A presidential palace is the official residence of the president in some countries. However, some countries do not call the official residence of their head of state a palace or use the building only as a workplace separate from the president's actual home; some presidential palaces were once the official residences to monarchs in former monarchies that were preserved during those states' transition into republics. The Cumhurbaşkanlığı Sarayı in the Turkey is the world's largest Presidential Palace, four times that of Versailles. Prime ministerial residences World's Most Stunning Presidential Palaces - slideshow by The Huffington Post
Ghanaian passports are passports issued by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Regional Integration to Ghanaians granted citizenship in accordance with the Ghanaian nationality law. There are three types of passport booklets – regular and diplomatic passports. Ghanaian passport booklets are valid for travel by Ghanaians anywhere in the world, although travel to certain countries and/or for certain purposes may require a visa. More than one valid Ghanaian passport of the same type may not be held. Contemporary Ghanaian passport Issuable to all citizens and non-citizen nationals and valid for five years from the date of issue. Service Ghanaian passport issued to officials attached to government institutions who have to travel on official business Diplomatic Ghanaian passport Issuable to Ghanaian diplomats accredited overseas and their eligible dependents. Paper size B7 32 pages Ghanaian contemporary passport is hunter green in color, Ghanaian service passport is cadet grey in color, Ghanaian diplomatic passport is auburn in color, with the words ‘REPUBLIC OF GHANA‘ inscribed on top of the booklet.
The flag emblem of the West African subregion ECOWAS and of the African continent is prominently emblazoned in the center of the cover page, followed on the bottom by the inscription of the words PASSPORT on contemporary passports, SERVICE PASSPORT on service passports, DIPLOMATIC PASSPORT on diplomatic passports. The following information about the owner is printed on the Ghanaian passport identification page, in both English and French: The standards are: 2 in × 2 in Front view, full face, open eyes, closed mouth, natural expression Full head from top of hair to shoulders Red background No shadows on face or in background No sunglasses. Passports of many countries contain a message, nominally from the official, in charge of passport issuance, addressed to authorities of other countries; the message identifies the bearer as a citizen of the issuing country, requests that he or she be allowed to enter and pass through the other country, requests further that, when necessary, he or she be given help consistent with international norms.
In Ghanaian passports, the message is in English and reads: These are to request and require in the name of the President of the Republic of Ghana all those whom it may concern to allow the bearer to pass without let or hindrance and to afford him or her every assistance and protection of which he or she may stand in need. A Ghanaian passport applicant who applies in person pays a processing fee; the amount depends on whether the Ghanaian passport applicant is applying for a new passport or replacement passport. The current fee for a new Ghanaian passport booklet is "GH₵100.00" for express service delivery and "GH₵50.00" for regular service delivery. To conform to the recommended standards set by the International Civil Aviation Organization, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Regional Integration has issued only Ghanaian e-passports as standard since March 2010, though non-passports are valid until their expiry dates or November 2015, whichever is sooner. Under these Ghanaian passports, the three types of passports – contemporary and diplomat – are colour-coded.
Contemporary passports appear hunter green in colour, service passports appear in space cadet in colour, diplomatic passports appear auburn in colour. Additionally, the Ghanaian coat of arms has been replaced by the flag emblem of the West African subregion ECOWAS and of the African continent is prominently emblazoned in the center of the cover page and the words "Republic of Ghana" are inscribed, The Government of Ghana has opted use both French and English for its Ghanaian passports. Another change is the choice of expedited passport delivery service, it is expected that the new Ghanaian passports are delivered within 3 to 15 days after the application has been received. The fee for regular service delivery is "GH₵50.00", for express service delivery is "GH₵100.00" to have it expedited. The Ghanaian passports To facilitate the application for and acquisition of Ghanaian passports, Passport Application Centers have been set up around the major cities of Ghana, namely in Accra, Tamale, Ho, Sekondi-Takoradi, in Sunyani.
