Government of Australia
The Government of Australia is the government of the Commonwealth of Australia, a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy. It is commonly referred to as the Australian Government, the Commonwealth Government, Her Majesty's Government, or the Federal Government; the Commonwealth of Australia was formed in 1901 as a result of an agreement among six self-governing British colonies, which became the six states. The terms of this contract are embodied in the Australian Constitution, drawn up at a Constitutional Convention and ratified by the people of the colonies at referendums; the Australian head of state is the Queen of Australia, represented by the Governor-General of Australia, with executive powers delegated by constitutional convention to the Australian head of government, the Prime Minister of Australia. The Government of the Commonwealth of Australia is divided into three branches: the executive branch, composed of the Federal Executive Council, presided by the Governor-General, which delegates powers to the Cabinet of Australia, led by the Prime Minister.
Separation of powers is implied by the structure of the Constitution, the three branches of government being set out in separate chapters. The Australian system of government combines elements of the Westminster and Washington systems with unique Australian characteristics, has been characterised as a "Washminster mutation". Section 1 of the Australian Constitution creates a democratic legislature, the bicameral Parliament of Australia which consists of the Queen of Australia, two houses of parliament, the Senate and the House of Representatives. Section 51 of the Constitution provides for the Commonwealth Government's legislative powers and allocates certain powers and responsibilities to the Commonwealth government. All remaining responsibilities are retained by the six States. Further, each State has its own constitution, so that Australia has seven sovereign Parliaments, none of which can encroach on the functions of any other; the High Court of Australia arbitrates on any disputes which arise between the Commonwealth and the States, or among the States, concerning their respective functions.
The Commonwealth Parliament can propose changes to the Constitution. To become effective, the proposals must be put to a referendum of all Australians of voting age, must receive a "double majority": a majority of all votes, a majority of votes in a majority of States; the Commonwealth Constitution provides that the States can agree to refer any of their powers to the Commonwealth. This may be achieved by way of an amendment to the Constitution via referendum. More powers may be transferred by passing other acts of legislation which authorise the transfer and such acts require the legislative agreement of all the state governments involved; this "transfer" legislation may have a "sunset clause", a legislative provision that nullifies the transfer of power after a specified period, at which point the original division of power is restored. In addition, Australia has several "territories", two of which are self-governing: the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory; these territories' legislatures, their Assemblies, exercise powers devolved to them by the Commonwealth.
Australian citizens in these territories are represented by members of both houses of the Commonwealth Parliament. The territory of Norfolk Island was self-governing from 1979 until 2016, although it was never represented as such in the Commonwealth Parliament; the other territories that are inhabited—Jervis Bay, Christmas Island and the Cocos Islands—have never been self-governing. The federal nature of the Commonwealth and the structure of the Parliament of Australia were the subject of protracted negotiations among the colonies during the drafting of the Constitution; the House of Representatives is elected on a basis that reflects the differing populations of the States. Thus New South Wales has 48 members, but the Senate is elected on a basis of equality among the States: all States elect 12 Senators, regardless of population. This was intended to allow the Senators of the smaller States to form a majority and thus be able to amend or reject bills originating in the House of Representatives.
The ACT and the NT each elect two Senators. The third level of government after Commonwealth and State/Territory is Local government, in the form of shires and cities; the Councils of these areas are composed of elected representatives serving part-time. Their powers are devolved to them by the Territory in which they are located. Government at the Commonwealth level and the State/Territory level is undertaken by three inter-connected arms of government: Legislature: The Commonwealth Parliament Executive: The Sovereign of Australia, whose executive power is exercisable by the Governor-General, the Prime Minister and their Departments Judiciary: The High Court of Australia and subsidiary Federal courts. Separation of powers is the principle whereby the three arms of government undertake their activities separately from each other: the Legislature proposes laws in the form of Bills, provides a legislative framework for the operations of the other two a
Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds Port Jackson and extends about 70 km on its periphery towards the Blue Mountains to the west, Hawkesbury to the north, the Royal National Park to the south and Macarthur to the south-west. Sydney is made up of 40 local government areas and 15 contiguous regions. Residents of the city are known as "Sydneysiders"; as of June 2017, Sydney's estimated metropolitan population was 5,230,330 and is home to 65% of the state's population. Indigenous Australians have inhabited the Sydney area for at least 30,000 years, thousands of engravings remain throughout the region, making it one of the richest in Australia in terms of Aboriginal archaeological sites. During his first Pacific voyage in 1770, Lieutenant James Cook and his crew became the first Europeans to chart the eastern coast of Australia, making landfall at Botany Bay and inspiring British interest in the area.
