National Jury of Elections
The National Jury of Elections of Peru is an autonomous constitutional organism, headquartered in Lima. Its goal is to oversee the legality of electoral processes, guaranteeing the respect for the population's will. Thus, it is the entity in charge of proclaiming the official electoral results and awarding recognitions or credentials to the elected authorities. Furthermore, it passes resolutions to regulate the electoral dispositions. Moreover, the Jury reviews appeals to resolutions passes in first instance by the Special Electoral Juries and has the last word on controversies regarding electoral matters, it settles cases on vacancies declared by Regional and Municipal Councils. Its five members are elected by different entities of the State, its president is elected by the Supreme Court of Justice and the remaining four magistrates are appointed by the Public Ministry after being elected by the lawyers in Lima and the deans of the Law faculties, one from public universities and another from the private ones.
The Jury handles the Registry of Political Organizations, where the active political parties in Peru are registered. At the start of the Republican era there was no proper institution overseeing elections. Regulations pointed to the existence of boards or electoral colleges, an electoral branch of power was set up once. However, in practice, elections were run by either the Legislative branch. Several electoral laws were passed, such as the Regulation of Elections for Congress, the Law of Municipal Elections, the Regulations of Elections of 1839 and 1849, the Law of Elections of 1857 and 1861 and the Organic Law of Elections; the 20th century did not bring big changes for the election system. The country went through several electoral processes like before, without an impartial and independent electoral body, with the electorate limited to tax-paying males. New legislation was passed, like the Law of Elections, which for the first time created the National Electoral Board, made up of 9 members, the Departmental Electoral Boards, as well as the Electoral Registry.
Other laws from these years were Law Number 861 of Political Elections, Law Number 1072 of Municipal Elections, Law Number 1533 of Political Elections and the Electoral Law. The latter determined the Supreme Court's participation in the conduction of elections, such as those in 1913 and 1915. In 1930, Commander Luis Miguel Sánchez Cerro established a military junta in Lima, but he was forced to resign from his post, permitting the installation of a National Government Board presided over by David Samanez Ocampo, who convoked general elections by Decree Law 7160, creating the National Jury of Elections as the maximum electoral authority. The first plenary session of the Jury, set up on 22 September 1931, was presided over by Ernesto Araujo Alvarez and with the participation of members Max González Olaechea, Leandro Pareja, Ricardo Rivadeneyra, Ernesto Flores, Humberto Garrido Lecca and Nicanor Hurtado; the first Secretary-General was Eloy B. Espinoza; the 1993 Constitution fragmented the Jury into three autonomous entities, separating the National Registry of Identification and Civil Status and the National Office of Electoral Processes from it.
RENIEC was made in charge of registering eligible voters, while ONPE was designed to organize the elections, leaving the Jury the duties of making any rulings concerning electoral processes, including the proclamation of official results. Until 2005, the Jury oversaw 31 nationwide electoral processes, apart from complementary elections and revocations. 17 of these were political elections, resulting in the election of 12 constitutional presidents and as many national legislative bodies. Ten were municipal elections, two were constituent assembly elections, one was a referendum and one was for the election of regional governments; the Jury has the following functions: To resolve in last instance the appeals and revisions of resolutions by the Special Electoral Juries. To declare the nullity of an electoral process, referendum or other popular consultation. To declare the vacancy of municipal or regional authorities. Elections in Peru Politics of Peru National Jury of Elections Official site
National Board of Justice
The National Board of Justice or JNJ the National Council of the Magistrature, is an autonomous constitutional institution, part of the Republic of Peru. Its primary function is to appoint and ratify all judges and prosecutors in the Peruvian justice system as well as to remove those that fail to fulfill their responsibilities. Different systems have been used since independence by the Peruvian government to designate impartial judges and prosecutors; the 1933 Peruvian Constitution set up a system similar to the American one which gave the Executive branch the power to appoint judges with the ratification of the Senate. Juan Velasco Alvarado removed most of the judges that served as part of the Supreme Court shortly after coming to power. A "National Concil of Justice" was set up as an autonomous institution not dependent of any of the branches of government; this was done to solve corruption issues within the Judiciary branch as well as to prevent politics from infiltrating said branch. The function of the Council was similar to that of the modern National Council of the Magistrature.
The Council was made part of the 1979 Peruvian Constitution under its current name. The function of the Council was that of proposing judges. Supreme Court Justices were proposed to the President by the Council and in turn to the Senate which ratified the appointments. Lower court judges were chosen by the Council and the ratified by small Distritial Magistrate Councils; this Council was modeled after the Italian High Council of the Judiciary and was similar to other councils in Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela. It was composed by seven members; the Prosecutor General presided over the Council while the other six members were two representatives from the Supreme Court, one from the National Federation of Bar Associations of Peru, one from the Lima Bar Association, two from Law Schools in Peru. After the 1992 Peruvian constitutional crisis and the adoption of the 1993 Peruvian Constitution, the Council gained greater autonomy and responsibility. A series of wiretaps were published by the press starting in July 2018 which recorded counselors speaking with prominent businessmen and judges which showed vast cronyism within the system.
