Tea seed oil
Tea seed oil is an edible plant oil. It is obtained the seeds of Camellia oleifera. Camellia sasanqua is given as a source of'tea seed oil; the genus Camellia includes several commercially important species - Camellia oleifera is grown in China for vegetable oil. The oil is known as'camellia oil','tea seed oil', or'camellia seed oil'; as of 2016 4,000,000 hectares of oleifera forest centered on the Yangtze river basin in Hunan and Guangxi produces 0.26 million tons of oil. Wild Camellia oleifera contains ~47% oil, whilst cultivated varieties have shown oil content from 42-53%.. Oil analysis of cultivated varieties showed: ~76-82% oleic acid; the composition is similar to that of Olive oil. Another analysis of several cultivars found: 82-84% unsaturated acids of which 68-77% oleic acid. With its high smoke point of 252 °C, tea seed oil is the main cooking oil in some of the southern provinces of People's Republic of China, such as Hunan; the oil has been used in Chinese traditional medicine - here it has been used as a dietary supplement for the digestive system, as well as to manage cholesterol, as well as strengthen the immune system.
It was used topically as baby lotion, for burn injuries. Tea seed oil is used to protect carbon steel cooking knives from rust. Tea seed oil should not be mistaken for tea tree oil, an inedible essential oil extracted from the leaves of the paperbark, Melaleuca alternifolia, used for medicinal purposes. Camellia japonica, source of an oil known as Tsubaki oil. Main use hold a hairstyle. Camellia sinensis grown for its oil Yang, Chunying. In Janick, J. Trends in new crops and new uses. Alexandria, VA: American Society for Horticultural Science Press. Pp. 222–24. OCLC 51677926
National Diet Library
The National Diet Library is the national library of Japan and among the largest libraries in the world. It was established in 1948 for the purpose of assisting members of the National Diet of Japan in researching matters of public policy; the library is similar in scope to the United States Library of Congress. The National Diet Library consists of two main facilities in Tōkyō and Kyōtō, several other branch libraries throughout Japan; the National Diet Library is the successor of three separate libraries: the library of the House of Peers, the library of the House of Representatives, both of which were established at the creation of Japan's Imperial Diet in 1890. The Diet's power in prewar Japan was limited, its need for information was "correspondingly small"; the original Diet libraries "never developed either the collections or the services which might have made them vital adjuncts of genuinely responsible legislative activity". Until Japan's defeat, the executive had controlled all political documents, depriving the people and the Diet of access to vital information.
The U. S. occupation forces under General Douglas MacArthur deemed reform of the Diet library system to be an important part of the democratization of Japan after its defeat in World War II. In 1946, each house of the Diet formed its own National Diet Library Standing Committee. Hani Gorō, a Marxist historian, imprisoned during the war for thought crimes and had been elected to the House of Councillors after the war, spearheaded the reform efforts. Hani envisioned the new body as "both a'citadel of popular sovereignty'", the means of realizing a "peaceful revolution"; the Occupation officers responsible for overseeing library reforms reported that, although the Occupation was a catalyst for change, local initiative pre-existed the Occupation, the successful reforms were due to dedicated Japanese like Hani. The National Diet Library opened in June 1948 in the present-day State Guest-House with an initial collection of 100,000 volumes; the first Librarian of the Diet Library was the politician Tokujirō Kanamori.
The philosopher Masakazu Nakai served as the first Vice Librarian. In 1949, the NDL became the only national library in Japan. At this time the collection gained an additional million volumes housed in the former National Library in Ueno. In 1961, the NDL opened at its present location in Nagatachō, adjacent to the National Diet. In 1986, the NDL's Annex was completed to accommodate a combined total of 12 million books and periodicals; the Kansai-kan, which opened in October 2002 in the Kansai Science City, has a collection of 6 million items. In May 2002, the NDL opened a new branch, the International Library of Children's Literature, in the former building of the Imperial Library in Ueno; this branch contains some 400,000 items of children's literature from around the world. Though the NDL's original mandate was to be a research library for the National Diet, the general public is the largest consumer of the library's services. In the fiscal year ending March 2004, for example, the library reported more than 250,000 reference inquiries.
