A great house is a large house or mansion with luxurious appointments and great retinues of indoor and outdoor staff, especially those of the turn of the 20th century. Examples include the English country house and the homes of various millionaires row in some U. S. cities such as Newport, in Ireland, the term big house is usual for the houses of the Anglo-Irish ascendancy. By some reports, the homes of the wealthy at Newport averaged four servants per family member. There was often an elaborate hierarchy among staff, domestic workers in particular and it was considered déclassé to refer to ones own townhouses, estates or villas as mansions and modern etiquette books still advise that the terms house, big house or great house be used instead. As in the past, todays great houses are limited to heads of state, the International Guild of Butlers estimates that the annual salaries of a 20-25 person household staff total in excess of US$1,000,000. In countries with supplies of cheap labour, the middle classes are still able to afford household help.
On large estates or in families with more than one residence, today, it is not uncommon for a couple to split the duties of management between them. The head of the household is not the butler, but the house manager, an estate manager manages more than one property, and usually has financial and managerial background. Among these are, English country house Manor house Luxury real estate Townhouse Villa House society The Domestic Staff Citizen
Oil painting is the process of painting with pigments with a medium of drying oil as the binder. Commonly used drying oils include linseed oil, poppy seed oil, walnut oil, the choice of oil imparts a range of properties to the oil paint, such as the amount of yellowing or drying time. Certain differences, depending on the oil, are visible in the sheen of the paints. An artist might use different oils in the same painting depending on specific pigments and effects desired. The paints themselves develop a particular consistency depending on the medium, the oil may be boiled with a resin, such as pine resin or frankincense, to create a varnish prized for its body and gloss. Its practice may have migrated westward during the Middle Ages, Oil paint eventually became the principal medium used for creating artworks as its advantages became widely known. In recent years, water miscible oil paint has come to prominence and, to some extent, water-soluble paints contain an emulsifier that allows them to be thinned with water rather than paint thinner, and allows very fast drying times when compared with traditional oils.
Traditional oil painting techniques often begin with the artist sketching the subject onto the canvas with charcoal or thinned paint, Oil paint is usually mixed with linseed oil, artist grade mineral spirits, or other solvents to make the paint thinner, faster or slower-drying. A basic rule of oil paint application is fat over lean and this means that each additional layer of paint should contain more oil than the layer below to allow proper drying. If each additional layer contains less oil, the painting will crack. This rule does not ensure permanence, it is the quality and type of oil leads to a strong. There are many media that can be used with the oil, including cold wax, resins. These aspects of the paint are closely related to the capacity of oil paint. Traditionally, paint was transferred to the surface using paintbrushes. Oil paint remains wet longer than other types of artists materials, enabling the artist to change the color. At times, the painter might even remove a layer of paint.
This can be done with a rag and some turpentine for a time while the paint is wet, Oil paint dries by oxidation, not evaporation, and is usually dry to the touch within a span of two weeks. It is generally dry enough to be varnished in six months to a year, art conservators do not consider an oil painting completely dry until it is 60 to 80 years old
An orphanage is a residential institution devoted to the care of orphans—children whose biological parents are deceased or otherwise unable or unwilling to care for them. It is frequently used to describe institutions abroad, where it is an accurate term. Most children who live in orphanages are not orphans, four out of five children in orphanages having at least one living parent, most orphanages have been closed in Europe and North America. Few large international charities continue to fund orphanages, they are still commonly founded by smaller charities, especially in developing countries, orphanages may prey on vulnerable families at risk of breakdown and actively recruit children to ensure continued funding. Orphanages in developing countries are run by the state. Other residential institutions for children can be called group homes, childrens homes, rehabilitation centers, night shelters, the Romans formed their first orphanages around 400 AD. Jewish law prescribed care for the widow and the orphan, plato says, Orphans should be placed under the care of public guardians.