In 1788, the First Fleet of convicts, led by Arthur Phillip, founded Sydney as a British penal colony, the first European settlement in Australia. Phillip named the city Sydney in recognition of 1st Viscount Sydney. Penal transportation to New South Wales ended soon after Sydney was incorporated as a city in 1842. A gold rush occurred in the colony in 1851, over the next century, Sydney transformed from a colonial outpost into a major global cultural and economic centre. After World War II, it experienced mass migration and became one of the most multicultural cities in the world. At the time of the 2011 census, more than 250 different languages were spoken in Sydney. In the 2016 Census, about 35.8% of residents spoke a language other than English at home. Furthermore, 45.4% of the population reported having been born overseas, making Sydney the 3rd largest foreign born population of any city in the world after London and New York City, respectively. Despite being one of the most expensive cities in the world, the 2018 Mercer Quality of Living Survey ranks Sydney tenth in the world in terms of quality of living, making it one of the most livable cities.
It is classified as an Alpha+ World City by Globalization and World Cities Research Network, indicating its influence in the region and throughout the world. Ranked eleventh in the world for economic opportunity, Sydney has an advanced market economy with strengths in finance and tourism. There is a significant concentration of foreign banks and multinational corporations in Sydney and the city is promoted as Australia's financial capital and one of Asia Pacific's leading financial hubs. Established in 1850, the University of Sydney is Australia's first university and is regarded as one of the world's leading universities. Sydney is home to the oldest library in Australia, State Library of New South Wales, opened in 1826. Sydney has hosted major international sporting events such as the 2000 Summer Olympics; the city is among the top fifteen most-visited cities in the world, with millions of tourists coming each year to see the city's landmarks. Boasting over 1,000,000 ha of nature reserves and parks, its notable natural features include Sydney Harbour, the Royal National Park, Royal Botanic Garden and Hyde Park, the oldest parkland in the country.
Built attractions such as the Sydney Harbour Bridge and the World Heritage-listed Sydney Opera House are well known to international visitors. The main passenger airport serving the metropolitan area is Kingsford-Smith Airport, one of the world's oldest continually operating airports. Established in 1906, Central station, the largest and busiest railway station in the state, is the main hub of the city's rail network; the first people to inhabit the area now known as Sydney were indigenous Australians having migrated from northern Australia and before that from southeast Asia. Radiocarbon dating suggests human activity first started to occur in the Sydney area from around 30,735 years ago. However, numerous Aboriginal stone tools were found in Western Sydney's gravel sediments that were dated from 45,000 to 50,000 years BP, which would indicate that there was human settlement in Sydney earlier than thought; the first meeting between the native people and the British occurred on 29 April 1770 when Lieutenant James Cook landed at Botany Bay on the Kurnell Peninsula and encountered the Gweagal clan.
He noted in his journal that they were somewhat hostile towards the foreign visitors. Cook was not commissioned to start a settlement, he spent a short time collecting food and conducting scientific observations before continuing further north along the east coast of Australia and claiming the new land he had discovered for Britain. Prior to the arrival of the British there were 4,000 to 8,000 native people in Sydney from as many as 29 different clans; the earliest British settlers called the natives Eora people. "Eora" is the term the indigenous population used to explain their origins upon first contact with the British. Its literal meaning is "from this place". Sydney Cove from Port Jackson to Petersham was inhabited by the Cadigal clan; the principal language groups were Darug and Dharawal. The earliest Europeans to visit the area noted that the indigenous people were conducting activities such as camping and fishing, using trees for bark and food, collecting shells, cooking fish. Britain—before that, England—and Ireland had for a long time been sending their convicts across the Atlantic to the American colonies.
That trade was ended with the Declaration of Independence by the United States in 1776. Britain decided in 1786 to found a new penal outpost in the territory discovered by Cook some 16 years ear
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Executive Council of New South Wales
The Executive Council of New South Wales is the cabinet of that Australian state, consisting of the Ministers, presided over by the Governor. The Executive Council was created within the Royal Letters Patent commissioning Sir Ralph Darling as Governor on 19 December 1825, which would act as the governor's executive advisory council alongside the Legislative Council. In the early Crown colony of New South Wales prior to full self-government in 1856, the Executive Council was appointed by the Governor and included military and judicial officials, their role that of the Governor's cabinet, similar to the present except that the Governor took part in cabinet meetings and political decisions, whereas modern Governors do not; the colonial Legislative Council, established in 1824, was subordinate to the Governor and the Council and served more as a sounding-board than a legislative body. Made up of members of the New South Wales Legislative Assembly and the New South Wales Legislative Council, the cabinet is similar in structure and role to the Cabinet of Australia.