All PACs located in these cities accept passport applications Ghana Card Ghanaian nationality law Visa requirements for Ghanaian citizens
An official residence is the residence at which a nation's head of state, head of government, religious leader, leaders of international organizations, or other senior figure resides. It may or may not be the same location where the individual conducts work-related functions or lives. 3 Sutton Place, New York City Presidential Palace Presidential Palace Presidential Palace State House Kiriri Presidential Palace Unity Palace Palácio Presidencial Presidential Palace Presidential Palace Presidential Palace Kinshasa Presidential Palace Palais de la Nation Palais du mont Ngaliema Palais de Marbre Brazzaville Presidential Palace Le Palais de la Présidence Presidential Palace Abdeen Palace Heliopolis Palace Koubbeh Palace Montaza Palace Ras el-Tin Palace Government Building Asmara President's Office National Palace Imperial Palace Presidential Palace State House Osu Castle formal residence Golden Jubilee House current residence Peduase Lodge retreat Presidential Palace Villa Syli Belle Vue Presidential Palace State House Royal Palace State House Executive Mansion Al-Sikka, Tripoli Al Nasr Convention Centre Dar al-Salam Hotel Abusita Navy Base Royal Palace of Tripoli Bab al-Azizia Iavoloha Ambohitsorohitra Sanjika Palace New State House Presidential Palace Presidential Palace State House Clarisse House Mechouar Essaid, Rabat Dâr-al-Makhzen, Fes Dâr-al-Makhzen, Meknes Marchane Palace, Tangier Bahia Palace, Marrakech El Badi Palace, Marrakech Palácio da Ponta Vermelha State House Presidential Palace Aso Rock Villa Rivers State:Government House Urugwiro Presidential Palace Palais de la Republique State House State House Villa Somalia Mahlamba Ndlopfu, Genadendal Residence, Cape Town Leeuwenhof Cape Province:Government House Transvaal:Government House Natal:Government House Orange Free State:Government House Presidential Palace Presidential Palace Lozitha Palace State House The Palace of the Governors Carthage Palace State House State House State House Government House Government House Government House Ilaro Court Palace of the Revolution Presidential Palace Government House Palacio Nacional, Dominican Republic Government House National Palace King's House Government House Jamaica House Vale Royal Government House Government House Government House President's House St. Anns Diplomatic Residence Whitehall Official residence Belize House Government House Rideau Hall Citadelle of Quebec 24 Sussex Drive Harrington Lake Stornoway The Farm, Gatineau Park 7 Rideau Gate British Columbia:Government House Manitoba:Government House New Brunswick:Old Government House Nova Scotia:Government House Prince Edward Island:Government House Newfoundland and Labrador:Government House Quebec:Édifice Price/Price Building *The provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Quebec no longer have official residences for their lieutenant governors, but do provide them with accommodations.
Casa Presidencial, Costa Rica Casa Presidencial called Casa Blanca Casa Presidencial National Palace Palacio José Cecilio del Valle None. The President uses own private residence. Los Pinos National Palace Castillo de Chapultepec *In every state of the Mexico the Palacio de Gobierno, or Government Palace, was the official residence the governor, they are now maintained as the relevant governor's offices. Querétaro Casa de la Corregidora Presidential Palace Presidential Palace Palacio de las Garzas White House Camp David Number One Observatory Circle Blair House Presidential Townhouse Trowbridge House Waldorf Astoria New York (Ambassador to
2012 Ghanaian general election
General elections were held in Ghana on Friday 7 December 2012 to elect a president and members of Parliament in 275 electoral constituencies. Owing to the breakdown of some biometric verification machines, some voters could not vote, voting was extended to Saturday 8 December 2012. A run-off was scheduled for 28 December 2012 if no presidential candidate received an absolute majority of 50% plus one vote. Competing for presidency were incumbent president John Dramani Mahama of the National Democratic Congress, his main challenger Nana Akufo-Addo of the New Patriotic Party and six other candidates. Incumbent president John Mahama was declared winner of the presidential contest with 50.7% of the vote, just a few thousand votes over the threshold for avoiding a run-off election. Nana Akufo-Addo received 47.74%. The opposition alleged tampering with results by the Electoral Commission, filed a petition at the Ghanaian Supreme Court to review the election results; the NPP produced more than 11,000 so-called "pink sheets" to the judges who had to compare them to similar papers from the EC, NDC and other parties.