As Japan's national library, the NDL collects copies of all publications published in Japan. Moreover, because the NDL serves as a research library for Diet members, their staffs, the general public, it maintains an extensive collection of materials published in foreign languages on a wide range of topics; the NDL has eight major specialized collections: Modern Political and Constitutional History. The Modern Political and Constitutional History Collection comprises some 300,000 items related to Japan's political and legal modernization in the 19th century, including the original document archives of important Japanese statesmen from the latter half of the 19th century and the early 20th century like Itō Hirobumi, Iwakura Tomomi, Sanjō Sanetomi, Mutsu Munemitsu, Terauchi Masatake, other influential figures from the Meiji and Taishō periods; the NDL has an extensive microform collection of some 30 million pages of documents relating to the Occupation of Japan after World War II. This collection include the documents prepared by General Headquarters and the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, the Far Eastern Commission, the United States Strategic Bombing Survey Team.
The Laws and Preliminary Records Collection consists of some 170,000 Japanese and 200,000 foreign-language documents concerning proceedings of the National Diet and the legislatures of some 70 foreign countries, the official gazettes, judicial opinions, international treaties pertaining to some 150 foreign countries. The NDL maintains a collection of some 530,000 books and booklets and 2 million microform titles relating to the sciences; these materials include, among other things, foreign doctoral dissertations in the sciences, the proceedings and reports of academic societies, catalogues of technical standards, etc. The NDL has a collection of 440,000 maps of Japan and other countries, including the topographica
Gotō is a city in Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. It comprises the south-west half of the Gotō Islands plus Danjo and Hizen Torishima archipelagos in the East China Sea. Although the core islands of the city lay some 100 kilometers from Nagasaki, the other archipelagos lay 60 km further to South-West; the city consists of 52 uninhabited islands. The three main islands of the city are Fukue and Naru; as of March 31, 2017, the city has an estimated population of 37,775 and a population density of 90 persons per km2. The total area is 420.81 km2. The area, now Gotō City was a port of call on the trade route between Japan and Tang Dynasty China in the Nara period. Noted Buddhist prelate Kukai stopped at Gotō in 806; the islands came under the control of the Gotō clan from the Muromachi period and was the location of intense European missionary activity in the late 16th century, which converted most of the population to the Kirishitan faith. After the start of the Tokugawa bakufu, the area was part of Fukue Domain in the Edo period.
Fukue City was established in 1954. Most of the town was destroyed in a fire in 1962; the modern city of Gotō was established on August 1, 2004, from the merger of the city of Fukue with the towns of Kishiku, Naru and Tomie. The population of the area has declined from over 60,000 inhabitants in 1980 due to economic migration and aging population issues. Gotō has a humid subtropical climate with cool winters. Precipitation is high throughout the year, is heavy from April to September. Gotō used to host the Ironman Japan Triathlon; the triathlon was established in 2001, the event was canceled in 2010. Ironman chose not to renew the race for 2011; the city now hosts the Goto Nagasaki International Triathlon using the same course for the previous Ironman event. In late summer there is the Bon festival where people gather in the main area of Fukue and hold a parade along with street vendors; the parade walked through the town. At the end there is a beautiful firework show. In winter there is an event called "Hettomatto" known as the'naked man race'.
Participants run along a course in a fundoshi. Gotō-Fukue Airport on Fukue serves the city, it was established in 1963 to serve as a regional airport. Gotō City official website
Barakamon is a Japanese manga series written and illustrated by Satsuki Yoshino. It started serialization in Square Enix's Gangan Online February 2009 issue; the story follows Seishu Handa, a calligrapher who moves to the remote Goto Islands off the western coast of Kyushu, his various interactions with the people of the island. An anime adaptation by Kinema Citrus aired in Japan between July and September 2014. Funimation has licensed the series for home video release. In February 2014, Yen Press announced they have licensed Barakamon for English release in North America. A spin-off manga series Handa-kun started serialization in the November 2013 issue of Square Enix's Monthly Shonen Gangan magazine. An anime television adaptation by Diomedéa aired in Japan between July and September 2016. Seishu Handa is a professional calligrapher, despite his young age; when the elderly curator of an exhibition criticizes his calligraphy for being too unoriginal, Seishu gets angry and punches him. Because of this, his father sends him off near Kyushu.