Men should have a fear of the loneliness of orphans and of the souls of their departed parents, a man should love the unfortunate orphan of whom he is guardian as if he were his own child. He should be as careful and as diligent in the management of the property as of his own or even more careful still. The care of orphans was referred to bishops and, during the Middle Ages, as soon as they were old enough, children were often given as apprentices to households to ensure their support and to learn an occupation. In medieval Europe, care for orphans tended to reside with the Church, the Elizabethan Poor Laws were enacted at the time of the Reformation, and placed public responsibility on individual parishes to care for the indigent poor. The growth of sentimental philanthropy in the 18th century, led to the establishment of the first charitable institutions catering for the orphan, the first children were admitted into a temporary house located in Hatton Garden. At first, no questions were asked about child or parent, on reception, children were sent to wet nurses in the countryside, where they stayed until they were about four or five years old.
At sixteen, girls were apprenticed as servants for four years, at fourteen, boys were apprenticed into variety of occupations. There was a benevolent fund for adults. A basket was accordingly hung outside the hospital, the age for admission was raised from two months to twelve, and a flood of children poured in from country workhouses. Parliament soon came to the conclusion that the indiscriminate admission should be discontinued, the hospital adopted a system of receiving children only with considerable sums. This practice was stopped in 1801, and it henceforth became a fundamental rule that no money was to be received
Queen's College, London
Queens College is an independent school for girls aged 11–18 with an adjoining prep school for girls aged 4–11 in the City of Westminster, London. In 1853, it became the first girls school to be granted a Royal Charter for the furtherance of womens education. Ever since, the College patron has been a British queen, the College has a distinctly liberal ethos based upon the principles of F. D. Through its non-competitive spirit and avoidance of excessive regulation, the College claims to produce confident, like other colleges of its type, it offers a broad curriculum and a range of extra-curricular activities. Founded at a time when educational opportunities were restricted for women in Britain and it led the way in the study of music for women under William Sterndale Bennett and John Pyke Hullah who were among the founding directors. Laing was keen to develop the institution to provide governesses with an education and certification, in 1847 he acquired the agreement of professors from Kings College London to give lectures in the Home.
Queen Victoria gave her assent, the promise of funds and agreed to be patron, in 1847, the first lectures took place, the Committee of Education was established under the chair of F. D. Maurice, and number 45 was purchased. In December of the year, the first certificates were issued. Meanwhile, it was decided to extend the reach of the education on offer to women who were not governesses, in the early days of the College, the education took place in the form of lectures initially delivered to all girls alike aged 12 to 20. The younger pupils were soon to be given their own school at the back of the buildings, following the resignation of Maurice in 1853, Richard Chenevix Trench became the first Principal and took over as Chair of the Committee of Education. By 1900 the College was offering a broad, liberal education to young women, the practice of offering lectures from staff and visitors throughout the year remained, and is now a defining tradition of the College. During the Second World War, the College narrowly escaped destruction when a bomb exploded on the side of Harley Street.
The windows at the front of the building were smashed and plaster work damaged, the College continued to function during the war with classes even held in bomb shelters constructed in the main corridor. Evacuation of the pupils to the Lake District and to Northamptonshire was short-lived, the College has been visited by its patrons five times. Queen Victoria came on 9 May 1898 for the fiftieth anniversary and she herself wrote of the occasion, On my way out stopped at Queens College in Harley Street, the first Ladies College ever founded in England, which is this year celebrating its jubilee. All the girls and ladies were drawn up outside, the Principal, the Dean and Mrs Robinson were presented to me. The Principal handed an address, and Miss Coudace, the Queens scholar for the year, Queen Mary visited in 1928, and Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother visited for the centenary in 1948 and again in 1972 and 1980. The College ceased to offer boarding accommodation in the 1980s and Kynaston House was re-modelled from the old accommodation to provide offices, a common room
Poetry has a long history, dating back to the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh. Early poems evolved from folk songs such as the Chinese Shijing, or from a need to retell oral epics, as with the Sanskrit Vedas, Zoroastrian Gathas, and the Homeric epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey. Ancient attempts to define poetry, such as Aristotles Poetics, focused on the uses of speech in rhetoric, drama and comedy. Later attempts concentrated on such as repetition, verse form and rhyme. From the mid-20th century, poetry has sometimes been more generally regarded as a creative act employing language. Poetry uses forms and conventions to suggest differential interpretation to words, devices such as assonance, alliteration and rhythm are sometimes used to achieve musical or incantatory effects. The use of ambiguity, symbolism and other elements of poetic diction often leaves a poem open to multiple interpretations. Similarly figures of such as metaphor and metonymy create a resonance between otherwise disparate images—a layering of meanings, forming connections previously not perceived.