These pink sheets state the results as counted in single polling stations, before aggregating them to any higher level, such as municipality and region. The NPP claimed that there were differences between the results as stated after their counting in polling stations, those which were used in aggregations, that this can be proven by the pink sheets. In a separate part of the procedure, the EC was challenged to prove that 14,000 expat Ghanaians had voted abroad, failed to produce any registered voters in foreign countries due to, so EC, the fatal work of a virus in its computer. Mahama was re-elected after less than five months as president having succeeded John Atta Mills who died in office in July 2012; the Electoral Commission of Ghana held a biometric system of registration for the electorate from 24 March 2012 to 5 May 2012. The move was aimed to eliminate ghost names in the old register. Controversially, 45 additional constituencies were added to the 230 of the 2008 general election. Voting therefore took place in a total of 26002 polling stations.
The Coalition of Domestic Election Observers trained election observers and deployed 4000 of them to monitor the elections nationwide. Observers from ECOWAS Observer Mission led by former Nigerian president, General Olusegun Obasanjo monitored the elections; the mission noted the technical glitches caused by faulty biometric machines but added that it had not undermined the fairness and transparency of the election. There have been accusations against the media for not covering the election in a fair manner after a media have projected that the main opposition. Following the death of incumbent President John Atta Mills amid concerns for the election, leader of the Electoral Commission of Ghana Kwadwo Afari-Gyan said that "the election calendar remains unchanged—it's purely a party matter" and the National Democratic Congress had to decide who to nominate as its new candidate; the main talking point following the close of nominations was the disqualification of Nana Konadu Agyeman Rawlings, leader of the newly formed National Democratic Party.
This was due to errors in the documentation presented to the Electoral Commission. Eight candidates were on the ballot; the following eight candidates have been approved by their parties and the Electoral Commission of Ghana as running mates of the above listed presidential candidates for the election on 7 December 2012. The non-partisan Coalition of Domestic Election Observers, the Economic Community of West African States and the African Union all declared that the elections were, for the most part and fair. Despite this, there were still widespread allegations of voting irregularities, though these were dismissed as unsubstantiated by the electoral commission chairman; as a result of these claims, the New Patriotic Party rejected the results upon their release and its candidate, Nana Akufo-Addo, remarked that his party's leaders would be meeting on 11 December to consider their options, one of, to contest the results by lodging an appeal in court. Violent opposition was however ruled out.
African Union commission chairman Thomas Yayi flew to Ghana to meet with the two men. He was reported to have congratulated Mahama on his victory, charged him to preside over an all-inclusive government. Yayi praised the participants of the election. In anticipation of petitions regarding the election, Chief Justice Georgina Theodora Wood has established two public complaints secretariats to swiftly process such concerns. In a statement after being declared the victor, Mahama gave a reconciliatory message, saying "I wish to welcome my fellow candidates to join me now as partners in the project of nation building and of creating a better Ghana.”
Mahamudu Bawumia is a Ghanaian economist and banker and the current Vice President of Ghana. He assumed office on 7 January 2017, his close friend is Paa Kwesi Appau Bawumia was a Deputy Governor of the Bank of Ghana until his nomination as the vice presidential candidate of the New Patriotic Party in 2008, standing alongside presidential candidate Nana Akufo-Addo. He ran as the NPP vice-presidential candidate in the 2012 general elections and was the lead witness for the petitioners in the 2012/2013 Presidential Election Petition which challenged the declaration of John Mahama as winner of the election, he has four children. Bawumia was born on October 1963, in Tamale to Alhaji Mumuni Bawumia and Hajia Mariama Bawumia. Bawumia's father, Alhaji Mumuni Bawumia was a teacher and politician, a Mamprugu Royal and Chief of the Kpariga Traditional Area at the time of his death in September 2002, he was a founding member of the Northern Peoples' Party alongside Chief S. D. Dombo, Chief Abeifa Karbo, Yakubu Tali, the Tolon Naa, J. A. Braimah, Kabachewura.
