Vologases III of Parthia
Vologases III was a Parthian Prince who claimed the throne of the Parthian Empire about 105, in the last days of Pacorus II of Parthia and reigned over the eastern portion of the kingdom to 147. Vologases III was the son of Vologases II of Parthia, during his Parthian rule, he was the Roman Client King of Armenia from 117/8 until 144 and from his Armenian Kingship is known as Vologases I or Vagharsh I. Preoccupied by conflicts with the Romans, particularly the invasion by Roman emperor Trajan, after Vologases IIIs death, the Parthian realm was finally reunited by Vologases IV of Parthia, the son of his rival Mithridates IV. In 144, Vologases IIIs Armenian kingship was given to Sohaemus for unknown reasons, Vologases III was the father of princess Ghadana, who married Pharasmanes II of Iberia and became Queen of Caucasian Iberia. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh
Sanatruces of Parthia
King Sanatruces of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire from c. 93/2 BC to 88/87 BC during his first reign and c.77 to 70 BC during his second reign and he was a member of the Arsacid house, who proclaimed himself king in Susiana and attempted to usurp the throne of Mithridates II. Ultimately, Gotarzes I forced him to flee to the Central Asian steppe, king of Parthia, was restored to his country in his eightieth year by the Sacauracian Scyths, assumed the throne and held it seven years. He died c.70 BC and was succeeded by his son Phraates III, another Sanatruces, the son of Mithridates IV is mentioned as an ephemeral Parthian king in 115 AD by John Malalas, in his Chronographia. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh. Lucian, Macrobii,15, Phlegon of Tralles, The Olympiads, preserved in Photius, Bibliotheca,97
Arsaces II of Parthia
Arsaces II, Artabanus I, of the Arsacid dynasty was King of Parthia between 211 BC and 185 BC. Greek Arsaces appears as Artabanus in Latin sources, and both appear in history books. Due to a confusion of names, the line of succession is equally unclear, artabanuss uncle, Arsaces I, had founded the dynasty around 247 BC. Arsaces I may have been succeeded by his brother Tiridates I. Subject to which genealogy is followed, Artabanus succeeded either his uncle Arsaces I or his father Tiridates I, in 209 BC, the Seleucid King Antiochus III recaptured Parthia, which had been previously seized from the Seleucids by the Arsaces I and the Parni around 247 BC. Arsaces II sued for peace following his defeat on the battlefield at Mount Labus, prior to this, Antiochus had already occupied the Parthian capital at Hecatompylos, pushing forward to Tagae near Damghan. Following the defeat of Arsaces II at Mount Labus, Antiochus turned westwards into Hyrcania where he occupied Tambrax, syrinx was taken by siege.
In the terms of peace, Arsaces accepted feudatory status and from onwards ruled Parthia, Antiochus in turn withdrew his troops westwards, where he would subsequently be embroiled in wars with Rome and so would leave the fledgling Parthian kingdom to its own devices. Arsaces II was succeeded by his son Phriapatius in 185 BC, richard Nelson Frye, The History of Ancient Iran,1984
Phraates V, known by the diminutive Phraataces, ruled the Parthian Empire from 2 BC to AD4. He was the son of Phraates IV of Parthia and Musa of Parthia. Under Phraates V a war threatened to break out with Rome about the supremacy in Armenia and Media, soon afterwards Phraates V and his mother were slain by the Parthians, sometime around AD4. Josephus alleges that Phraates V married his mother Musa, josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, xviii,2. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh
Phraates II, was king of the Parthian Empire from 132 BC to 126 BC. He is mostly known for his attempt to reconquer Babylon and he was the son of Mithridates I. Because he was very young when he came to the throne. In 130 BC the Parthian empire was attacked from the west, Antiochus VII Sidetes, ruler of the Seleucid Empire attacked in the west to reconquer territory lost earlier. After three battles he reclaimed Babylonia and Media, after this he offered a peace, by which he would regain Mesopotamia and large parts of Iran. The Parthian realm would be restricted to its territories and would pay a heavy tribute. Phraates II could not accept these demands, so he refused the offer. Thus when Phraates II attacked the Seleucid army in its winter quarters, Antiochus VII was defeated and killed or committed suicide, ending Seleucid rule east of the Euphrates. Phraates II succeeded in capturing Seleucus, the son of the king and he allowed Antiochus VII a royal funeral and returned the body to Syria in a silver coffin.