President Martín Vizcarra convened Congress into a special session concerning the removal of all seven counselors on 20 July 2018. Congress removed all seven Counselors by a unanimous vote; the National Council was declared in emergency for nine months a week later. Most of the Council's personnel was dismissed, the Council's organic law was revoked, all processes being considered by the Council were put on hold. During his yearly message to Congress, President Vizcarra, called for a new Constitutional amendment which would change the composition of the Council as well as the requirements to become a counselor, he asked that all appointments and ratification done by the council in recent years be revised. The Constitutional Amendment proposed by the Executive branch brought down the number of counselors from 7 to 5, it proposed that counselors would be appointed by a committee made up of the President of the Judicial Branch, the Prosecutor General, the President of the Constitutional Tribunal, the Ombudsman, the Comptroller General.
Further, Counselors would have to be licensed lawyer with at least 30 years of experience and of good reputation. The President asked that the proposed Constitutional changes be ratified by the people via referendum; the final amendment as approved by Congress maintained the number of counselors at 7 as well as the composition of the committee as proposed by the Executive branch. The amendment was ratified by the population as the first of four Constitutional amendments voted for in the 2018 Peruvian constitutional referendum. Over 80% voted for the amendment which changed to the name of the Council to the National Board of Justice; the Board is independent of the rest of the Peruvian government and it is ruled by its own organic law. The members of the Board are known as counselors and serve for a five-year term and may not be re-elected to a consecutive term. Counselors must be natural-born citizens; the Board consist of seven members, which are elected by a special committee, called into session by the Ombudsman six months before the end of the Board's term.
The members of the special council are the Ombudsman. Congress may remove any of the members of the Board due to gross misconduct by a two-thirds vote; the 1993 Peruvian Constitution delineates the Board's responsibilities. Its primary function is to appoint and periodically ratify all judges and prosecutors in the Peruvian justice system; this includes decisions regarding ascension of prosecutors. In this way, the judiciary branch of the Peruvian government is isolated from political and ideological interference by the other branches of government, it elects the head of the National Office of Electoral Processes and the head of the National Registry of Identification and Civil Status which are two of the three institutions in charge of the electoral system and processes. Judge and prosecutor vacancies are filled through a merit-bas
Congress of the Republic of Peru
The Congress of the Republic of Peru is the unicameral body that assumes legislative power in Peru. The congress consists of 130 members, who are elected for five-year periods in office on a proportional representation basis; the Peruvian congress congregates at the Palacio Legislativo, located in the Historical Center of Lima, across the road from Plaza Simón Bolívar and a few blocks away from Casa de Pizarro. The last congressional election was held on April 10, 2016, concurrently with the presidential election. Since July 26, 2018, the President of Congress is Daniel Salaverry, of the Popular Force party; the first Peruvian Congress was installed in 1822 as the Constitutional Congress led by Francisco Xavier de Luna Pizarro. In 1829, the government installed a bicameral Congress, made up by a Senate and a Chamber of Deputies; this system was interrupted by a number of times by Constitutional Congresses that promulgated new Constitutions that lasted for a couple of years. The Deputies reunited in the Legislative Palace and the Senators went to the former Peruvian Inquisition of Lima until 1930, when Augusto B.
Leguía was overthrown by Luis Miguel Sánchez Cerro. He installed a Constitutional Congress that promulgated the Constitution of 1933. By order of the president, the Peruvian Aprista Party members that were in Congress were arrested for there revolutionary doctrines against the government; when Sánchez Cerro was assassinated in 1933 by an APRA member, General Óscar R. Benavides took power and closed Congress until 1939, when Manuel Prado Ugarteche was elected President. During various dictatorships, the Congress was interrupted by coups d'état. In 1968, Juan Velasco Alvarado overthrew president Fernando Belaúnde by a coup d'état, closing again the Congress; the 1979 Constitution was promulgated on July 12, 1979 by the Constitutional Assembly elected following 10 years of military rule and replaced the suspended 1933 Constitution. It became effective in 1980 with the re-election of deposed President Fernando Belaúnde, it limited the president to a single five-year term and established a bicameral legislature consisting of a 60-member Senate and a 180-member Chamber of Deputies.