There, he meets the colorful villagers, interacts with them, begins to find his own style. The title of the series means "energetic/cheeful one" in the local provincial Goto Islands' dialect; the first episode is called "Barakakodon/ばらかこどん" which means "energetic/cheeful kid", which refers to Naru Kotoishi, a hyperactive kid that comes into Handa's life. The story of prequel spin-off Handa-kun is about the hilarious high school days of the calligraphy genius, Seishu Handa, protagonist of Barakamon. Seishu Handa Voiced by: Daisuke Ono, his real name is Sei. After punching a gallery curator for calling his calligraphy "boring," "rigid," "academic," and "bland.", he is sent by his father to a small town in the Goto Islands to focus on his calligraphy as he waits out his "banishment". He is childish and a short-tempered adult. He's easy to scare. He's affectionately called "Sensei" by the people of the village area of town; as a teenager, he was popular among the boys and girls from his school but was under the impression that most of the school hated him when in fact, he was worshipped by others who misunderstood his methods from interactions with him.
He discovers the truth of his reputation and was dismayed to hear his best friend was teasing him the whole time. While Handa came to understand that, he was overwhelmed by the popularity. Naru Kotoishi Voiced by: Suzuko Hara, her personality is energetic and childish. She visits Handa's house every day to play, she is reckless, thinking after she does. Miwa Yamamura Voiced by: Nozomi Furuki. Naru learned many weird things for which Seishu scolded her, she created five copies of the key to Seishu's house back when it was the kids' base, one of which she lost in the hills behind his house. Tamako Arai Voiced by: Rumi Okubo, she has been a lover of manga since childhood and began aiming to be a manga artist. She has been struggling with her repressed yaoi interests since Handa moved in, she owns one of the keys to Seishu's house. Hiroshi Kido Voiced by: Kōki Uchiyama, he is a high school student who hates how he is average in everything, such as looks, grades and activities. He delivers meals to Handa's sometimes cooks for him.
He likes to fish, aims for the hisanio, or the striped beakfish, when fishing with others. He owns one of the keys to Seishu's house. Hina Kubota Voiced by: Rina Endō, she is shy and quick to cry when dealing with strangers or whenever she's happy. When she first met Handa, she started crying. Kentaro Ohama Voiced by: Seiya Kimura, he is just like Naru: a energetic kid. He loves to hunt for other insects; the first time he meets Seishu, he gives him a butt jab. Akihiko Arai Voiced by: Megumi Han, he loves gaming, watches his grandmother's store for her. Yūjirō Kido Voiced by: Tanuki Sugino, he brings Seishu medicine and food. Kazuyuki Sakamoto Voiced by: Fumihiko Tachiki, he enjoys fishing in the village's pond. Takao Kawafuji Voiced by: Junichi Suwabe, he arranges Handa's calligraphy work and other needs. He says that he prioritizes
Nagasaki is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture on the island of Kyushu in Japan. The city's name, 長崎, means "long cape" in Japanese. Nagasaki became a centre of colonial Portuguese and Dutch influence in the 16th through 19th centuries, the Hidden Christian Sites in the Nagasaki Region have been recognized and included in the UNESCO World Heritage List. Part of Nagasaki was home to a major Imperial Japanese Navy base during the First Sino-Japanese War and Russo-Japanese War. During World War II, the American atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki made Nagasaki the second and, to date, last city in the world to experience a nuclear attack; as of 1 March 2017, the city has an estimated population of 425,723 and a population density of 1,000 people per km2. The total area is 406.35 km2. Nagasaki is a Japanese port city, occupied by the Portuguese in the late 16th century. A small fishing village set in a secluded harbor, Nagasaki had little historical significance until contact with Portuguese explorers in 1543.
