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Gouache, body color, or opaque watercolor, is one type of watermedia, paint consisting of natural pigment, water, a binding agent, sometimes additional inert material. Gouache is designed to be opaque. Gouache has a considerable history, going back over 600 years, it is used most by commercial artists for posters, illustrations and other design work. Gouache is similar to watercolor in that it can be re-wetted, it dries to a matte finish, the paint can become infused with its paper support, it is similar to acrylic or oil paints in that it is used in an opaque painting style and it can form a superficial layer. Many manufacturers of watercolor paints produce gouache, the two can be used together. Gouache paint is similar to watercolor, however modified to make it opaque. Just as in watercolor, the binding agent has traditionally been gum arabic but since the late nineteenth century cheaper varieties use yellow dextrin; when the paint is sold as a paste, e.g. in tubes, the dextrin has been mixed with an equal volume of water.

To improve the adhesive and hygroscopic qualities of the paint, as well as the flexibility of the rather brittle paint layer after drying, propylene glycol is added. Gouache differs from watercolor in that the particles are larger, the ratio of pigment to binder is much higher, an additional white filler such as chalk, a "body", may be part of the paint; this makes more opaque, with greater reflective qualities. Gouache dries to a different value than it appears when wet, which can make it difficult to match colors over multiple painting sessions, its quick coverage and total hiding power mean that gouache lends itself to more direct painting techniques than watercolor. "En plein air" paintings take advantage of this. Gouache is today much used by commercial artists for works such as posters, illustrations and for other design work. Most 20th-century animations used it to create an opaque color on a cel with watercolor paint used for the backgrounds. Using gouache as "poster paint" is desirable for its speed as the paint layer dries by the quick evaporation of the water.

The use of gouache is not restricted to the basic opaque painting techniques using a brush and watercolor paper. It is applied with an airbrush; as with all types of paint, gouache has been used on unusual surfaces from Braille paper to cardboard. A variation of traditional application is the method used in the gouaches découpées created by Henri Matisse, his Blue Nudes series is a good example of the technique. A new variation in the formula of the paint is acrylic gouache; the term, derived from the Italian guazzo refers to paintings using this opaque method. "Guazzo", Italian for "mud", was a term applied to the early 16th-century practice of applying oil paint over a tempera base, which could give a matted effect. In the 18th century in France, the term gouache was applied to opaque watermedia, although the technique is older. Although they are described as "watercolor", Persian miniatures and Mughal miniatures are mainly in forms of gouache. During the eighteenth century gouache was used in a mixed technique, for adding fine details in pastel paintings.

Gouache was made by mixing watercolours based on gum arabic with an opaque white pigment. In the nineteenth century, watercolours began to be industrially produced in tubes and a "Chinese white" tube was added to boxes for this purpose. Gouache tends to be used in conjunction with watercolor, ink or pencil, in 19th-century paintings; that century, for decorative uses "poster paint", was mass-produced, based on the much cheaper dextrin binder. It was sold as a powder to be mixed with water; the dextrin replaced older paint types based on hide size. During the twentieth century, gouache began to be specially manufactured in tubes for more refined artistic purposes. Gum arabic was used as a binder but soon cheaper brands were based on dextrin, as is most paint for children. A new variation in the formula of the paint is acrylic gouache, its concentrated pigment is similar to traditional gouache, but it is mixed with an acrylic-based binder, unlike traditional gouache, mixed with gum arabic. It is water-soluble when wet and dries to a matte and water-resistant surface when dry.