As federal and state responsibilities differ there are a number of different portfolios between the federal and state governments, most prominent being the absence of foreign or defence portfolios in state governments. As required by Section 35CA of the Constitution Act 1902, all prospective Executive Councillors must take the pledge of loyalty or oath of allegiance and oath of office. Once sworn in, the members of the council are entitled to bear the title "The Honourable". Once leaving office however, they must relinquish it unless they have served more than three years on the council or have been approved to bear it for life by the monarch on the advice of the council. All retentions of the title must, however, be approved by Royal proclamation. While the Governor acts as the President of the Executive Council, a minister is appointed to be Vice-President of the Executive Council, as set forth in section 35D of the constitution, to act as chair in the absence of the governor and to facilitate the agenda and reports of members before the council and the crown.
Meetings of the Council always consist of the Governor, the Official Secretary to the Governor and a quorum of councillors, set at two. The Governor of New South Wales, as representative of the Queen in Right of New South Wales, heads the council, is referred to as the Governor in Council. Other members of the Cabinet, who advise, or minister, the vice-regal, are selected by the Premier of New South Wales and appointed by the Governor. Most cabinet ministers are the head of a ministry. Section 13B of the Constitution provides that the Vice-President shall be an elected member of the parliament, which by convention is always a member of the Legislative Council and, more the leader of the government in the council; the Government of New South Wales, formally referred to as Her Majesty's Government is defined by the Constitution of New South Wales as the Queen acting on the advice of the Executive Council, or sometimes the Governor-in-Council, referring to the Governor as the Queen's representative.
The sovereign or her viceroy govern by issuing Orders in Council, certified by the royal or viceroyal sign-manual and the Great Seal of New South Wales. In the construct of constitutional monarchy and responsible government, this is done on ministerial advice, binding, though the sovereign and his or her representative may unilaterally use these powers in exceptional constitutional crisis situations
Monarchy of Australia
The monarchy of Australia concerns the form of government in which a hereditary king or queen serves as the nation's sovereign and head of state. Australia is governed under a form of constitutional monarchy modelled on the Westminster system of parliamentary government, while incorporating features unique to the Constitution of Australia; the present monarch is Elizabeth II, styled Queen of Australia, who has reigned since 6 February 1952. She is represented in Australia as a whole by the Governor-General, in accordance with the Australian Constitution and letters patent from the Queen, in each of the Australian states, according to the state constitutions, by a governor, assisted by a lieutenant-governor; the monarch appoints the Governor-General and the governors, on the advice of the Commonwealth government and each state government. These are now the only constitutional functions of the monarch with regard to Australia. Australian constitutional law provides that the monarch of the United Kingdom is the monarch in Australia.
This is understood today to constitute a separate Australian monarchy, the monarch acting with regard to Australian affairs upon the advice of Australian ministers. Australia is thus one of the Commonwealth realms, sixteen independent countries that share the same person as monarch and head of state; the role and future of the monarchy has been a recurring topic of public discussion. Further information: Commonwealth realm: The Crown in the Commonwealth realmsKey features of Australia's system of government include its basis on a combination of "written" and "unwritten rules", its retention of colonial-monarchical heads of state, comprising the British monarch and what had been the monarch's colonial representatives, the State Governors, together with the Governor-General; the monarch of Australia is the same person as the monarch of the 15 other Commonwealth realms within the 53-member Commonwealth of Nations. On all matters of the Australian Commonwealth, the monarch is advised by Australian federal Ministers of the Crown, effective with the Australia Act 1986, no British government can advise the monarch on any matters pertinent to Australia.
On all matters relating to any Australian state, the monarch is advised by the Ministers of the Crown of that state. In 1999 the High Court of Australia held in Sue v Hill that, at least since the Australia Act 1986, Britain has been a foreign power in regard to Australia's domestic and foreign affairs. In 2001 the High Court held that, until the United Kingdom became a foreign power, all British subjects were subjects of the Queen in right of the United Kingdom and thus could not be classified as aliens within the meaning of Section 51 of the constitution; the sovereign's Australian title is Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God Queen of Australia and Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth. Prior to 1953, the title had been the same as that in the United Kingdom. A change in the title resulted from occasional discussion and an eventual meeting of Commonwealth representatives in London in December 1952, at which Canada's preferred format for the monarch's title was Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of and of Her other realms and territories, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith.
