prison in 1952, he became a reporter for the Empire News. Still trying to clear his name with a full pardon, O'Connor met and fell in love with barrister Nemone Lethbridge, who had joined his cause for complete exoneration, they were secretly married in 1959. When their marriage was made public in 1962, with the stigma of O'Connor still being out "At Her Majesty's Pleasure", Lethbridge was forced out of chambers and left unable to practice law.

In 1968, O'Connor and Lethbridge petitioned the courts for a pardon based on new information concerning the pocket watch and the confession to O'Connor by the real killer. Although the evidence against O'Connor was in grave doubt, in 1970 the courts denied O'Connor a full pardon. With his earnings as an author, as well as a few well-received tele-plays by Lethbridge, the couple bought a villa on the isle of Mykonos, spending time with the likes of Aristotle and Jackie Onassis. O'Connor and Lethbridge's first son, Ragnar O'Connor, was born in 1970. O'Connor was still bitter about the denial of his pardon and drank most his money away, causing Lethbridge to leave him in 1971 and return to London seeking a restraining order; the couple reconciled long enough to have a second son, Milo O'Connor, in 1973, but shortly thereafter they divorced. O'Connor continued to drink and returned to London. In 1994, O'Connor was given access to a small selection of files from his 1942 trial. One memo suggested that the actual killer was the same man O'Connor claimed had confessed in 1968.

Shortly after the discovery, O'Connor suffered a series of strokes and was placed in a Catholic charity nursing home by Lethbridge, just a few blocks from her home in Stoke Newington. On 29 September 2001, Jimmy O'Connor died after another series of strokes at the age of 83. In 2007 Lethbridge was allowed to bring O'Connor's case once again before the courts. After careful consideration, the courts decided they had serious misgivings concerning O'Connor's conviction. O'Connor became a noted and successful tele-playwright with his scripts for The Wednesday Play BBC television series. Released in 1965, Tap on the Shoulder, Three Clear Sundays, The Profile of a Gentleman drew from O'Connor's experiences in prison and the people he grew up with in the West End, he won critical acclaim for The Coming Out Party in 1967. O'Connor continued to write for television and regained some acclaim with the 1973 Play for Today episode "On Her Majesty's Pleasure" which brought critical attention to a young actor by the name of Bob Hoskins.

In 1976, O'Connor's autobiography. Collier, Richard. Captain of the Queens: The Autobiography of Captain Harry Grattidge, Former Commodore of the Cunard Line. Dutton. O'Connor, Jimmy; the Eleventh Commandment. London: Penguin. P. 191. ISBN 978-0-905353-00-5. "Jimmy O'Connor". Telegraph.co.uk. 22 November 2001. Retrieved 27 July 2008. Weir, Andrew. "Jimmy O'Connor". Guardian Unlimited. London. Retrieved 27 July 2008.− "Jimmy O'Connor". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 27 July 2008. "Play for Today BBC". TV Cream. Retrieved 27 July 2008. "The Wednesday Play - Season 2". Startrader.co.uk. Engale Marketing. Retrieved 27 July 2008. "The Wednesday Play - Season 3". Startrader.co.uk. Engale Marketing. Retrieved 27 July 2008. "The Wednesday Play - Season 4". Startrader.co.uk. Engale Marketing. Retrieved 27 July 2008. "The Wednesday Play - Season 7". Startrader.co.uk. Engale Marketing. Retrieved 27 July 2008

Luluabourg Constitution

The Luluabourg Constitution was the second constitution of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Functional from 1 August 1964 until November 1965, it was meant to replace the provisional Loi Fundamental, enacted when independence was declared in 1960. Unlike its predecessor, the Luluabourg Constitution featured a strong executive presidency and delineated federalism between the central government and the provinces, it formalized the adoption of the name "Democratic Republic of the Congo", succeeding the name "Republic of the Congo". As was agreed upon by the participants in the Belgo-Congolese Round Table Conference in 1960, a formal constitution was to be agreed upon by the Congolese within three to four years of independence; the Luluabourg Constitution was a compensation for what its authors perceived to be the shortfalls of the Loi Fundamental. Its principal features were a centralized and strengthened executive and a punctilious separation of responsibilities between the central and provincial governments.

The constitution formally changed the name of the country from "Republic of the Congo" to "Democratic Republic of the Congo" and adopted a new national flag. According to the constitution, the president "determines and directs the policy of the state" and "establishes the framework of government action, supervises its application, informs Parliament of its development"; the president was to be selected by an electoral college composed of members of Parliament, members from every provincial assembly, several delegates from the capital with the number of them being determined by how much representation they would be accorded to in Parliament based on population. The capital delegates and parliamentary delegates would meet in the capital to cast their vote, while the provincial assembly electors would do the same from their respective provincial capitals. All presidential candidates had to be at least 40 years of age; the president was to be chosen by the candidate with a simple majority. If this was not achieved on the first two ballots the candidate with a plurality on the third would become president.

The office of prime minister was retained, thought its functions and responsibilities were reduced. The prime minister and all other cabinet ministers were to be named and revoked either individually or collectively by the president. Article 6 restricted Congolese nationality to persons whose ancestors were a part of an ethnic group that had lived in the Congo before 18 October 1908; this rule could be circumvented if a person submitted a formal request to change their nationality within 12 months of the promulgation of the constitution. The Luluabourg Constitution denied citizenship to most Rwandan immigrants in the Congo. Marcel Bisukiro, a former government minister, criticised it as discriminatory