The Gospel of James known as the Protoevangelium of James, the Infancy Gospel of James, is an apocryphal gospel written around the year AD 145, which expands backward in time the infancy stories contained in the Gospels of Matthew and Luke, presents a narrative concerning the birth and upbringing of Mary herself. It is the oldest source to assert the virginity of Mary not only prior to, but during the birth of Jesus; the ancient manuscripts that preserve the book have different titles, including "The Birth of Mary", "The Story of the Birth of Saint Mary, Mother of God," and "The Birth of Mary. It is referred to as "Genesis of Mary"; the protoevangelium presents itself as written by a source of moral and ecclesiastical authority, ending with the declaration: "I, wrote this history in Jerusalem." The purported author is thus James, the brother of Jesus, who held considerable clout within the early Christian community. However, textual scholarship has indicated that the text is a work of pseudepigrapha, a common literary style to this period.
It was composed some time in the mid-second century. Although earlier scholars claimed the author had a Jewish background, in fact the author appear to have been poorly informed about Jewish practices. Many scholars have debated the text's relation to Judaism; the style of the language, employed supports the argument that the text dates from the second century. The author describes various Jewish social and ecclesiastical activities that are contested by scholars; the consensus is. The first mention of it is in the early third century by Origen of Alexandria, who says the text, like that of a Gospel of Peter, was of dubious, recent appearance and shared with that book the claim that the "brethren of the Lord" were sons of Joseph by a former wife. Although a number of church councils condemned it as an inauthentic writing of the New Testament, this did little to diminish its popularity. Pope Innocent I condemned this Gospel of James in his third epistle ad Exuperium in 405 AD, the so-called Gelasian Decree excluded it as canonical around 500 AD.
Thomas Aquinas, in his Summa Theologiae, rejects the Protevangelium of James teaching that midwives were present at Christ's birth, invokes Jerome as contending that the words of the canonical gospels show that Mary was both mother and midwife, that she wrapped up the child with swaddling clothes and laid him in a manger. And thus concludes, "These words prove the falseness of the apocryphal ravings."It does appear to have helped inform the Islamic tradition of the lives of Mary and Christ, appears to directly relate to the references made to her piety in the pages of the Quran. The Protoevangelium of James is one of several surviving Infancy Gospels within early Christian literature; the majority scholarly consensus is that it was composed by the early church to expand upon the canonical gospels in more extensive way, granting more details about the early life of Christ. The term'Protoevangelium' stems from the Koine Greek cognate, meaning'prior to the gospel','pre-gospel' or'infancy gospel'.
It is a title attributed to the text, but not explicitly used by the author. Such a work was intended to be "apologetic, doctrinal, or to satisfy one's curiosity"; the literary genre that these works represent shows stylistic features that suggest dates in the 2nd century and later. Other infancy gospels in this tradition include The Infancy Gospel of Thomas, the Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew, the so-called Arabic Infancy Gospel, all of which were regarded by the Church as apocryphal; some indication of the popularity of the Infancy Gospel of James may be drawn from the fact that over 150 Greek manuscripts containing it have survived. The Gospel of James was translated into: Syriac, Coptic, Old Church Slavonic, Arabic and Vulgar Latin. Though no early Latin versions are known, it was relegated to the apocrypha in the Gelasian Decretal, so it must have been known in the Western church before the fifth century, though the vast majority of the manuscripts come from the 10th century or later; the earliest known manuscript of the text, a papyrus dating to the third or early fourth century, was found in 1958.
