A gossip columnist is someone who writes a gossip column in a newspaper or magazine a gossip magazine. Gossip columns are material written in a light, informal style, which relates the gossip columnist's opinions about the personal lives or conduct of celebrities from show business, professional sports stars, other wealthy people or public figures; some gossip columnists broadcast segments on television. The columns mix factual material on arrests, divorces and pregnancies, obtained from official records, with more speculative gossip stories and innuendo about romantic relationships and purported personal problems. Gossip columnists have a reciprocal relationship with the celebrities whose private lives are splashed about in the gossip column's pages. While gossip columnists sometimes engage in defamatory conduct, spreading innuendo about alleged immoral or illegal conduct that can injure celebrities' reputations, they are an important part of the "Star System" publicity machine that turns movie actors and musicians into celebrities and superstars that are the objects of the public's obsessive attention and interest.
The publicity agents of celebrities provide or "leak" information or rumors to gossip columnists to publicize the celebrity or their projects, or to counteract "bad press" that has surfaced about their conduct. While gossip columnists’ "bread and butter" is rumor and allegations of scandalous behavior, there is a fine line between acceptable spreading of rumor and the making of defamatory statements, which can provoke a lawsuit. Newspaper and magazine editorial policies require gossip columnists to have a source for all of their allegations, to protect the publisher against lawsuits for defamation. In the United States, celebrities or public figures can sue for libel if their private lives are revealed in gossip columns and they believe that their reputation has been defamed — that is, exposed to hatred, ridicule, or pecuniary loss. Gossip columnists cannot defend against libel claims by arguing that they repeated, but did not originate the defaming rumor or claim. In the mid-1960s, rulings by the United States Supreme Court made it harder for the media to be sued for libel in the U.
S. The court ruled that libel only occurred in cases where a publication printed falsehoods about a celebrity with “reckless disregard” for the truth. A celebrity suing a newspaper for libel must now prove that the paper published the falsehood with actual malice, or with deliberate knowledge that the statement was both incorrect and defamatory. Moreover, the court ruled, thus if a gossip columnist writes that they “...think that Celebrity X is an idiot,” the columnist does not face a risk of being sued for libel. On the other hand, if the columnist invents an allegation that “... Celebrity X is a wife beater,” with no supporting source or evidence, the celebrity can sue for libel on the grounds that their reputation was defamed. There is however circumstances where gossip columnist may not be fact checking the information they are receiving from their sources before publishing their stories. Not to mention that there are gossip columnist that are not reputable themselves to be posting articles about celebrities.
As a result of this there is a chance that there are stories that have been publish that could lead to the defamation of celebrities. The first gossip columnist, dominating the 1930s and 40s, was Walter Winchell, who used political and social connections to mine information and rumors, which he either published in his column On Broadway, or used for trade or blackmail, to accumulate more power, he became "the most feared journalist" of his era. In Hollywood's "golden age" in the 1930s and 1940s, gossip columnists were courted by the movie studios, so that the studios could use gossip columns as a powerful publicity tool. During this period, the major film studios had "stables" of contractually obligated actors, the studios controlled nearly all aspects of the lives of their movie stars. From the 1930s through the 1950s, the two best-known - and competing - Hollywood gossip columnists were Hedda Hopper and Louella Parsons. Well-timed leaks about a star's purported romantic adventures helped the studios to create and sustain the public's interest in the studios' star actors.
As well, the movie studios' publicity agents acted as unnamed "well-informed inside sources" who provided misinformation and rumors to counteract whispers about celebrity secrets — such as homosexuality or an out-of-wedlock child — that could have damaged not only the reputation of the movie star in question, but the movie star's box office viability. Having fallen into ill-repute after the heyday of Hopper and Parsons, gossip columnists saw a comeback in the 1980s. Today, many mainstream magazines such as Time which would once have considered the idea of hiring gossip columnists to pen articles to have been beneath their stature, have sections titled "People" or "Entertainment"; these mainstream gossip columns provide a light, chatty glimpse into the private lives and misadventures of the rich and famous. At the other end of the journalism spectrum, there are entire publications that deal in gossip and innuendo about celebrities, such as the'red-top' tabloids in the UK and celebrity'tell-all' magazines.
Notable gossip columnists include: Gossip columns that are not named after a specific columnist, along with the media source, include: 3am — Dail
The Boggs Lake Ecological Reserve is a nature reserve in Lake County, California. The land area is about one quarter of a square mile and contains a large vernal pool as well as endangered plants such as the Boggs Lake hedge-hyssop. Boggs Lake is managed by the California Department of Fish and Game, it has a small parking area and hiking trail loop. The protective fence and interpretive display boards were installed by the Nature Conservancy; the lake lies in a volcanic depression lined with a fine covering of volcanic ash a few feet deep that has compacted to become impervious to water. The lake surface covers about 90 acres. A plant preserve of 101 acres that resulted from the California Native Plant Society's efforts to save the land from development in 1973, it is today a protected area of sensitive habitat for several endangered plants and animals; the area was owned by the Fibreboard Corporation until the early 1970s when a group of California Native Plant Society members, botanists from the University of California and local residents asked the company to consider setting aside the vernal pool and an adjacent forest.