Australia, wished to have the United Kingdom mentioned as well. Thus, the resolution was a title that included the United Kingdom but, for the first time separately mentioned Australia and the other Commonwealth realms; the passage of a new Royal Style and Titles Act by the Parliament of Australia put these recommendations into law. It was proposed by the Cabinet headed by Gough Whitlam that the title be amended to "denote the precedence of Australia, the equality of the United Kingdom and each other sovereign nation under the Crown, the separation of Church and State." A new Royal Titles and Styles Bill that removed specific reference to the monarch's role as Queen of the United Kingdom was passed by the federal parliament, but the Governor-General, Sir Paul Hasluck, reserved Royal Assent "for Her Majesty's pleasure". Queen Elizabeth II signed her assent at Government House, Canberra, on 19 October 1973. In 2018 a trip by the Prince of Wales to the Commonwealth country of Vanuatu, escorted by Australian Minister for Foreign Affairs Julie Bishop in between a tour of Queensland and the Northern Territory, was paid for by Australian taxpayers.
In Oct 2011, the cost of a 10-day royal visit to Australia was put at $5.85 million. The Queen's Australian governments pay only for the costs associated with the Governor-General and state governors in their exercising of the powers of the Crown on behalf of the Queen, including travel, residences and ceremonial occasions; the monarch is the locus of oaths of allegiance. This is in reciprocation to the sovereign's Coronation Oath, wherein he or she promises "to govern the Peoples of... Australia... according to their respective laws and customs". New appointees to the Federal Cabinet also swear an oath that includes allegiance to the monarch before taking their post. However, as
An anniversary is the date on which an event took place or an institution was founded in a previous year, may refer to the commemoration or celebration of that event. For example, the first event is the initial occurrence or, the inaugural of the event. One year would be the first anniversary of that event; the word was first used for Catholic feasts to commemorate saints. Most countries celebrate national anniversaries called national days; these could be the date of independence of the nation or the adoption of a new constitution or form of government. The important dates in a sitting monarch's reign may be commemorated, an event referred to as a "jubilee". Birthdays are the most common type of anniversary, on which someone's birthdate is commemorated each year; the actual celebration is sometimes moved for practical reasons, as in the case of an official birthday. Wedding anniversaries are often celebrated, on the same day of the year as the wedding occurred. Death anniversary; the Latin phrase dies natalis has become a common term, adopted in many languages in intellectual and institutional circles, for the anniversary of the founding of an institution, such as an alma mater.
In ancient Rome, the Aquilae natalis was the "birthday of the eagle", the anniversary of the official founding of a legion. Anniversaries of nations are marked by the number of years elapsed, expressed with Latin words or Roman numerals. Latin terms for anniversaries are straightforward those relating to the first twenty years, or multiples of ten years, or multiples of centuries or millennia In these instances, the name of the anniversary is derived from the Latin word for the respective number of years. However, when anniversaries relate to fractions of centuries, the situation is not as simple. Roman fractions were based on a duodecimal system. From 1⁄12 to 8⁄12 they were expressed as multiples of twelfths and from 9⁄12 to 11⁄12 they were expressed as multiple twelfths less than the next whole unit—i.e. A whole unit less 3⁄12, 2⁄12 or 1⁄12 respectively. There were special terms for quarter and three-quarters. Dodrans is a Latin contraction of de-quadrans which means "a whole unit less a quarter" (de means "from".
Thus for the example of 175 years, the term is a quarter century less than the next whole century or 175 =. In Latin, it seems that this rule did not apply for 1½. While secundus is Latin for "second", bis for "twice", these terms are not used such as in sesqui-secundus. Instead sesqui is used by itself. Many anniversaries have special names. Etiquette in Society, in Business, in Politics and at Home by Emily Post, published in 1922, contained suggestions for wedding anniversary gifts for 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 50, 75 years. Wedding anniversary gift suggestions for other years were added in editions and publications. Speaking, the longer the period, the more precious or durable the material associated with it. See wedding anniversary for a general list of the wedding anniversary symbols. Furthermore, there exist numerous overlapping contradictory lists of anniversary gifts, separate from the'traditional' names; the concepts of a person's birthday stone and zodiac stone, by contrast, are fixed for life according to the day of the week, month, or astrological sign corresponding to the recipient's birthday.
List of historical anniversaries Quinquennial Neronia Wedding anniversary