He served as Chairman of the Council of State from 1992 to 2000. The Northern Peoples Party, together with the National Liberation Movement and other opposition political parties merged into the United Party, the forebearer of the current New Patriotic Party. Alhaji Bawumia served under various Ghanaian governments in various capacities, including member of the Northern Territories Council, the Gold Coast Legislative Assembly, a Member of Parliament of the First Republic, Northern Regional Minister, Ambassador to Saudi Arabia. Alhaji Bawumia was awarded the highest national honour, membership of the Order of the Star of Ghana in March 1999, he served as the Chairman of the council of State under the NDC government during the 4th republic under President J. J. Rawlings. Born into a large family, Mahamudu Bawumia was the twelfth of his father's 18 children and the second of his mother's five. Mahamudu Bawumia attended the Sakasaka Primary school in Tamale, gained admission to Tamale Secondary School in 1975.
After graduating from Tamale Secondary School, he went to the United Kingdom where he studied banking and obtained the Chartered Institute of Bankers Diploma. He was President of the Ghana United Nations Students’ Association for 1981, he took a First Class Honours Degree in Economics at Buckingham University in 1987. He obtained a master's degree in Economics at Lincoln College and obtained a Ph. D. in Economics at the Simon Fraser University, British Columbia, Canada in 1995. His areas of specialization include Macroeconomics, International Economics, Development Economics and Monetary Policy, he has numerous publications. From 1988 to 1990, Bawumia worked as a lecturer in Monetary Economics, International Finance at the Emile Woolf College of Accountancy in London, England, he served as an economist at the Research Department of the International Monetary Fund in Washington, DC, USA. Between 1996 and 2000, Bawumia served as an Assistant Professor of Economics in the Hankamer School of Business at Baylor University in Waco, Texas, USA, where he received the Young Researcher Award in 1998.
He was listed in "Who is Who Among America's Teachers' in 1999. Bawumia returned to Ghana in 2000 to work as an economist at the Bank of Ghana, he rose from Senior Economist to Head of Department, subsequently as Special Assistant to the Governor of the Bank. President John Kufuor appointed Bawumia as Deputy Governor of the Bank of Ghana in June 2006. At the Bank of Ghana Bawumia: As Head of the Monetary Policy and Financial Stability Department, he was part of the team that designed and implemented the inflation-targeting framework that continues to guide monetary policy and the workings of the Monetary Policy Committee at the Bank of Ghana; the inflation-targeting framework established reduced inflation from over 40% in 2000 to 10.2% by 2007 while maintaining relative exchange rate stability. Was part of the team, instrumental in designing and implementing policy initiatives such as the abolition of the secondary reserve requirements and the opening up of the banking sector to competition.
This resulted in a major increase in the availability of credit to the private sector from 12.5% of GDP in 2001 to 28.5% of GDP by 2008. Led Bank of Ghana's technical negotiation team and was on the government team that negotiated with the World Bank and International Monetary Fund since 2001 through HIPC and PRGF; as a result of these negotiations, Ghana by 2007 ended its dependence on IMF assistance. Served as a member of the Government technical negotiating team on HIPC Paris Club and Completion Point Negotiations. Ghana completed the HIPC process with significant debt relief of close to $4 billion. Was a member of the Government Team to Negotiate the Millennium Challenge Account Compact with the US Government; the MCA resulted in many significant projects such as the inaugurated George Bush Highway. Was a member of the Government Technical Team on the Deregulation of Ghana's Petroleum Sector; as Chairman of the Capital Markets Committee, was responsible for the strategy for accessing the international capital markets with a debut US$750 million, four times oversubscribed.
Was part of the team that designed and implemented the successful redenomination of the cedi. Through this process, the cedi was strengthened. Significant savings were made by the Bank of Ghana in currency printing costs. Was involved in the design and implementation of the e-zwich common platform for all banks and loans companies and rural banks, offering interoperability across different financial institutions
New Patriotic Party
The New Patriotic Party is a centre-right and liberal conservative party in Ghana. Since the democratization of Ghana in 1992, it has been one of the two dominant parties in Ghana politics. John Kufuor of the NPP was President of Ghana from 2001 to 2009. At the elections held on 7 December 2004, the party won 129 out of 230 seats; the NPP candidate was Kufuor, re-elected as President with 52.75% of the vote. The New Patriotic Party symbol is the African elephant and the New Patriotic Party colors are red and blue. In the 2008 general election, the NPP candidate Nana Akufo-Addo conceded to losing in the contested presidential election runoff amidst accusations of vote rigging, with Akufo-Addo receiving 49.77% of the votes, versus 50.23% for John Atta Mills, the NDC candidate. In the 2012 general election, the NPP faced a similar situation from vote results provided by the Electoral Commission of Ghana. Nana Akufo-Addo received 47.74% of the vote, while NDC candidate John Mahama received 50.7% amidst accusations of electoral fraud.