Although an undisturbed area, there were logging operations in the forest as well as geothermal and recreational activities that posed a threat to the fragile ecosystem. Fibreboard agreed to the offer, donated the land in 1973 and CNPS contacted The Nature Conservancy to assist with stewardship and legal matters. Named the Boggs Lake Preserve, it was a little more than 100 acres in size, included most of the lake and was added to the portfolio of preserves managed by The Nature Conservancy; the Boggs Lake Preserve Committee was created soon afterwards and spent the next 10 years mapping and monitoring rare plants of the preserve. The result of these scientific observations over a decade showed that the boundaries of the preserve were inadequate and did not protect some unique plant species growing outside the preserve. Off-road vehicle activity was increasing, both in the surrounding area. A housing development proposed near one side of the lake could cause algae growth from septic tank runoff infiltration.
Logging and geothermal resource extraction were still possible impacts to the area. In 1984 a new design for the preserve was drafted by the staff of The Nature Conservancy to address these issues. Based on the previous efforts of studying and managing the site, the expanded area added two major and six small parcels of the lake edge and a large meadow west of the lake to the original boundaries; these additions were obtained with donations from individuals, the Dean Witter Foundation and the Goodhill Foundation. Another benefit from this purchase was connecting the preserve to the county road to providepublic access to the area; the history of the Boggs Lake Ecological Reserve became a model for understanding what needs to be accomplished when the goal is to preserve lands having biological significance and diversity. In its early days, the Conservancy chose sites for protection based on opportunity rather than scientific analysis of the environment. Today, the information gathered and analysed is the driving force for selection of areas for preservation by the Conservancy.
The forest includes softwoods such as ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir and hardwoods such as black and live oak trees, as well as madrone trees. Other plants at Boggs Lake include poison oak, wild pea, bracken fern, coyote thistle, wild mustard, California or ground rose. Wildlife include deer, jackrabbit, gray squirrel, skunk and fox. Birds use the vernal pool as a rest stop on migration flights as well as year-round habitat. During a five-year period from 1982 to 1987, 139 species of birds were observed at Boggs Lake, including both bald and golden eagles. Other bird species seen are the pygmy nuthatch, pileated woodpecker, hermit warbler, purple martin, red-winged blackbird, ruddy duck, marsh wren and California quail; the Boggs Lake hedge-hyssop was discovered in 1923 in Lake County. It grows to a height of about four inches and has lance-shaped leaves and small yellowish-white flowers that bloom from April to August, it is found in vernal pools, marshy area,s and at the edges of lakes and cattle ponds and can bloom in as many as two inches of water.
The few-flowered Navarretia is a member of the Phlox family and was first collected northwest of the town of Lower Lake in 1945. It is an annual herb with lobed leaves, grows to a height of two inche,s and has tubular white or purple flower clusters, it germinates under water like many vernal pool species. May and June are; the western pond turtle is one of several reptiles at Boggs Lake and is listed as a species of special concern by the California Department of Fish and Game. Boggs Lake provides habitat for the western pond turtle; the preserve has water for feeding and body temperature regulation, as well as a nearby upland environment, which allows laying of eggs in areas not subject to submersion and basking areas. In June 2008, Sonoma State University began a study project at Boggs Lake with funds from SSU and the Sonoma County Fish and Wildlife Commission; the project goals are to solve the temperature-sex mystery. Turtle eggs from Boggs Lake are being hatched at different temperatures to find out what temperature determines male or female.
The turtles will be released back to Boggs Lake. The western pond turtle has been impacted by destruction of habitat, where once they we
Doksa Sillon or A New Reading of History is a book that discusses the history of Korea from the time of the mythical Dangun to the fall of the kingdom of Baekje in 926 CE. Its author––historian and independence activist Shin Chaeho ––first published it as a series of articles in the Daehan Maeil Sinbo, of which he was the editor-in-chief; as the first work to equate the history of Korea with the history of the Korean race, Doksa Sillon rejected the conventional Confucian histories that focused on the rise and fall of dynasties as well as the Japanese Pan-Asianist claims that Koreans and Chinese were all part of the "East Asian" or "yellow" race. Influenced by Social Darwinism, Shin portrayed the Korean minjok as a warlike race that had fought to preserve Korean identity but had been weakened by Confucianized elites like the yangban of the Joseon Dynasty. Doksa Sillon was one of the earliest expressions of Korean ethnic nationalism and it laid the foundation for Korean nationalist historiography, which used the study of ancient Korea to resist Japanese colonial scholarship while Korea was under Japanese rule.
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Xu, Stella Yingzi.. "That glorious ancient history of our nation: The contested re-readings of'Korea' in early Chinese historical records and their legacy in the formation of Korean-ness." PhD dissertation, Department of East Asian Languages and Culture, UCLA