Kindred forms of resonance may exist, between verses, in their patterns of rhyme or rhythm. Some poetry types are specific to cultures and genres and respond to characteristics of the language in which the poet writes. Much modern poetry reflects a critique of poetic tradition, playing with and testing, among other things, in todays increasingly globalized world, poets often adapt forms and techniques from diverse cultures and languages. Some scholars believe that the art of poetry may predate literacy, however, suggest that poetry did not necessarily predate writing. The oldest surviving poem, the Epic of Gilgamesh, comes from the 3rd millennium BCE in Sumer. An example of Egyptian epic poetry is The Story of Sinuhe, other forms of poetry developed directly from folk songs. The earliest entries in the oldest extant collection of Chinese poetry, the efforts of ancient thinkers to determine what makes poetry distinctive as a form, and what distinguishes good poetry from bad, resulted in poetics—the study of the aesthetics of poetry.
Some ancient societies, such as Chinas through her Shijing, developed canons of poetic works that had ritual as well as aesthetic importance, Classical thinkers employed classification as a way to define and assess the quality of poetry. Later aestheticians identified three major genres, epic poetry, lyric poetry, and dramatic poetry, treating comedy and tragedy as subgenres of dramatic poetry, Aristotles work was influential throughout the Middle East during the Islamic Golden Age, as well as in Europe during the Renaissance. English Romantic poet John Keats termed this escape from logic Negative Capability and this romantic approach views form as a key element of successful poetry because form is abstract and distinct from the underlying notional logic
A boarding school is a school at which most or all of the students live during the part of the year that they go to lessons. The word boarding is used in the sense of bed and board, i. e. lodging, some boarding schools have day students who attend the institution by day and return to their families in the evenings. Many independent schools are boarding schools, Boarding school pupils normally return home during the school holidays and often weekends, but in some cultures may spend most of their childhood and adolescent life away from their families. In the United States, boarding schools comprise various grades, most commonly grades seven or nine through grade twelve—the high school years, other schools are for younger children, grades two through eight. A military school, or military academy, features military education, in the former Soviet Union schools were introduced, these sometimes are known as Internat-schools. Some schools were a type of specialized school with a focus in a particular field or fields such as mathematics, language, sports.
Other schools were associated with orphanages after all children enrolled in Internat-school automatically. Also, separate boarding schools were established for children with special needs, general schools offered extended stay programs featuring cheap meals for children and preventing them from coming home too early before parents were back from work. In post-soviet countries, the concept of boarding school differs from country to country, the term boarding school often refers to classic British boarding schools and many boarding schools around the world are modeled on these. A typical boarding school has separate residential houses, either within the school grounds or in the surrounding area. Pupils generally need permission to go outside defined school bounds, they may be allowed to travel off-campus at certain times, depending on country and context, boarding schools generally offer one or more options, weekly, or on a flexible schedule. Each may be assisted in the management of the house by a housekeeper often known as matron.
In the U. S. boarding schools often have a resident family that lives in the dorm and they have janitorial staff for maintenance and housekeeping, but typically do not have tutors associated with an individual dorm. Nevertheless, older pupils are often unsupervised by staff, and a system of monitors or prefects gives limited authority to senior pupils, houses readily develop distinctive characters, and a healthy rivalry between houses is often encouraged in sport. Houses may have common rooms for television and relaxation and kitchens for snacks, some facilities may be shared between several houses or dorms. In others, separate houses accommodate needs of different years or classes, in some schools, day pupils are assigned to a dorm or house for social activities and sports purposes. Each student has a timetable, which in the early years allows little discretion. Boarders and day students are taught together in school hours and in most cases continue beyond the day to include sports and societies
Landed gentry is a largely historical British social class consisting of land owners who could live entirely from rental income. It was distinct from, and socially below, the aristocracy or peerage and they often worked as administrators of their own lands, while others became public and armed forces figures. The decline of this privileged class largely stemmed from the 1870s agricultural depression, by the late 19th century, the term was applied to peers such as the Duke of Westminster who lived on landed estates. The book series Burkes Landed Gentry recorded the members of this class, successful burghers often used their accumulated wealth to buy country estates, with the aim of establishing themselves as landed gentry. Knights, originally a rank, this status was increasingly awarded to civilians as a reward for service to the Crown. Holders have the right to be addressed as Sir as are baronets, but unlike baronet, originally men aspiring to knighthood, were the principal attendants on a knight.