Members of both chambers were elected for five-year terms, running concurrently with that of the president. Party-list proportional representation was used for both chambers: on a regional basis for the Senate, using the D'Hondt method for the lower house. Members of both houses had to be Peruvian citizens, with a minimum age of 25 for deputies and 35 for senators. At the beginning of the 1990s, the bicameral congress had a low public approval rating. President Alberto Fujimori did not have the majority in both chambers, the opposition lead the Congress, imposing the power that Fujimori had as President, he made the decision of dissolving Congress by a self-coup to his government in 1992. Following the self-coup, in which Congress was dissolved, the Democratic Constitutional Congress established a single chamber of 120 members; the Democratic Constitutional Congress promulgated the 1993 Constitution in which gave more power to the President. The new unicameral Congress started working in 1995, dominated by Fujimori's Congressmen that had the majority.
The Congress permits a one-year term for a Congressman to become President of Congress. Article 90 of the Peruvian Constitution sets three qualifications for congressmen: they must be natural-born citizens. Candidates for president cannot run for congress while vice-presidential candidates can. Furthermore, Article 91 states that high ranking government officers and any member of the armed forces or national police can only become congressmen six months after leaving their post. Congressmen serve for a five-year term and can be re-elected indefinitely though this is rare. Elections for congress happen as the election for president. Seats in congress are assigned to each region in proportion to the region's population. Congressional elections take place in April; the D'Hondt method, a party-list proportional representation system, is used to allocate seats in congress. Political parties publish their party list for each region ahead of the election. Candidates do not need to be members of the political party they run for but may run for such party as a guest.
Each candidate is assigned a number within the list. The citizenry thus votes for the party of their preference directly. Additionally, voters may write two specific candidates' number on the ballot as their personal preference; the newly elected congress takes office on the 26th of July of the year of the election. Congressmen may not be tried or arrested without prior authorization from Congress from the time of their election until a month after the end of their term. Congressmen must follow the Congress' code of ethics, part of its self-established Standing Rules of Congress. La Comisión de Ética Parlamentaria, or Parliamentary Ethics Committee, is incharge of enforcing the code and punishing violators. Discipline consist of written admonishments. Any congressmen may lose their parliamentary immunity; the process is started by the Criminal Sector of the Supreme Court who presents the case to the Presidency of Congress. The case is referred to a special committee of 15 congressmen known as Comisión de Levantamiento de Inmunidad Parlamentaria, or Committee on Lifting Parliamentary Immunity, that decides if the petition should be heard by the body as a whole.
The accused congressmen has the rig
Visa policy of Peru
Visitors to Peru must obtain a visa from one of the Peruvian diplomatic missions unless they come from one of the visa exempt countries. Holders of passports of the following 98 jurisdictions can visit Peru for tourism purposes without a visa for up to 183 days,: ID - may cross the border with either ID card or passport. B - may visit without a visa for business purposes as well. Nationals of China and India who hold a visa with a minimum validity of more than 6 months or a permanent residence permit issued by Australia, United Kingdom, United States or a Schengen member state are visa exempt for a maximum of 180 days during a six-month period. Holders of diplomatic, official or service passports do not require a visa. Holders of passports issued by the following countries who possess an APEC Business Travel Card containing the "PER" code on the reverse that it is valid for travel to Peru can enter visa-free for business trips for up to 90 days. ABTCs are issued to nationals of: Most visitors arriving to Peru on short term basis were from the following countries of residence: Visa requirements for Peruvian citizens
Vice President of Peru
The Republic of Peru has two Vice Presidents who are elected along with the President in democratic elections. Their only mission is to replace the President in case of death, travel and other cases. Vice Presidents are first in the Presidential line of succession. Position of unique Vice President was in place between 1829–1831 and 1858–1862. Positions of First and Second Vice Presidents has been in place since 1862. List of current Vice Presidents Media related to Vice Presidents of Peru at Wikimedia Commons
Lima is the capital and the largest city of Peru. It is located in the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín rivers, in the central coastal part of the country, overlooking the Pacific Ocean. Together with the seaport of Callao, it forms a contiguous urban area known as the Lima Metropolitan Area. With a population of more than 9 million, Lima is the most populous metropolitan area of Peru and the third-largest city in the Americas, behind São Paulo and Mexico City. Lima was founded by Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro on 18 January 1535, as Ciudad de los Reyes in the agricultural region known by the Indians as Limaq, name that acquired over time, it became most important city in the Viceroyalty of Peru. Following the Peruvian War of Independence, it became the capital of the Republic of Peru. Around one-third of the national population lives in the metropolitan area. Lima is home to one of the oldest institutions of higher learning in the New World; the National University of San Marcos, founded on 12 May 1551, during the Spanish colonial regime, is the oldest continuously functioning university in the Americas.