Of the surviving Greek manuscripts, the fullest text is a 10th-century codex in the Bibliothèque Nationale, The Protoevangelium of James is divided into twenty-four chapters, broken down into three sections: The first contains the story of the miraculous birth of Mary to Anna, infertile, Mary's childhood and dedication to the temple. The second starts when she is twelve years old, through the direction of an angel, Joseph is selected to become her husband; the third relates the Nativity of Jesus, with the visit of midwives, hiding of Jesus from Herod the Great in a feeding trough and the parallel hiding in the hills of John the Baptist and his mother from Herod the Great. One of the work's high points is the Lament of Anna. A primary theme is the work and grace of God in Mary's life, Mary's personal purity, her perpetual virginity before and after the bi
Aayiram Kannukal is a 1986 Indian Malayalam film, directed by Joshiy and produced by Prem Prakash. The film stars Mammootty, Jose Prakash and Rajalakshmi in lead roles; the film had musical score by Raghu Kumar. The film was loosely based on the 1984 Tamil film Nooravathu Naal which itself was an unofficial adaptation of the 1977 Italian giallo film Sette note in nero. Mammootty as Dr. Sam / Samuel George Shobhana as Anu Jose Prakash as Dr. K. G. Varma Rajalakshmi as Suzy Ratheesh as James Kundara Johny as Johnny Mala Aravindan as Kuttanpilla Kunchan as Jayan Prathapachandran as Anu's father KPAC Sunny as Fa. Alexander Ragini as Thulasi Kanakalatha Rahman as Band Troupe Singer Samuel George alias Doctor Sam is a doctor at Cherupushpam Mental Hospital. Kuttanpilla is a marriage broker, he brings out a proposal for Dr. Sam with Anu, a college student residing at a ladies hostel. Sam fell in love at first sight on seeing Anu's photo. However, there was a misunderstanding when Kuttanpillai conveys the proposal to Anu, Anu mistakes Sam to be a patient in mental hospital, hence shows no interest in the proposal.
Sam was annoyed with Kuttanpillai for creating such a scene. When a relative of her hostelmate got admitted in the mental hospital and colleagues go for a visit. At the same time a drama was being planned with Sam enacting a mental patient; when the rehearsal of the drama was in progress at the hospital and friends reach there. On seeing Sam in a costume of a chained mental patient and friends get shocked and they ran away despite Sam running behind and trying to prove his innocence. On another day and his friend Jayan go for jogging. Anu and her friends too were involved with jogging; when a stray dog chases Sam, he runs and jumps a wall to fall in front of Anu and friends. By now, Anu is sure that Sam is abnormal. Anu's friend and hostel mate Thulasi leaves home from the hostel as she has some health issues and that she prefers to avail treatment from her home. Thulasi hails from Anu's native place. On a day, Anu leaves home. While Anu gets dropped from the transport bus, she finds Thulasi at the bus stop.
When Thulasi was about to tell something, Anu's brother-in-law reaches there to pick up Anu to home and Thulasi takes leave. Anu finds out from her sister Suzy that Thulasi was having an affair with Johnny, who does not have an impressive job; when Anu and Suzy tries to convince Thulasi and come out of her affair, Thulasi tells her that she is bearing Johnny's child and now there is no other way. Anu has a dream that Thulasi gets murdered when a jeep hits her, however she ignores it. One day, Anu gets a letter from Thulasi telling that she is eloping that night with Johnny and she should not tell this matter to anyone else. At night, while Thulasi waits for Johnny, a jeep follows her and hits her causing her to fall from the bridge to the river; the dead body of Thulasi is found, Anu is shocked to see that the dead body bears the same costume as she had seen in her dream. Accepting the letter sent by Thulasi as proof, other circumstances, Johnny is taken into custody and he is questioned by police.
However he denies all. In the meantime, the proposal from Sam reaches Anu's family, after having a conversation with Sam, Anu is cleared of all confusions and she agrees for the marriage. After the marriage and honeymoon time, Anu dreams that her sister Suzy getting murdered by an unknown person wearing a hat, she sees someone with a bald head in the dream. Anu wakes up frightened, she asks Sam to take her to her Suzy's house and reveals of her dream; however Sam consoles her and they call to Suzy's house to confirm everything is alright. James was about to take leave for Trivandrum. After the call, since Anu was not able to fall asleep, Sam gives her a tablet and she was able to drift to sleep. James leaves to Trivandrum. Suzy gets murdered that night in the same way as Anu dreamt, Anu is put to grief as she couldn't prevent the murder despite having a hint. Though police wanted to question Anu, Sam prevents it. Anu again dreams of a murder in which there was a lady, a building with two outdoor lamps, a table with film magazine bearing the Eiffel Tower of Paris as its cover page, a musical band performing on stage with a song beginning with "Dreams".