After the Middle Ages the title of Esquire - Esq. - became an honour that could be conferred by the Crown, possessors of a social status recognised as a separate title by the Statute of Additions of 1413. Generally men of birth or rank, good social standing, and wealth. The term landed gentry, although used to mean nobility. Once identical, eventually these terms became complementary, in the sense that their definitions began to fill in parts of what the other lacked, the historical term gentry by itself, so Peter Coss argues, is a construct that historians have applied loosely to rather different societies. Any particular model may not fit a specific society, yet a single definition nevertheless remains desirable, the phrase landed gentry referred in particular to the untitled members of the landowning upper class. The most stable and respected form of wealth has historically been land, the primary meaning of landed gentry encompasses those members of the land owning classes who are not members of the peerage.
It was a designation, one belonged to the landed gentry if other members of that class accepted one as such. However, during the 19th century, as the new rich of the Industrial Revolution became more and more numerous and politically powerful, from the late 16th-century, the gentry emerged as the class most closely involved in politics, the military and law. It provided the bulk of Members of Parliament, with many gentry families maintaining political control in a locality over several generations. Owning land was a prerequisite for suffrage in county constituencies until the Reform Act 1832, until then, Members of the landed gentry were upper class, this was a highly prestigious status. Particular prestige was attached to those who inherited landed estates over a number of generations and these are often described as being from old families. Titles are often considered central to the class, but this is certainly not universally the case
Alexander Graham Bell
Alexander Graham Bell was a Scottish-born scientist, inventor and innovator who is credited with patenting the first practical telephone. Bells father and brother had all been associated with work on elocution and speech and his research on hearing and speech further led him to experiment with hearing devices which eventually culminated in Bell being awarded the first U. S. patent for the telephone in 1876. Bell considered his most famous invention an intrusion on his work as a scientist. Many other inventions marked Bells life, including groundbreaking work in optical telecommunications and aeronautics. Although Bell was not one of the 33 founders of the National Geographic Society, he had a influence on the magazine while serving as the second president from January 7,1898. Alexander Bell was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, on March 3,1847, the family home was at 16 South Charlotte Street, and has a stone inscription marking it as Alexander Graham Bells birthplace. He had two brothers, Melville James Bell and Edward Charles Bell, both of whom would die of tuberculosis and his father was Professor Alexander Melville Bell, a phonetician, and his mother was Eliza Grace.
Born as just Alexander Bell, at age 10, he made a plea to his father to have a name like his two brothers. To close relatives and friends he remained Aleck, as a child, young Bell displayed a natural curiosity about his world, resulting in gathering botanical specimens as well as experimenting even at an early age. His best friend was Ben Herdman, a neighbour whose family operated a flour mill, young Bell asked what needed to be done at the mill. In return, Bens father John Herdman gave both boys the run of a workshop in which to invent. From his early years, Bell showed a sensitive nature and a talent for art, with no formal training, he mastered the piano and became the familys pianist. Despite being normally quiet and introspective, he revelled in mimicry and he developed a technique of speaking in clear, modulated tones directly into his mothers forehead wherein she would hear him with reasonable clarity. Bells preoccupation with his mothers deafness led him to study acoustics and his family was long associated with the teaching of elocution, his grandfather, Alexander Bell, in London, his uncle in Dublin, and his father, in Edinburgh, were all elocutionists.