Acrylic gouache differs from acrylic paint because it contains additives to ensure the matte finish and the reworking time is extended. Some brands can sometimes be removed or "lifted" for several hours after application, during their drying time. Decalcomania Gouache from the Tate Demo of technique Info & history "Gouache". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911

Salem Village Historic District

The Salem Village Historic District encompasses a collection of properties from the early center of Salem Village, as Danvers, Massachusetts was known in the 17th century. The district includes an irregular pattern of properties along Centre, Hobart and Collins Streets, as far north as Brentwood Circle, south to Mello Parkway, it includes several buildings notable for their association with the 1692 Salem witch trials, which were centered on individuals who lived in Salem Village. Included in the village are the Rebecca Nurse Homestead, now a house museum, the remains of the local parsonage, both places of relevance to the witch hysteria; the district was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1975. National Register of Historic Places listings in Essex County, Massachusetts List of the oldest buildings in Massachusetts

Rufous sibia

The rufous sibia is a species of bird in the family Leiothrichidae. It feeds on insects, it is found in the northern parts of the Indian subcontinent, ranging across India and Bhutan. Its natural habitat is the temperate forests of the Lower to Middle Himalayas; the species has an unmistakable appearance with its rufous-dominated colouration and black head, is seen with its crest raised. It is a melodious singer. Media related to Heterophasia capistrata at Wikimedia Commons Collar, N. J. & Robson C. 2007. Family Timaliidae pp. 70 – 291 in. A. eds. Handbook of the Birds of the World, Vol. 12. Picathartes to Tits and Chickadees. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona

Geography of Bihar

Bihar is located in the eastern region of India between latitude 24°-20'-10" N ~ 27°-31'-15" N and longitude 83°-19'-50" E ~ 88°-17'-40" E. It is an land–locked state, in a subtropical region of the temperate zone. Bihar lies between the humid West Bengal in the east and the sub humid Uttar Pradesh in the west, which provides it with a transitional position in respect of climate and culture, it is bounded by Jharkhand in the south. Bihar plain is divided into two unequal halves by the river Ganges which flows through the middle from west to east. Bihar's land has average elevation above sea level of 173 feet; the state is divided for administrative purposes. Which are listed below. Bihar is in Indo-Gangetic plain so fertile soil is one asset of the state, thus Indo-Gangetic plain's soil is the backbone of industrial development. The Indo-Gangetic plain in Bihar consists of a thick alluvial mantle of drift origin overlying in most part, the siwalik and older tertiary rocks; the soil is little young loam rejuvenated every year by constant deposition of silt and sand brought by streams but by floods in BiharThis soil is deficient in phosphoric acid and humus, but potash and lime are present in sufficient quantity.

The most common soil in Bihar is Gangetic alluvium of Indo-Gangetic plain region, Piedmont Swamp Soil, found in northwestern part of West Champaran district and Terai Soil, found in northern part of Bihar along the border of Nepal. Clay soil, sand soil and loamy soil are common in Bihar. Bihar is a vast stretch of fertile flat land, it is drained including northern tributaries of other river. The Bihar plain is divided into two unequal halves by the river Ganges which flows through the middle from west to east. Other Ganges tributaries are the Son, Budhi Gandak, Chandan and Phalgu; the Himalayas begin at foothills a short distance inside Nepal but influence Bihar's landforms, climate and culture. Central parts of Bihar have some small hills, for example the Rajgir hills; the Himalayan Mountains are in Nepal. To the south is the Chota Nagpur plateau, part of Bihar until 2000 but now is part of a separate state called Jharkhand. Bihar has notified forest area of 6,764.14 km², 7.1 per cent of its geographical area.

The sub Himalayan foothill of Someshwar and Dun ranges in Champaran district another belt of moist deciduous forests. These consists of shrub and reeds. Here the rainfall is above 1,600 mm and thus; the hot and dry summer gives the deciduous forests. The most important trees are Shorea Robusta, Cedrela Toona and Semal; this type of forests occurs in Saharsa district and Purnia district. Bihar is a producer of Steatite, Quartzite, Crude Mica, Limestone. Bihar has some good resource of Bauxite in Jamui district, Cement Mortar in Bhabhua, dolomite in Bhabhua, Glass sand in Bhabhua, Mica in Muzaffarpur, Jamui and salt in Gaya and Jamui and Beryllium are found in Gaya District,Coal in Rajmahal Coalfield, Gold In Jamui, Rajgir hills Barabar hills Bateshwar hills Kaimur Range Brahmayoni hills Pretshila hills Ramshila hills Bihar is India's most flood-prone State, with 76% of the population in the north Bihar living under the recurring threat of flood devastation. According to some historical data, 16.5% of the total flood affected area in India is located in Bihar while 22.1% of the flood affected population in India lives in Bihar.