Nowadays the city is considered as the political, cultural and commercial center of the country. Internationally, it is one of the thirty most populated urban agglomerations in the world. Due to its geostrategic importance, it has been defined as a "beta" city. Jurisdictionally, the metropolis extends within the province of Lima and in a smaller portion, to the west, within the constitutional province of Callao, where the seaport and the Jorge Chávez airport are located. Both provinces have regional autonomy since 2002. In October 2013, Lima was chosen to host the 2019 Pan American Games, it hosted the United Nations Climate Change Conference in December 2014 and the Miss Universe 1982 contest. According to early Spanish articles the Lima area was once called Itchyma, after its original inhabitants; however before the Inca occupation of the area in the 15th century, a famous oracle in the Rímac valley had come to be known by visitors as Limaq. This oracle was destroyed by the Spanish and replaced with a church, but the name persisted: the chronicles show "Límac" replacing "Ychma" as the common name for the area.
Modern scholars speculate that the word "Lima" originated as the Spanish pronunciation of the native name Limaq. Linguistic evidence seems to support this theory as spoken Spanish rejects stop consonants in word-final position. Non-Peruvian Spanish speakers may mistakenly define the city name as the direct Spanish translation of "lime", the citrus fruit; the city was founded in 1535 under the name City of the Kings because its foundation was decided on 6 January, date of the feast of the Epiphany. This name fell into disuse and Lima became the city's name of choice; the river that feeds Lima is called Rímac and many people erroneously assume that this is because its original Inca name is "Talking River". However, the original inhabitants of the valley were not Incas; this name is an innovation arising from an effort by the Cuzco nobility in colonial times to standardize the toponym so that it would conform to the phonology of Cuzco Quechua. As the original inhabitants died out and the local Quechua became extinct, the Cuzco pronunciation prevailed.
Nowadays, Spanish-speaking locals do not see the connection between the name of their city and the name of the river that runs through it. They assume that the valley is named after the river; the Flag of Lima has been known as the "Banner of Peru's Kings' City". It is embroidered in the center is its coat of arms. Lima's anthem was heard for the first time on 18 January 2008, in a formal meeting with important politicians, including Peruvian President Alan García, other authorities; the anthem was created by Euding Maeshiro and record producer Ricardo Núñez. In the pre-Columbian era, what is now Lima was inhabited by indigenous groups under the Ychsma policy, incorporated into the Inca Empire in the 15th century. In 1532 a group of Spanish conquistadors, led by Francisco Pizarro, defeated the Inca ruler Atahualpa and took over his empire; as the Spanish Crown had named Pizarro governor of the lands he conquered, he chose the Rímac Valley to found his capital on 18 January 1535, as Ciudad de los Reyes.
In August 1536, rebel Inca troops led by Manco Inca Yupanqui besieged the city but were defeated by the Spaniards and their native allies. Lima gained prestige after being designated capital of the Viceroyalty of Peru and site of a Real Audiencia in 1543. During the next century it flourished as the centre of an extensive trade network that integrated the Viceroyalty with the rest of the Americas and the Far East. However, the city was not free from dangers; the 1687 Peru earthquake destroyed most of the city buildings. In 1746, another p
Supreme Court of Peru
The Supreme Court of Justice is the highest judicial court in Peru. Its jurisdiction extends over the entire territory of the nation, it is headquartered in the Palace of Justice in Lima. The supreme court is composed of three Supreme Sectors: Civil Sector: Presides over all topics related to civil rights and commercial law. Criminal Sector: Presides over all topics relating to criminal law Constitutional and Social Sector: Presides over all topics relating to constitutional rights and labor lawIntegrated into the Supreme Court are the Supreme Speakers and Supreme Provisionary Speakers, who substitute the Supreme Speakers in case of absence; the Supreme Speakers are distributed into each one of the Supreme Sectors. The President of the Supreme Court and the Chief Speaker of the Office of the Control of the Magistrature are not integrated into any Supreme Sector; the Supreme Court consists of three permanent Supreme Sectors. Each Supreme Sector has five Supreme Speakers; the Constitution guarantees the right to the double instance.
In event that this right is failed, the appeals in the processes that interpose before the Superior Sectors, or it is brought before the Supreme Court. The Abrogation doctrine is recognized by this court. José Luis Lecaros Cornejo Francisco Távara Córdova Vicente Rodolfo Walde Jaúrequi César San Martín Castro Victor Roberto Prado Saldarriaga Duberlí Rodríguez Tineo Josué Pariona Pastrana Ana María Aranda Rodríguez Javier Arévalo Vela Jorge Luis Salas Arenas Elvia Barrios Alvarado Janet Ofelia Tello Gilardi Ángel Henry Romero Díaz Hector Enrique Lama More Martín Alejandro Hurtado Reyes Carlos Giovanni Arias Lazarte Aldo Martín Figueroa Navarro Mariem Vicky de la Rosa Bedriñana