Phraates II had Demetrius II Nicator, who had held by the Parthians as a hostage for several years. Through this the Parthian king hoped to gain influence in Syria. Phraates II even married one of the daughters, whose name is not recorded. Syria, which was now the Seleucid rump state, lacked military power, but on the eastern front, the nomadic Saka and Tochari destroyed the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom, penetrated to the borders of the realm in 129 BC, and threatened the Parthians kingdom. The king had to rush to the front, installing Himeros as governor of Babylon. Phraates II marched east, his army including a force of captured Seleucid soldiers from the army of the late Antiochus VII Sidetes. These ultimately refused to fight for the Parthian king, and he was defeated and killed in battle, traditionally, it is assumed that Phraates uncle, Artabanus I succeeded him as King. However and numismatic evidence suggests that his uncle, Bacasis. Phraates Justin, Epitome of the Philippic History 42.1
Osroes I was a prince of Iranian and Greek ancestry. He ruled the Parthian Empire from 109 to 129, with an interruption from 116 to 117. He succeeded his brother Pacorus II, for the whole of his reign he contended with the rival King Vologases III based in the East of Parthia. Osroes I was one of the born to Vonones II by a Greek concubine. He invaded Armenia and placed first his nephew Axidares and his brother Parthamasiris on the Armenian throne, in 113 Trajan invaded Parthia, marching first on Armenia. In 114 Parthamasiris surrendered and was killed, Trajan annexed Armenia to the Roman Empire. Then he turned south into Parthia itself, taking the cities of Babylon, Seleucia and he deposed Osroes I and put his own puppet ruler, the son of Osroes I, Parthamaspates on the throne. Later in 116, he crossed the Khuzestan Mountains into Persia, following the death of Trajan and Roman withdrawal from the area, Osroes I easily defeated Parthamaspates and reclaimed the Persian throne. Hadrian acknowledged this fait accompli, recognized Osroes I, Parthamaspates King of Osroene and it seems that the conflict with Rome had weakened Osroes I and strengthened his rival Vologases III—from about 121 there are few coins of the former and many of the latter.
Osroes I was succeeded by his brother Mithridates IV, who continued the struggle against Vologases III, aelius Spartianus, Vita Hadrian, v,13. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh
Phriapatius or Priapatius /ˌpraɪəˈpeɪʃəs/, sometimes called Phriapites /ˌfraɪˈæpᵻtiːz/, was the king of the Parthian Empire from 185 BC to 170 BC. He was the grandson of Tiridates I, the brother of Arsaces I and he ruled in the period following the invasion of Parthia by the Seleucid King Antiochus III. He was the father of three Parthian kings, Phraates I, who was his successor, Mithridates I, and Artabanus I
Gotarzes II of Parthia
Gotarzes II of Parthia was a Prince of Iranian ancestry. He ruled the Parthian Empire as King intermittently between about 40 to 51 and he was one of the sons of Artabanus III. When his father died in 38 and his brother Vardanes I succeeded to the throne, little is known on the early life of Gotarzes II, prior to becoming King of Parthia. Although Gotarzes II was a son of Artabanus III, it is unknown if he was a biological or adoptive son of his. Josephus calls Gotarzes II as a brother of Vologases I, Tacitus does not explicitly describe Gotarzes II as a son of Artabanus III. However he considers him as a Parthian Usurper who was responsible for the murder of his brother, the Roman sources are obscure on his background however surviving evidence reveals a lot more about the origins of Gotarzes II. An inscription on a relief that was discovered by Rawlinson Sarpul-I-Zohab on a main road in Iranian Kurdistan, introduces him as Gotarzes. When Gotarzes II served as Parthian King, he called himself as a son of Artabanus III, as known from a surviving coin calling him, king of kings, called Gotarzes, son of Artabanos.
Gotarzes II made himself detested by his cruelty, among other murders he even slew his brother Artabanus. When Vardanes I regained the throne, Gotarzes II fled to Hyrcania, the war between the two kings was at last ended by a treaty, as both were afraid of the conspiracies of their nobles. Gotarzes II returned to Hyrcania and when Vardanes I was killed in about 47, Gotarzes II added to his coins the usual Parthian titles, king of kings Arsaces the benefactor, the just, the illustrious, the friend of the Hellenes, without mentioning his proper name. The discontent excited by his cruelty and luxury induced the hostile party to apply to the Roman emperor Claudius to fetch from Rome an Arsacid prince Meherdates, Meherdates crossed the Euphrates in 49, but was beaten and taken prisoner by Gotarzes II, who cut off his ears. Soon afterwards Gotarzes II died, according to Tacitus of an illness and his last coin is dated from June 51. Gotarzes II was succeeded briefly by his uncle Vonones II and by his cousin Vologases I, Gortazes II is unfavorably portrayed in Robert Graves novel Claudius the God.
