Gospel of Mark

The Gospel According to Mark is one of the four canonical gospels and one of the three synoptic gospels. It tells of the ministry of Jesus from his baptism by John the Baptist to his death and burial and the discovery of the empty tomb – there is no genealogy of Jesus or birth narrative, nor, in the original ending at chapter 16, any post-resurrection appearances of Jesus, it portrays Jesus as a heroic man of action, an exorcist, a healer, a miracle worker. Jesus is the Son of God, but he keeps his identity secret, concealing it in parables so that most of the disciples fail to understand. All this is in keeping with prophecy; the gospel ends, in its original version, with the discovery of the empty tomb, a promise to meet again in Galilee, an unheeded instruction to spread the good news of the resurrection. Most scholars date Mark AD 65-75; the anonymous author worked with various sources including collections of miracle stories, controversy stories, a passion narrative. It was traditionally placed second, sometimes fourth, in the Christian canon, as an inferior abridgement of what was regarded as the most important gospel, Matthew.

The Church has derived its view of Jesus from Matthew, secondarily from John, only distantly from Mark. It was only in the 19th century that Mark came to be seen as the earliest of the four gospels, as a source used by both Matthew and Luke; the hypothesis of Marcan priority continues to be held by the majority of scholars today, there is a new recognition of the author as an artist and theologian using a range of literary devices to convey his conception of Jesus as the authoritative yet suffering Son of God. The Gospel of Mark is anonymous, it was written in Greek for a gentile audience in Rome, although Galilee and southern Syria have been suggested. Early Christian tradition attributes it to the John Mark mentioned in Acts, but scholars reject this as an attempt to link the gospel to an authoritative figure, it was written c. AD 66–70, during Nero's persecution of the Christians in Rome or the Jewish revolt, as suggested by internal references to war in Judea and to persecution; the author used a variety of pre-existing sources, such as conflict stories, apocalyptic discourse, collections of sayings.

Scholars accept that parts of Mark, such as the Passion Narrative, date as early as AD 40. The consensus among modern scholars is that the gospels are a subset of the ancient genre of bios, or ancient biography. Ancient biographies were concerned with providing examples for readers to emulate while preserving and promoting the subject's reputation and memory, included propaganda and kerygma in their works The gospels of Matthew and Luke bear a striking resemblance to each other, so much so that their contents can be set side by side in parallel columns; the fact that they share so much material verbatim and yet exhibit important differences has led to a number of hypotheses explaining their interdependence, a phenomenon termed the Synoptic Problem. It is accepted that this was the first gospel and was used as a source by both Matthew and Luke, who agree with each other in their sequence of stories and events only when they agree with Mark. Since about 1950 there has been a growing consensus that the primary purpose of the author of Mark was to announce a message rather than to report history.

The idea that the gospel could be used to reconstruct the historical Jesus suffered two severe blows in the early part of the 20th century, first when William Wrede argued that the "Messianic secret" motif in Mark was a creation of the early church rather than a reflection of the historical Jesus, in 1919 when Karl Ludwig Schmidt further undermined its historicity with his contention that the links between episodes are the invention of the writer, meaning that it cannot be taken as a reliable guide to the chronology of Jesus' mission: both claims are accepted today. The gospel is still seen as the most reliable of the four in terms of its overall description of Jesus's life and ministry. Christianity began within Judaism, with a Christian "church" that arose shortly after Jesus's death, when some of his followers claimed to have witnessed him risen from the dead. From the outset, Christians depended on Jewish literature, supporting their convictions through the Jewish scriptures; those convictions involved a nucleus of key concepts: the messiah, the son of God and the son of man, the suffering servant, the Day of the Lord, the kingdom of God.