Akufo-Addo was chosen as the NPP's candidate for a third time in the 2016 elections and defeated Mahama in the first round. The New Patriotic Party has contested every national general election in Ghana since the commencement of the fourth republic in 1992, with the exception of the parliamentary elections of 1992; the New Patriotic boycotted the 1992 parliamentary elections, alleging that the 1992 presidential election held earlier was rigged. The New Patriotic Party wrote a book title'Stolen Verdict' to register its protest against the 1992 presidential election; the New Patriotic Party is considered as an offshoot of the United Gold Coast Convention, which evolved into the Northern People's Party in the late 1940s, United Party in the early 1950s, the Progress Party in the late 1960s, the Popular Front Party in the 1970s and the All Popular Front in the early 1980s. After more than a decade of military rule by Jerry John Rawlings, the government, along with some stakeholders, drafted a constitution for which a Referendum election was organised.
After the people of Ghana approved the new constitution in an election, the ban on party politics in Ghana was lifted, allowing other parties including the NPP to be launched. The NPP's flagbearer was Professor Albert Adu Boahen, a scholar and a long-time critic of the Rawlings military government. However, the NPP lost the 1992 election overwhelmingly to the Progressive alliance of the National Democratic Congress, Eagle Party and the National Convention Party whose candidate was Jerry John Rawlings; the NPP hence won no seats in the new Parliament. The NPP lost the 1996 elections again to Rawlings' party but this time, their flagbearer was John Kufuor. In the 2000 and 2004 elections, John Kufuor won both elections ushering in a new government for the first time in the fourth republic of Ghana; the New Patriotic Party lost the 1992 presidential elections to the National Democratic Congress led by Rawlings. Despite the elections being declared as free and fair by international observers, Prof Adu Boahene, the NPP candidate, alleged that there was heavy rigging by the Interim National Electoral Commission headed by Nana Oduro Nimapau and hence the NPP as well as the National Independence Party, People's Heritage Party and the People's National Convention boycotted the parliamentary elections.
The decision to not contest in the parliamentary elections, held a couple of weeks after the presidential election at the time meant that the National Democratic Congress, National Convention Party and the Eagle Party, a coalition won all the parliamentary seats available. One seat was won by an independent candidate, Hawa Yakubu; this protest however led to some reforms in the electoral system, notably the use of transparent ballot boxes at polling stations, issuing of voter ID cards and the use indelible ink to mark people, registered to avoid double voting. After the defeat in 1992, the NPP chairman at the time, Peter Ala Adjetey, stated that the party was resolved to do their homework and wrestle power from the NDC in the 1996 election, they made the decision that regardless of the results, they would contest for parliamentary seats to stop what was seen as an NDC monopoly in Parliament. Prior to the party convention, it appeared that the overwhelming favourite to become the next presidential candidate was a well renowned economist known as Kwame Pianim.
However, some members of the party led by Florence Ekwam challenged Pianim's eligibility due to a prior conviction during the PNDC era. The Supreme Court of Ghana declared Pianim as ineligible and hence he couldn't be considered for nomination. On 20 April 1996, John Kufuor was nominated as the NPP presidential candidate with 1034 out of 2000 delegates drawn from all the 200 Constituencies to run for the presidency in the general election held on 10 December 1996; this time, both presidential and parliamentary elections were held on the same day, unlike the previous election, as part of the reforms by the National Electoral Commission headed by Kwadwo Afari-Gyan. The NPP gained an unlikely alliance from the Vice President of Ghana, Kow Nkensen Arkaah, whose party had severed their alliance with the National Democratic Congress; the NPP hence formed what was deemed as the "Great Alliance" with the NCP and Vice President Arkaah was nominated to be the running mate of Kuffuor. After campaigning for less than nine months, Kufuor polled 39.62% of the popular votes to Jerry Rawlings' 57% in the 1996 election.