An early visitor was Fernão Mendes Pinto, who came from Sagres on a Portuguese ship which landed nearby in Tanegashima. Soon after, Portuguese ships started sailing to Japan as regular trade freighters, thus increasing the contact and trade relations between Japan and the rest of the world, with mainland China, with whom Japan had severed its commercial and political ties due to a number of incidents involving Wokou piracy in the South China Sea, with the Portuguese now serving as intermediaries between the two Asian countries. Despite the mutual advantages derived from these trading contacts, which would soon be acknowledged by all parties involved, the lack of a proper seaport in Kyūshū for the purpose of harboring foreign ships posed a major problem for both merchants and the Kyushu daimyōs who expected to collect great advantages from the trade with the Portuguese. In the meantime, Spanish Jesuit missionary St. Francis Xavier arrived in Kagoshima, South Kyūshū, in 1549, soon initiated a thorough campaign of evangelization throughout Japan, left for China in 1552 and died soon afterwards.
His followers who remained behind converted a number of daimyōs. The most notable among them was Ōmura Sumitada. In 1569, Ōmura granted a permit for the establishment of a port with the purpose of harboring Portuguese ships in Nagasaki, set up in 1571, under the supervision of the Jesuit missionary Gaspar Vilela and Portuguese Captain-Major Tristão Vaz de Veiga, with Ōmura's personal assistance; the little harbor village grew into a diverse port city, Portuguese products imported through Nagasaki were assimilated into popular Japanese culture. Tempura derived from a popular Portuguese recipe known as peixinho-da-horta, takes its name from the Portuguese word,'tempero,' seasoning, refers to the tempora quadragesima, forty days of Lent during which eating meat was for bidden, another example of the enduring effects of this cultural exchange; the Portuguese brought with them many goods from China. Due to the instability during the Sengoku period and Jesuit leader Alexandro Valignano conceived a plan to pass administrative control over to the Society of Jesus rather than see the Catholic city taken over by a non-Catholic daimyō.
Thus, for a brief period after 1580, the city of Nagasaki was a Jesuit colony, under their administrative and military control. It became a refuge for Christians escaping maltreatment in other regions of Japan. In 1587, Toyotomi Hideyoshi's campaign to unify the country arrived in Kyūshū. Concerned with the large Christian influence in southern Japan, as well as the active and what was perceived as the arrogant role the Jesuits were playing in the Japanese political arena, Hideyoshi ordered the expulsion of all missionaries, placed the city under his direct control. However, the expulsion order went unenforced, the fact remained that most of Nagasaki's population remained practicing Catholic. In 1596, the Spanish ship San Felipe was wrecked off the coast of Shikoku, Hideyoshi learned from its pilot that the Spanish Franciscans were the vanguard of an Iberian invasion of Japan. In response, Hideyoshi ordered the crucifixions of twenty-six Catholics in Nagasaki on February 5 of the next year. Portuguese traders were not ostracized, so the city continued to thrive.
In 1602, Augustinian missionaries arrived in Japan, when Tokugawa Ieyasu took power in 1603, Catholicism was still tolerated. Many Catholic daimyōs had been critical allies at the Battle of Sekigahara, the Tokugawa position was not strong enough to move against them. Once Osaka Castle had been taken and Toyotomi Hideyoshi's offspring killed, the Tokugawa dominance was assured. In addition, the Dutch and English presence allowed trade without religious strings attached. Thus, in 1614, Catholicism was banned and all missionaries ordered to leave. Most Catholic daimyo apostatized, forced their subjects to do so, although a few would not renounce the religion and left the country for Macau and Japantowns in Southeast Asia. A brutal campaign of persecution followed, with thousands of converts across Kyūshū and other parts of Japan killed, tortured, or forced to renounce their religion. Catholicism's last gasp as an open religion and the last major military action in Japan until the Meiji Restoration was the Shimabara Rebellion of 1637.