His father published a variety of works on the subject, several of which are well known, especially his The Standard Elocutionist. The Standard Elocutionist appeared in 168 British editions and sold over a quarter of a million copies in the United States alone, in this treatise, his father explains his methods of how to instruct deaf-mutes to articulate words and read other peoples lip movements to decipher meaning. Bells father taught him and his brothers not only to write Visible Speech but to any symbol. Bell became so proficient that he became a part of his fathers public demonstrations, as a young child, like his brothers, received his early schooling at home from his father
John of Gaunt
John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, KG was a member of the House of Plantagenet, the third of five surviving sons of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. He was called John of Gaunt because he was born in Ghent, when he became unpopular in life, scurrilous rumours and lampoons circulated that he was actually the son of a Ghent butcher, perhaps because Edward III was not present at the birth. This story always drove him to fury, due to some generous land grants, John was one of the richest men in his era. John of Gaunts legitimate male heirs, the Lancasters, include Kings Henry IV, Henry V and his other legitimate descendants include his daughters Queen Philippa of Portugal and Elizabeth, Duchess of Exeter, and Queen Catherine of Castile. John fathered five children outside marriage, one early in life by a lady-in-waiting to his mother, the children of Katherine Swynford, surnamed Beaufort, were legitimised by royal and papal decrees after John and Katherine married in 1396.
Through his daughter Philippa, he was grandfather of King Edward of Portugal, through John II of Castiles great-granddaughter Joanna the Mad, John of Gaunt is an ancestor of the Habsburg rulers who would reign in Spain and much of central Europe. When John of Gaunt died in 1399, his estates and titles were declared forfeit to the crown, since King Richard II had named Henry a traitor, Henry Bolingbroke returned from exile to reclaim his inheritance and depose Richard. Bolingbroke reigned as King Henry IV of England, the first of the descendants of John of Gaunt to hold the throne of England, John was the fourth son of King Edward III of England. His first wife, Blanche of Lancaster, was his third cousin and they married in 1359 at Reading Abbey as a part of the efforts of Edward III to arrange matches for his sons with wealthy heiresses. He became the 14th Baron of Halton and 11th Lord of Bowland, John inherited the rest of the Lancaster property when Blanches sister Maud, Countess of Leicester, died without issue on 10 April 1362.
John received the title Duke of Lancaster from his father on 13 November 1362, by well established, he owned at least thirty castles and estates across England and France and maintained a household comparable in scale and organisation to that of a monarch. He owned land in almost every county in England, a patrimony that produced a net income of between £8,000 and £10,000 a year, Johns ascendancy to political power coincided with widespread resentment of his influence. Although he fought in the Battle of Nájera, for example, when Edward III died in 1377 and Johns ten-year-old nephew succeeded as Richard II of England, Johns influence strengthened. However, mistrust remained, and some suspected him of wanting to seize the throne himself, John took pains to ensure that he never became associated with the opposition to Richards kingship. As de facto ruler during Richards minority, he made unwise decisions on taxation that led to the Peasants Revolt in 1381, when the rebels destroyed his home in London, the Savoy Palace.
Unlike some of Richards unpopular advisors, John was away from London at the time of the uprising and thus avoided the direct wrath of the rebels. In 1386 John left England to seek the throne of Castile, claimed in Jure uxoris by right of his wife, Constance of Castile. However, crisis ensued almost immediately in his absence, and in 1387 King Richards misrule brought England to the brink of civil war
Henry VII of England
Henry VII was King of England from seizing the crown on 22 August 1485 until his death on 21 April 1509, and the first monarch of the House of Tudor. He ruled the Principality of Wales until 29 November 1489 and was Lord of Ireland, Henry won the throne when his forces defeated King Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field, the culmination of the Wars of the Roses. Henry was the last king of England to win his throne on the field of battle and he cemented his claim by marrying Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV and niece of Richard III. Henry was successful in restoring the power and stability of the English monarchy after the civil war and his supportive stance of the islands wool industry and stand off with the Low Countries had long lasting benefits to all the British Isles economy. However, the capriciousness and lack of due process that many would tarnish his legacy and were soon ended upon Henry VIIs death. According to the contemporary historian Polydore Vergil, simple greed underscored the means by which royal control was over-asserted in Henrys final years, Henry VII was born at Pembroke Castle on 28 January 1457 to Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond.