Uniting these ideas was the common thread of apocalyptic expectation: Both Jews and Christians believed that the end of history was at hand, that God would soon come to punish their enemies and establish his own rule, that they were at the centre of his plans. Christians read the Jewish scripture as a figure or type of Jesus Christ, so that the goal of Christian literature became an experience of the living Christ; the new movement spread around the eastern Mediterranean and to Rome and further west, assumed a distinct identity, although the groups within it remained diverse. The gospels were written for an audience Christian – their purpose was to strengthen the faith of those who believed, not to convert unbelievers. Christian "churches" were small communities of believers based on

Aaj Ka Goonda Raaj

Aaj Ka Goonda Raaj is a 1992 Indian Hindi-language action crime film starring Chiranjeevi and Meenakshi Seshadri in the lead roles. It is an official remake of the 1991 Telugu film Gang Leader; this was Chiranjeevi's second film in Bollywood. The film explores the concepts of exploitation by anti-social elements and the impact of crowd psychology. Raja, though he is righteous, tough, a daredevil and educated, was an unemployed young man. With no work on hand, he squanders his time with his four friends; this upsets his family members: his dadi and elder brothers Amar and Ravi, who care for and worry about him. Troubled by a lack of money, the family has lots of problems. Ravi's pending IAS examination was the core problem. To raise money for the examination and his friends take up a job, one that entailed getting rid of a tenant who had illegally settled in a house. Raja had an easy time getting rid of Shalu, but from on, Shalu creates hell for him and moves into his house and life permanently. Tejpal and Nagpal were power brokers.

They were influential and intimidating. They succeed in getting Ritu married to Ravi, now an IAS officer, on the threshold of becoming a collector. A perfect move thought the villains — Saxena's sister married to Raja's brother. Raja is cornered, he has many clashes with the duo. In one of these clashes, Raja's friends and eldest brother Amar are murdered. All is lost until Ravi discover the truth about Tejpal and Nagpal. Raja and Ravi decide to end the Gundaraj; the album featured several hit songs written by Sameer. The album managed top sales in 1992 to feature in the list of best selling albums. Aaj Ka Goonda Raaj on IMDb

Berkovich space

In mathematics, a Berkovich space, introduced by Berkovich, is a version of an analytic space over a non-Archimedean field, refining Tate's notion of a rigid analytic space. In the complex case algebraic geometry begins by defining the complex affine space to be C n. For each U ⊂ C n, we define O U, the ring of analytic functions on U to be the ring of holomorphic function, i.e. functions on U that can be written as a convergent power series in a neighborhood of each point. We define a local model space for f 1, …, f n ∈ O U to be X:= with O X = O U /. A complex analytic space is a locally ringed C -space, locally isomorphic to a local model space; when k is a complete non-Archimedean field, we have that k is disconnected. In such a case, if we continue with the same definition as in the complex case, we wouldn't get a good analytic theory. Berkovich gave a definition which gives nice analytic spaces over such k, gives back the usual definition over C. In addition to defining analytic functions over non-Archimedean fields, Berkovich spaces have a nice underlying topological space.

A seminorm on a ring A is a non-constant function f → | f | from A to the non-negative reals such that | 0 | = 0 | 1 | = 1 | f + g | ⩽ | f | + | g | | f g | ⩽ | f | | g | It is called multiplicative if | f g | = | f | | g | and is called a norm if | f | = 0 implies f = 0. If A is a normed ring with norm f → ‖ f ‖ the Berkovich spectrum of A, M is the set of multiplicative seminorms on A that are bounded by the norm of A; the Berkovich spectrum is equipped with the weakest topology such that for any f ∈ A the map { φ f: M → R | ⋅ | ↦ | f | is continuous. The Berkovich spectrum of a normed ring A is non-empty if A is non-zero and is compact if A is complete. If x is a point of the spectrum of A the elements f with | f | x = 0 form a prime ideal of A; the quotient field of the quotient by this prime ideal is a normed field, whose completion is a complete field with a multiplicative norm, this field is denoted by H and the image of an element f ∈ A is denoted by f. The field H (