While there is no evidence that Europeans directly incited the rebellion
Sea urchins or urchins are spiny, globular animals, echinoderms in the class Echinoidea. About 950 species live on the seabed, inhabiting all oceans and depth zones from the intertidal to 5,000 metres, their tests are round and spiny from 3 to 10 cm across. Sea urchins move crawling with their tube feet, sometimes pushing themselves with their spines, they feed on algae but eat slow-moving or sessile animals. Their predators include sea otters, wolf eels, triggerfish. Like other echinoderms, urchins have fivefold symmetry as adults, but their pluteus larvae have bilateral symmetry, indicating that they belong to the Bilateria, the large group of animal phyla that includes chordates, arthropods and molluscs, they are distributed across all the oceans, all climates from tropical to polar, inhabit marine benthic habitats from rocky shores to hadal zone depths. Echinoids have a rich fossil record dating back to the Ordovician, some 450 million years ago, their closest relatives among the echinoderms are the sea cucumbers.
The animals have been studied since the 19th century as model organisms in developmental biology, as their embryos were easy to observe. Species such as the slate pencil urchin are popular in aquariums, where they are useful for controlling algae. Fossil urchins have been used as protective amulets. Sea urchins are members of the phylum Echinodermata, which includes sea stars, sea cucumbers, brittle stars, crinoids. Like other echinoderms, they have five-fold symmetry and move by means of hundreds of tiny, adhesive "tube feet"; the symmetry is not obvious in the living animal, but is visible in the dried test. The term "sea urchin" refers to the "regular echinoids", which are symmetrical and globular, includes several different taxonomic groups, with two subclasses: Euechinoidea and Cidaroidea or "slate-pencil urchins", which have thick, blunt spines, with algae and sponges growing on them; the "irregular" sea urchins are an infra-class inside the Euechinoidea, called Irregularia, include Atelostomata and Neognathostomata.
Irregular echinoids include: flattened sand dollars, sea biscuits, heart urchins. Together with sea cucumbers, they make up the subphylum Echinozoa, characterized by a globoid shape without arms or projecting rays. Sea cucumbers and the irregular echinoids have secondarily evolved diverse shapes. Although many sea cucumbers have branched tentacles surrounding their oral openings, these have originated from modified tube feet and are not homologous to the arms of the crinoids, sea stars, brittle stars. Urchins range in size from 3 to 10 cm, although the largest species can reach up to 36 cm, they have a rigid spherical body bearing moveable spines, which gives the class the name Echinoidea. The name "urchin" is an old word for hedgehog; the name is derived from Latin ericius, hedgehog. Like other echinoderms, sea urchin early larvae have bilateral symmetry, but they develop five-fold symmetry as they mature; this is most apparent in the "regular" sea urchins, which have spherical bodies with five sized parts radiating out from their central axes.
The mouth is at the anus at the top. Several sea urchins, including the sand dollars, are oval in shape, with distinct front and rear ends, giving them a degree of bilateral symmetry. In these urchins, the upper surface of the body is domed, but the underside is flat, while the sides are devoid of tube feet; this "irregular" body form has evolved to allow the animals to burrow through sand or other soft materials. Sea urchins may appear to be incapable of moving. Sometimes the most visible sign of life is the spines, which are attached to ball-and-socket joints and can point in any direction. Sea urchins have no visible eyes, legs, or means of propulsion, but can move but over hard surfaces using adhesive tube feet, working in conjunction with the spines; the internal organs are enclosed in a hard shell or test composed of fused plates of calcium carbonate covered by a thin dermis and epidermis. The test is rigid, divides into five ambulacral grooves separated by five interambulacral areas; each of these areas consists of two rows of plates, so the sea urchin test includes 20 rows of plates in total.