Gortazes is presented as a cruel tyrant, the gravest of insults lobbied by Claudius against Gortazes is that he was idolized by Caligula, and was a close advisor of the mad Roman Emperor. Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, xx, 3-4 Tacitus, Annals, xi,8,9, xii,10 This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh. A. Verstandig, History of the Parthian Empire, The Scream History Edition,2001 Ptolemaic Genealogy, Tryphaena
The Parthian Empire, known as the Arsacid Empire, was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran and Iraq. Mithridates I of Parthia greatly expanded the empire by seizing Media and Mesopotamia from the Seleucids, at its height, the Parthian Empire stretched from the northern reaches of the Euphrates, in what is now central-eastern Turkey, to eastern Iran. The empire, located on the Silk Road trade route between the Roman Empire in the Mediterranean Basin and the Han Empire of China, became a center of trade and commerce. The Parthians largely adopted the art, religious beliefs, and royal insignia of their culturally heterogeneous empire, which encompassed Persian and regional cultures. For about the first half of its existence, the Arsacid court adopted elements of Greek culture, the court did appoint a small number of satraps, largely outside Iran, but these satrapies were smaller and less powerful than the Achaemenid potentates. With the expansion of Arsacid power, the seat of government shifted from Nisa to Ctesiphon along the Tigris.
The earliest enemies of the Parthians were the Seleucids in the west, however, as Parthia expanded westward, they came into conflict with the Kingdom of Armenia, and eventually the late Roman Republic. Rome and Parthia competed with other to establish the kings of Armenia as their subordinate clients. The Parthians soundly defeated Marcus Licinius Crassus at the Battle of Carrhae in 53 BC, Mark Antony led a counterattack against Parthia, although his successes were generally achieved in his absence, under the leadership of his lieutenant Ventidius. Also, various Roman emperors or their appointed generals invaded Mesopotamia in the course of the several Roman-Parthian Wars which ensued during the few centuries. The Romans captured the cities of Seleucia and Ctesiphon on multiple occasions during these conflicts, native Parthian sources, written in Parthian and other languages, are scarce when compared to Sassanid and even earlier Achaemenid sources. These include mainly Greek and Roman histories, but Chinese histories, Parthian artwork is viewed by historians as a valid source for understanding aspects of society and culture that are otherwise absent in textual sources.
The Parni most likely spoke an eastern Iranian language, in contrast to the northwestern Iranian language spoken at the time in Parthia, the latter was a northeastern province, first under the Achaemenid, and the Seleucid empires. Why the Arsacid court retroactively chose 247 BC as the first year of the Arsacid era is uncertain, Bivar concludes that this was the year the Seleucids lost control of Parthia to Andragoras, the appointed satrap who rebelled against them. Hence, Arsaces I backdated his regnal years to the moment when Seleucid control over Parthia ceased, Vesta Sarkhosh Curtis asserts that this was simply the year Arsaces was made chief of the Parni tribe. It is unclear who immediately succeeded Arsaces I, Bivar and Katouzian affirm that it was his brother Tiridates I of Parthia, who in turn was succeeded by his son Arsaces II of Parthia in 211 BC. Yet Curtis and Brosius state that Arsaces II was the successor of Arsaces I, with Curtis claiming the succession took place in 211 BC.
Bivar insists that 138 BC, the last regnal year of Mithridates I, is the first precisely established regnal date of Parthian history, due to these and other discrepancies, Bivar outlines two distinct royal chronologies accepted by historians
Ascribed to the teachings of the Iranian prophet Zoroaster, it exalts a deity of wisdom, Ahura Mazda, as its Supreme Being. Zoroastrianism was suppressed from the 7th century onwards following the Muslim conquest of Persia of 633-654, recent estimates place the current number of Zoroastrians at around 2.6 million, with most living in India and in Iran. Besides the Zoroastrian diaspora, the older Mithraic faith Yazdânism is still practised amongst Kurds, the religious philosophy of Zoroaster divided the early Iranian gods of Proto-Indo-Iranian tradition. The most important texts of the religion are those of the Avesta, in Zoroastrianism, the creator Ahura Mazda, through the Spenta Mainyu is an all-good father of Asha, in opposition to Druj and no evil originates from him. He and his works are evident to humanity through the six primary Amesha Spentas, Spenta Mainyu adjoined unto truth oppose the Spirits opposite, Angra Mainyu and its forces born of Akəm Manah. In Zoroastrianism, the purpose in life is to be among those who renew the world. to make the progress towards perfection.