Anu reveals about the dream to James. They set out to enquire with the film magazine office and the band troup, was quite dejected when the film magazine office denies of any issue with such a cover page and informed that they do not wish to put Eiffel Tower as cover page; the musical band denies that they do not have a song beginning with the word Dreams. Sam withdraws from any further investigations. However, with the help of James, Anu still continues to enquire. Though they trace a house having the same lights in dream, it was a brothel and there were some harsh outcomes for enquiring into the activities of a brothel. Sam takes Anu to his professor Dr. K. G. Varma for a check-up; however all tests reveal. But the Varma warns Sam to be alert with the dreams. Varma tells that he is being transferred to Kozhikkode, quite far; when Anu dreams of the same murder again, Sam pays visit to Dr. Varma, it was on the same day. Sam had instructed Anu to attend the function with James. Though James was engaged, he promises to be back by evening and take Anu for the function.
However, when James seemed to get late, Anu leaves to the club alone. While at the club, Anu happens to see the film magazine with Eiffel Tower as cover page, she sees the musical band perfor
Nuwe Amanya Mushega known as Amanya Mushega, is a Ugandan lawyer, politician and civil servant. He served as the secretary general of the East African Community from 2001 until 2006, he was born on 27 June 1946 in Bushenyi District in the Western Region of Uganda. Mushega received his early education in Uganda, he attended Mbarara High School from 1963 until 1966, before transferring to Kings College Budo in 1967. He entered the University of Dar es Salaam in 1969 to study law, he obtained his Bachelor of Laws in 1972 and went on to obtain his Master of Laws from Queen's University in Kingston, Canada in 1974. In the late 1970s, Mushega enrolled in the Doctor of Philosophy program at the London School of Economics but abandoned that program when he joined the National Resistance Movement in 1981. Following his graduation from the University of Dar es Salaam, he returned to Uganda in 1972 and taught as an assistant lecturer in the faculty of law at Makerere University. After obtaining his master's degree in 1974, he became a lecturer in the faculty of law at the University of Zambia in Lusaka.
He returned to Makerere University in 1979 as a lecturer and continued in that capacity until 1981. In 1981, Mushega joined the National Resistance Army of Yoweri Museveni, where he served as the chief national political commisar and rose to the rank of colonel. Between 1986 and 2001, he served in various ministerial roles, in the ministries of defence, local government and public service. During that time, he served as the member of parliament representing Igara East in Bushenyi District. In 2001, he was appointed by the EAC heads of state to serve a five-year term as secretary general of the EAC. Following his work in the EAC, Mushega returned to Uganda and, along with others, started Mushega & Associates Consultants, a private consulting firm. Following the constitutional amendment that removed presidential term limits in Uganda in 2005, who opposed the amendment, left the National Resistance Movement political party and joined the Forum for Democratic Change, he serves as the FDC regional vice president for western Uganda
Hans Meyer was a German-born teacher at Bunce Court School in the County of Kent, England. He taught at the school from 1934 until it closed in 1948. In 1940, Meyer and several others from the school were forced to go to a British internment camp. Learning that several of his pupils were being deported to a camp in Australia, Meyer volunteered to accompany them, ending up on the HMT Dunera. Meyer was born in Mainz, the son of Jewish parents, his father ran a hardware store. He died in 1932. After attending gymnasium, he began studying medicine until he was prohibited from attending university by the Nazis. In 1934, at the age of 21, he left Germany and moved to England, where he began working for Anna Essinger at Bunce Court School; the school's original home was in Herrlingen, but after it came under scrutiny from Nazi authorities and her senior pupils were prohibited from taking the exams for the abitur, Essinger evacuated the entire school to England. Bunce Court's enrollment was made up of refugees from Nazi Germany and countries under Nazi control.