Despite the elections being declared
In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government. A modern parliament has three functions: representing the electorate, making laws, overseeing the government via hearings and inquiries; the term is similar to the idea of a senate, synod or congress, is used in countries that are current or former monarchies, a form of government with a monarch as the head. Some contexts restrict the use of the word parliament to parliamentary systems, although it is used to describe the legislature in some presidential systems where it is not in the official name. Parliaments included various kinds of deliberative and judicial assemblies, e.g. mediaeval parlements. The English term is derived from Anglo-Norman and dates to the 14th century, coming from the 11th century Old French parlement, from parler, meaning "to talk"; the meaning evolved over time referring to any discussion, conversation, or negotiation through various kinds of deliberative or judicial groups summoned by a monarch.
By the 15th century, in Britain, it had come to mean the legislature. Since ancient times, when societies were tribal, there were councils or a headman whose decisions were assessed by village elders; this is called tribalism. Some scholars suggest that in ancient Mesopotamia there was a primitive democratic government where the kings were assessed by council; the same has been said about ancient India, where some form of deliberative assemblies existed, therefore there was some form of democracy. However, these claims are not accepted by most scholars, who see these forms of government as oligarchies. Ancient Athens was the cradle of democracy; the Athenian assembly was the most important institution, every free male citizen could take part in the discussions. Slaves and women could not. However, Athenian democracy was not representative, but rather direct, therefore the ekklesia was different from the parliamentary system; the Roman Republic had legislative assemblies, who had the final say regarding the election of magistrates, the enactment of new statutes, the carrying out of capital punishment, the declaration of war and peace, the creation of alliances.
The Roman Senate controlled money and the details of foreign policy. Some Muslim scholars argue. However, others highlight what they consider fundamental differences between the shura system and the parliamentary system. Although there are documented councils held in 873, 1020, 1050 and 1063, there was no representation of commoners. What is considered to be the first parliament, the Cortes of León, was held in the Kingdom of León in 1188. According to the UNESCO, the Decreta of Leon of 1188 is the oldest documentary manifestation of the European parliamentary system. In addition, UNESCO granted the 1188 Cortes of Alfonso IX the title of "Memory of the World" and the city of Leon has been recognized as the "Cradle of Parliamentarism". After coming to power, King Alfonso IX, facing an attack by his two neighbors and Portugal, decided to summon the "Royal Curia"; this was a medieval organisation composed of aristocrats and bishops but because of the seriousness of the situation and the need to maximise political support, Alfonso IX took the decision to call the representatives of the urban middle class from the most important cities of the kingdom to the assembly.
León's Cortes dealt with matters like the right to private property, the inviolability of domicile, the right to appeal to justice opposite the King and the obligation of the King to consult the Cortes before entering a war. Prelates and commoners met separately in the three estates of the Cortes. In this meeting new laws were approved to protect commoners against the arbitrarities of nobles and the king; this important set of laws is known as the Carta Magna Leonesa. Following this event, new Cortes would appear in the other different territories that would make up Spain: Principality of Catalonia in 1192, the Kingdom of Castile in 1250, Kingdom of Aragon in 1274, Kingdom of Valencia in 1283 and Kingdom of Navarre in 1300. After the union of the Kingdoms of Leon and Castile under the Crown of Castile, their Cortes were united as well in 1258; the Castilian Cortes had representatives from Burgos, Toledo, León, Seville, Córdoba, Murcia, Jaén, Segovia, Ávila, Cuenca, Valladolid, Madrid and Granada.
The Cortes' assent was required to pass new taxes, could advise the king on other matters. The comunero rebels intended a stronger role for the Cortes, but were defeated by the forces of Habsburg Emperor Charles V in 1521; the Cortes maintained some power, though it became more of a consultative entity. However, by the time of King Philip II, Charles's son, the Castilian Cortes had come under functionally complete royal control, with its delegates dependent on the Crown for their income; the Cortes of the Crown of Aragon kingdoms retained their power to control the king's spending with regard to the finances of those kingdoms. But after the War of the Spanish Succession and the victory of another royal house – the Bourbons – and King Philip V, their Cortes were suppressed. Claims that Spain was united under the Catholic Monarchs in the late 15th century are belied by these facts.