The plates are covered in rounded tubercles which contain the sockets to which the spines are attached by ball and socket joints. The inner surface of the test is lined by peritoneum. Sea urchins convert aqueous carbon dioxide using a catalytic process involving nickel into the calcium carbonate portion of the test. Most species have two series of spines and secondary, distributed over the surface of the body, with the shortest at the poles and the longest at the equator; the spines are hollow and cylindrical. Contraction of the muscular sheath that covers the test causes the spines to lean in one direction or another, while an inner sheath of collagen fibres can reversibly change from soft to rigid which can lock the spine i
Kyushu is the third largest island of Japan and most southwesterly of its four main islands. Its alternative ancient names include Kyūkoku and Tsukushi-no-shima; the historical regional name Saikaidō referred to its surrounding islands. In the 8th century Taihō Code reforms, Dazaifu was established as a special administrative term for the region; as of 2016, Kyushu covers 36,782 square kilometres. The island is mountainous, Japan's most active volcano, Mt Aso at 1,591 metres, is on Kyushu. There are many other signs including numerous areas of hot springs; the most famous of these are in Beppu, on the east shore, around Mt. Aso, in central Kyushu; the island is separated from Honshu by the Kanmon Straits. The name Kyūshū comes from the nine ancient provinces of Saikaidō situated on the island: Chikuzen, Hizen, Buzen, Bungo, Hyūga, Satsuma. Today's Kyushu Region is a politically defined region that consists of the seven prefectures on the island of Kyushu, plus Okinawa Prefecture to the south: Northern Kyushu Fukuoka Prefecture Kumamoto Prefecture Nagasaki Prefecture Ōita Prefecture Saga Prefecture Southern Kyushu Kagoshima Prefecture Miyazaki Prefecture Okinawa Prefecture Kyushu comprises 10.3 percent of the entire population of Japan.
Most of Kyushu's population is concentrated along the northwest, in the cities of Fukuoka and Kitakyushu, with population corridors stretching southwest into Sasebo and Nagasaki and south into Kumamoto and Kagoshima. Excepting Oita and Miyazaki cities, the eastern seaboard shows a general decline in population. Kyushu is described as a stronghold of the LDP political party. Designated citiesFukuoka Kitakyushu Kumamoto Core citiesKagoshima Ōita Nagasaki Miyazaki Naha Kurume Sasebo Saga Parts of Kyushu have a subtropical climate Miyazaki prefecture and Kagoshima prefecture. Major agricultural products are rice, tobacco, sweet potatoes, soy; the island is noted for various types of porcelain, including Arita, Imari and Karatsu. Heavy industry is concentrated in the north around Fukuoka, Kitakyushu and Oita and includes chemicals, automobiles and metal processing. In 2010, the graduate employment rate in the region was the lowest nationwide, at 88.9%. Besides the volcanic area of the south, there are significant mud hot springs in the northern part of the island, around Beppu.
These springs are the site of occurrence of certain extremophile micro-organisms, that are capable of surviving in hot environments. Major universities and colleges in Kyushu: National universities Kyushu University – One of seven former "Imperial Universities" Kyushu Institute of Technology Saga University Nagasaki University Kumamoto University Fukuoka University of Education Oita University Miyazaki University Kagoshima University National Institute of Fitness and Sports in Kanoya University of the Ryukyus Universities run by local governments University of Kitakyushu Kyushu Dental College Fukuoka Women's University Fukuoka Prefectural University Nagasaki Prefectural University Oita University of Nursing and Health Sciences Prefectural University of Kumamoto Miyazaki Municipal University Miyazaki Prefectural Nursing University Okinawa Prefectural University of Arts Major private universities Fukuoka University – University with the largest number of students in Kyushu Kumamoto Gakuen University Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University Seinan Gakuin University Kyushu Sangyo University – Baseball team won the Japanese National Championship in 2005 University of Occupational and Environmental Health Kurume University The island is linked to the larger island of Honshu by the Kanmon Tunnels, which carry both the San'yō Shinkansen and non-Shinkansen trains of the Kyushu Railway Company, as well as vehicular and bicycle traffic.
The Kanmon Bridge connects the island with Honshu. Railways on the island are operated by the Kyushu Railway Company, Nishitetsu Railway. Northern Kyushu Southern Kyushu Azumi people, an ancient group of people who inhabited parts of northern Kyūshū Geography of Japan Group Kyushu Western Army United States Fleet Activities Sasebo Hoenn, a fictional region in the Pokémon franchise, based on Kyushu Kanmonkyo Bridge, that connects Kyūshū with Honshū Kyushu National Museum List of regions in Japan Kyushu dialects Hichiku dialect, Hōnichi dialect and Kagoshima dialect Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth.. Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5.