Alumni Leslie Baruch Brent, who arrived on the first Kindertransport, Eric Bourne credited Meyer with having been empathetic with the pupils, a large number of whom lost their families. Years Meyer said that at that time, teaching was less important than being a "sympathetic human being". Bunce Court pupils were on a first name basis with their teachers or were called nicknames made up by the children. Meyer's nickname was "Meyerlein", an affectionate diminutive, meaning "little Meyer". Meyer met and married another teacher at the school, Hannah Goldschmidt and had two sons and Tyll, who died in an accident at age 21, his wife's nickname at the school was "Hago", for the first two letters of her first and maiden names. After the British government issued Defence Regulation 18b and in 1940 determined that all German-born males over the age of 16 had to be interned and others from the school, including several pupils, as enemy aliens, were forced to leave the school for an internment camp in Huyton, a suburb of Liverpool.
When Meyer learned that some of the boys from Bunce Court were to be deported to Australia, he volunteered to accompany them on the HMT Dunera. He was able to rejoin his family. In 1948, Essinger closed Bunce Meyer went into business with a former student, Peter Ryan. In 1956, the partnership was dissolved and Meyer enrolled at Culham College in Abingdon and acquired a teaching certificate, enabling him to work as a teacher, he found employment at Shepway School in Maidstone, where he worked in a special unit for boys for the next 20 years, retiring in 1978. Meyer's first wife died in 1977, he and his second wife, Susanne Hein, from Hamburg, were married in 2001. After a Bunce Court reunion in 2003, Meyer contacted as many former pupils as he could find and invited them to contribute reminiscences of the school, publishing them as a book called Reflections: Bunce Court. Photo of Hans Meyer Otterden Online. Retrieved October 4, 2011
Franciscus Manini was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Novigrad. On 4 Jul 1607, he was appointed during the papacy of Pope Paul V as Bishop of Novigrad. On 8 Jul 1607, he was consecrated bishop by Ludovico de Torres, Archbishop of Monreale, with Juan de Rada, Bishop of Patti, Metello Bichi, Bishop Emeritus of Sovana, serving as co-consecrators, he served as Bishop of Novigrad until his death in Sep 1619. Cheney, David M. "Diocese of Novigrad". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. Retrieved June 16, 2018. Chow, Gabriel. "Titular Episcopal See of Novigrad". GCatholic.org. Retrieved June 16, 2018
June Martel was a singer and a stage and motion picture actress from Chicago, Illinois. She was a petite brunette, her career began as a singer in New Jersey. Martel was in the cast of the Broadway play, Snatch as Snatch Can, in May 1934. Other actors paired with her included Barton MacLane, her first film role was in Front Page Woman followed by Going Highbrow. The latter starred Guy Kibbee, she was the female lead in Fighting Youth. Playing the part of "Betty Wilson'," Martel starred opposite Andy Devine; the movie combined football excitement with the influence of communism on college athletics. Martel was signed by Harry Warner of Warner Bros. in 1935. Other aspiring Warners' actresses were Olivia de Havilland, June Grabiner, Nan Grey, Dorothy Dare. By August 1936 she had become the property of Paramount Pictures; the studio cast her as the ingenue in American Plan. The story concerned a girl who inherits a newspaper, adapted from an unpublished play by Manny Seff and Milton Lazarus, she appeared in Sitting on the Moon in 1936.
Martel's final screen roles came in western films. Among these are Forlorn River, Wild Horse Rodeo and Santa Fe Stampede, she collected odd pieces of jewelry and had amassed a small trunkload of items by 1937. In February 1941 Martel married screenwriter Frank Fenton. Fenton was a scenarist and magazine writer, her first husband was Walter J. Klavun, a Yale University graduate, whom she divorced in Mexico in 1938. June Martel died in 1978 in California. Los Angeles Times, News Notes of Broadway Stage, May 29, 1934, Page 10. Los Angeles Times, June Martel In New Picture, January 5, 1935, Page 5. Los Angeles Times, Ten On Road To Stardom, April 1, 1935, Page A2. Los Angeles Times, June Martel's Debut, May 6, 1935, Page 14. Los Angeles Times, More Newcomers Crash Pictures, August 28, 1936, Page 15. Los Angeles Times, She Collects Jewelry, May 30, 1937, Page C3. Los Angeles Times, June Martel Becomes Bride of Film and Magazine Writer, March 1, 1941, Page 3. Los Angeles Times, Cupid Scores Knockout Blow Over Divorce Among Motion Picture Folk Of Hollywood, January 2, 1942, Page 7.