Its basic maxims include, Hukhta, which mean, Good Thoughts, Good Words, there is only one path and that is the path of Truth. Do the right thing because it is the thing to do. The full name by which Zoroaster addressed the deity is, The Lord Creator and he proclaimed that there is only one God, the singularly creative and sustaining force of the Universe. He stated that human beings are given a right of choice, Zoroasters teachings focused on responsibility, and did not introduce a devil per se. The contesting force to Ahura Mazda was called Angra Mainyu, or angry spirit, post-Zoroastrian scripture introduced the concept of Ahriman, the Devil, which was effectively a personification of Angra Mainyu. The name Zoroaster is a Greek rendering of the name Zarathustra and he is known as Zartosht and Zardosht in Persian and Zaratosht in Gujarati. The Zoroastrian name of the religion is Mazdayasna, which combines Mazda- with the Avestan language word yasna, meaning worship, in English, an adherent of the faith is commonly called a Zoroastrian or a Zarathustrian.
An older expression still used today is Behdin, meaning The best Religion | Beh < Middle Persian Weh + Din < Middle Persian dēn < Avestan Daēnā. In Zoroastrian liturgy the term is used as a title for an individual who has formally inducted into the religion in a Navjote ceremony. The term Mazdaism /ˈmæzdə. ɪzəm/ is a typical 19th century construct, taking Mazda- from the name Ahura Mazda, the March 2001 draft edition of the Oxford English Dictionary records an alternate form, perhaps derived from the French Mazdéisme, which first appeared in 1871. In older English sources, the terms Gheber and Gueber were used to refer to Zoroastrians, Zoroastrian philosophy is identified as having been known to Italian Renaissance Europe through an image of Zoroaster in Raphaels School of Athens by Giorgio Vasari in 1550. The Oxford English Dictionary records use of the term Zoroastrianism in 1874 in Archibald Sayces Principles of Comparative Philology, Zoroastrians believe that there is one universal, supreme god, Ahura Mazda, or the Wise Lord
Phraates I of Parthia, ruler of the Parthian Empire from ca. He subdued the Amardians, mountaineers occupying eastern portion of the Elburz range and he died relatively young, and appointed as his successor not one of his sons, but his brother Mithridates I. The exact date of his ascension is the subject of some confusion and he may have succeeded his father Phriapatius on the throne. However, recent evidence from Nisa suggests that a great-grandson of Arsaces I reigned briefly after Priapatius death in 170, in this reconstruction, this previously unknown Arsaces IV reigned ca. 170-168 BC and was succeeded by Phraates I. The reduction of these fierce mountaineers is likely to have occupied him for years, since their country was exceedingly strong. Syria might scarcely have recovered sufficient military strength to enter upon a new struggle, especially with a remote, therefore, he allowed reduction of the Amardians, probably conceiving that their transfer under Arsacid dominance would neither increase Parthian power nor diminish his own.
As Phraates faced no resistance from the Seleucids, when he conquered the Amardians and this was the tract lying immediately to the West of the Caspian Gates, which was traditionally reckoned to Media, forming a distinct district known as Media Rhagiana. It was naturally a very fertile region, being watered by mountain streams originating in Elburz range. Since remote antiquity its capital city was Rhages, situated near the extremity of the strip, probably at the spot now called Kaleh Erij. A full conquest is doubtful, but at a minimum he established lodgment in its eastern extremity, Parthian aggression was checked as long as Rhages remained in Seleucid possession, and Rhagiana along with rest of Media, and the other provinces were safe. While the loss of it to Parthia practically represented the loss of all Rhagiana, which hadnt any other natural protection. Holding this stronghold he imposed a menace to neighboring Rhages, which could scarcely endure against enemy encamped at its doors and we are not informed, however, of any results which followed on the occupation of Charax during the lifetime of Phraates.
As his reign was a one, it is probable that he died before there was time for his second important conquest to have any further consequences. Phraates had sufficient warning of his decease to make preparations with respect to a successor. Though he had sons, some of whom were of sufficient age to have ascended the throne, he left his crown to his brother. We shall see, as the proceeds, how Mithridates justified his choice. It appears that Phraates have borne special affection toward Mithridates and it must have been huge satisfaction to him that he was instantly able by his last act to consult for the good of his country, and to gratify his sentiment on which, evidently, he prided himself
Orodes III of Parthia
Orodes III was raised to the throne of the Parthian Empire around AD4 by the magnates after the death of Phraates V. He was killed after a short reign on account of his extreme cruelty, after his death, Phraates Vs brother Vonones I tried to assume the throne, but a civil war with Artabanus III followed. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh. Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, xviii