His father, Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond, died three months before his birth, Henrys paternal grandfather, Owen Tudor, originally from the Tudors of Penmynydd, Isle of Anglesey in Wales, had been a page in the court of Henry V. He rose to one of the Squires to the Body to the King after military service at the Battle of Agincourt. Owen is said to have married the widow of Henry V. One of their sons was Edmund Tudor, father of Henry VII, Edmund was created Earl of Richmond in 1452, and formally declared legitimate by Parliament. Henrys main claim to the English throne derived from his mother through the House of Beaufort, Henrys mother, Lady Margaret Beaufort, was a great-granddaughter of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, fourth son of Edward III, and his third wife Katherine Swynford. Katherine was Gaunts mistress for about 25 years, when married in 1396, they already had four children. Thus Henrys claim was somewhat tenuous, it was from a woman, in theory, the Portuguese and Castilian royal families had a better claim as descendants of Catherine of Lancaster, the daughter of John of Gaunt and his second wife Constance of Castile.
Gaunts nephew Richard II legitimised Gaunts children by Katherine Swynford by Letters Patent in 1397, in 1407, Henry IV, who was Gaunts son by his first wife, issued new Letters Patent confirming the legitimacy of his half-siblings, but declaring them ineligible for the throne. Henry IVs action was of doubtful legality, as the Beauforts were previously legitimised by an Act of Parliament, but it further weakened Henrys claim. Henry made political capital out of his Welsh ancestry, for example in attracting military support. He came from an old, established Anglesey family that claimed descent from Cadwaladr and he took it, as well as the standard of St George, on his procession through London after the victory at Bosworth. A contemporary writer and Henrys biographer, Bernard André, much of Henrys Welsh descent
Kindergarten is a preschool educational approach traditionally based on playing, practical activities such as drawing, and social interaction as part of the transition from home to school. The first such institutions were created in the late 18th century in Bavaria, the term was coined by the German Friedrich Fröbel, whose approach globally influenced early-years education. In 1779, Johann Friedrich Oberlin and Louise Scheppler founded in Strasbourg an early establishment for caring for, at about the same time, in 1780, similar infant establishments were established in Bavaria. In 1802, Princess Pauline zur Lippe established a center in Detmold. In 1816, Robert Owen, a philosopher and pedagogue, opened the first British and probably globally the first infants school in New Lanark, Scotland. In conjunction with his venture for cooperative mills Owen wanted the children to be given a moral education so that they would be fit for work. His system was successful in producing obedient children with basic literacy and numeracy, samuel Wilderspin opened his first infant school in London in 1819, and went on to establish hundreds more.
He published many works on the subject, and his became the model for infant schools throughout England. Play was an important part of Wilderspins system of education and he is credited with inventing the playground. In 1823, Wilderspin published On the Importance of Educating the Infant Poor and he began working for the Infant School Society the next year, informing others about his views. He wrote The Infant System, for developing the physical, intellectual, in 1836 she established an institute for the foundation of preschool centers. The idea became popular among the nobility and the class and was copied throughout the Kingdom of Hungary. He renamed his institute Kindergarten on June 28,1840, reflecting his belief that children should be nurtured and nourished like plants in a garden, women trained by Fröbel opened kindergartens throughout Europe and around the world. The first kindergarten in the US was founded in Watertown, Wisconsin in 1856 and was conducted in German, elizabeth Peabody founded the first English-language kindergarten in the US in 1860.
The first free kindergarten in the US was founded in 1870 by Conrad Poppenhusen, a German industrialist and philanthropist, the first publicly-financed kindergarten in the US was established in St. Louis in 1873 by Susan Blow. Canadas first private kindergarten was opened by the Wesleyan Methodist Church in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, by the end of the decade, they were common in large Canadian towns and cities. The countrys first public-school kindergartens were established in Berlin, Ontario, in 1885, the Toronto Normal School opened a department for kindergarten teaching. In Afghanistan, children between the age of 3 and 6 attend kindergartens, which though not part of the system are often run by the government