About 68,800 square kilometres out of total geographical area of 94,160 square kilometres comprising 73.06% is flood affected. Floods in Bihar are a recurring disaster which on an annual basis destroys thousands of human lives apart from livestock and assets worth millions. Bihar is cold in the winter, the lowest temperatures being around 0–10 degrees Celsius. Winter months are January, it is hot in the summer with average highs around 35–45 Celsius. April to mid June are the hot months; the monsoon months of June, July and September see good rainfall. October & November and February & March have cool, pleasant climate. 1934 Nepal–Bihar earthquake Climate of Bihar Floods in Bihar

Derwent World Patents Index

The Derwent World Patents Index is a database containing patent applications and grants from 44 of the world's patent issuing authorities. Compiled in English by editorial staff, the database provides a short abstract detailing the nature and use of the invention described in a patent and is indexed into alphanumeric technology categories to allow retrieval of relevant patent documents by users; each record within the database defines a patent family, the grouping of patent documentation recorded at the various patent offices as protection of an invention is sought around the world. Each patent family is grouped around a Basic patent, the first published example of the invention. All subsequent filings are referred back to the Basic patent, are referred to as equivalent patents. On this basis, the database has some 20 million "inventions", corresponding to tens of millions of patents, with a million new inventions added each year. From 2008, the number format of the Basic patent identifier changed, to allow up to 3.6 million records per year to be added, as the previous format only allowed a maximum of 1 million new records a year.

This is due to the steady increase in unique patents filed each year. Primary level data - an electronic form of the original patent. Bibliographical data - cleaned and formatted patent numbers, application date etc. data. DWPI Abstract - a plain English summary of the Novel feature and Advantage of the invention DWPI manual code / Indexing - a custom taxonomy indicating the novel feature and use; the database is produced by information provider Clarivate Analytics part of Thomson Reuters. Derwent produces its own proprietary patent classification codes, called manual codes; the classification system contains subdivisions related to chemical and mechanical engineering subject matter. Derwent indexers add standardized 4-letter codes to DWPI records to represent certain patent-holding companies; these codes are not available for all companies - only the top patent holding companies have these standard Derwent codes. Derwent World Patents Index on Clarivate Analytics Derwent World Patents Index on STN

Nick Cullop (pitcher)

Norman Andrew "Nick" Cullop was a starting pitcher who played in Major League Baseball between 1913 and 1921. A native of Chilhowie, Cullop batted and threw left-handed, he is not related to outfielder Nick Cullop. Cullop started his professional career with Salt Lake City and reached the majors in 1913 with the Cleveland Naps, spending part of two seasons with them before moving to the Kansas City Packers, New York Yankees and St. Louis Browns, his most productive season came in 1915 with Kansas City in the outlaw Federal League, when he recorded career-numbers in wins and innings pitched. With the 1916 Yankees he went 13-6 with 77 strikeouts and led the team with a 2.05 ERA, a career-high. Cullop had the dubious distinction of losing 20 games in 1914, splitting his 20 losses between two leagues, losing one game for the American League Naps and 19 for the Federal League Packers. In a six-season career, Cullop posted a 57-55 record with 400 strikeouts and a 2.73 ERA in 1024.0 innings, including nine shutouts and 62 complete games.

Cullop died in Tazewell, Virginia at the age of 73. Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference, or Baseball-Reference Retrosheet Nick Cullop at Find a Grave