Kjell Stefan Löfven is a Swedish politician serving as Prime Minister of Sweden since 2014, Leader of the Social Democratic Party since 2012. After serving in the Swedish Air Force, Löfven qualified as a welder and began a career as an active trade unionist, becoming an ombudsman with the Swedish Metalworkers' Union, being elected as the first Chair of IF Metall in January 2006. After the resignation of Håkan Juholt following an expenses scandal in January 2012, Löfven was unanimously selected by the executive board of the Social Democratic Party as their new leader. Following the 2014 general election, he was appointed Prime Minister, leading a minority coalition government with the Green Party, he was appointed for a second term on 18 January 2019 following lengthy negotiations in the aftermath of the inconclusive 2018 election, with the resulting impasse only being resolved due to abstentions from MPs belonging to the Centre Party, the Left Party and the Liberals. Löfven was born 21 July 1957 in Stockholm.
He was placed in an orphanage 10 months after his birth. Löfven was subsequently looked after by a foster family from Sollefteå, where he grew up. According to the agreement with this family, his birth mother would regain custody of him when she was able to, his foster father Ture Melander was a lumberjack and a factory worker, while his foster mother, Iris Melander, worked as an in-home caregiver. He studied at Sollefteå High School before going on a welding course for 48 weeks at Arbetsmarknadsutbildningen in Kramfors. Löfven dropped out after a year and a half. After completing his compulsory military service in the Swedish Air Force at the Jämtland Air Force Wing airbase 1976–77, Löfven began his career in 1978 as a welder at Hägglunds in Örnsköldsvik. Two years he was chosen as the group's union representative, went on to hold a succession of union posts. In 1995 he started as an employed ombudsman in the Swedish Metalworkers' Union, working in the areas of contract negotiations and international affairs.
In 2001 he was elected vice-chairman of the Metalworkers' Union, in November 2005 was elected as the first chairman of the newly formed trade union IF Metall. Löfven has been a member of the Social Democrats since the age of 13 and was active in SSU, the youth league, in his teens. Löfven was elected to the executive board of the Social Democrats in 2006, shortly after becoming chairman of trade union IF Metall. In January 2012, following the resignation of Håkan Juholt, it was reported that Löfven was being considered as his successor. On 26 January 2012 the executive board nominated Löfven to become the party's new leader On 27 January 2012, Löfven was elected Leader in a party-room ballot. Löfven was confirmed as party leader at the party's bi-annual congress on 4 April 2013. Löfven led his party through the 2014 European Parliament election where the Social Democrats retained their position as the largest party from Sweden in the European Parliament. However, the election results at 24.19% was a inferior than the result in 2009 European Parliament election, the party's seats in the European Parliament was reduced from six to five and the party's results was the lowest in an election at the national level since universal suffrage was introduced in 1921.
Main article: Premiership of Stefan Löfven Löfven led his party through the September 2014 general election, which resulted in a hung parliament. The election result of 31.0%, up from 30.7%, was better than the result in the 2010 general election but the result was the party's second worst result in a general election to the Riksdag since universal suffrage was introduced in 1921. He announced that he would form a minority coalition government consisting of his own party and the Green Party. On 2 October 2014, the Riksdag approved Löfven to become Prime Minister, he took office on 3 October 2014 alongside his Cabinet; the Social Democrats and the Green Party voted in favour of Löfven becoming Prime Minister, while close ally the Left Party abstained. The opposition Alliance-parties abstained while the far-right Sweden Democrats voted against. Löfven has expressed a desire for bipartisan agreement between the Government and the opposition Alliance parties and together they have marked three areas where enhanced cooperation will be initiated.
The three areas are the pension system, future energy development, security and defence policy. The Government is a minority coalition government and the Government's budget was introduced to the Riksdag on 23 October 2014; the Left Party, given influence over the budget, supported the budget. The non-socialist coalition, the Alliance, introduced a competing budget to the Riksdag on 10 November 2014, as promised prior to the 2014 general election, the Sweden Democrats introduced their own budget on 10 November 2014. According to Riksdag practice the parties support their own budget and if the budget falls they abstains from voting. However, on 2 December 2014, the far-right Sweden Democrats announced that, after their own budget fell in the first voting round, they would support the Alliance parties' budget in the second voting round, thus giving that budget a majority in the Riksdag. On 3 December 2014, the Government's budget was voted down by the Alliance parties and the Sweden Democrats and as a consequence, Löfven announced that he would call for a fresh election to be held on 22 March 2015.
On 22 December 2014, sources within the Riksdag leaked information that the Government was negotiating with the Alliance p
A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations. A treaty may be known as an agreement, covenant, pact, or exchange of letters, among other terms. Regardless of terminology, all of these forms of agreements are, under international law considered treaties and the rules are the same. Treaties can be loosely compared to contracts: both are examples of willing parties assuming obligations among themselves, any party that fails to live up to their obligations can be held liable under international law. A treaty is an official, express written agreement that states use to bind themselves. A treaty is the official document. Since the late 19th century, most treaties have followed a consistent format. A treaty begins with a preamble describing the High Contracting Parties and their shared objectives in executing the treaty, as well as summarizing any underlying events. Modern preambles are sometimes structured as a single long sentence formatted into multiple paragraphs for readability, in which each of the paragraphs begins with a gerund.
The High Contracting Parties. His Majesty The King of X or His Excellency The President of Y, or alternatively in the form of "Government of Z". However, under the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties if the representative is the head of state, head of government or minister of foreign affairs, no special document is needed, as holding such high office is sufficient; the end of the preamble and the start of the actual agreement is signaled by the words "have agreed as follows". After the preamble comes numbered articles, which contain the substance of the parties' actual agreement; each article heading encompasses a paragraph. A long treaty may further group articles under chapter headings. Modern treaties, regardless of subject matter contain articles governing where the final authentic copies of the treaty will be deposited and how any subsequent disputes as to their interpretation will be peacefully resolved; the end of a treaty, the eschatocol, is signaled by a clause like "in witness whereof" or "in faith whereof", the parties have affixed their signatures, followed by the words "DONE at" the site of the treaty's execution and the date of its execution.
The date is written in its most formal, longest possible form. For example, the Charter of the United Nations was "DONE at the city of San Francisco the twenty-sixth day of June, one thousand nine hundred and forty-five". If the treaty is executed in multiple copies in different languages, that fact is always noted, is followed by a stipulation that the versions in different languages are authentic; the signatures of the parties' representatives follow at the end. When the text of a treaty is reprinted, such as in a collection of treaties in effect, an editor will append the dates on which the respective parties ratified the treaty and on which it came into effect for each party. Bilateral treaties are concluded between entities, it is possible, for a bilateral treaty to have more than two parties. Each of these treaties has seventeen parties; these however are still bilateral, not multilateral, treaties. The parties are divided into the Swiss and the EU and its member states; the treaty establishes rights and obligations between the Swiss and the EU and the member states severally—it does not establish any rights and obligations amongst the EU and its member states.
A multilateral treaty is concluded among several countries. The agreement establishes obligations between each party and every other party. Multilateral treaties are regional. Treaties of "mutual guarantee" are international compacts, e.g. the Treaty of Locarno which guarantees each signatory against attack from another. Reservations are caveats to a state's acceptance of a treaty. Reservations are unilateral statements purporting to exclude or to modify the legal obligation and its effects on the reserving state; these must be included at the time of signing or ratification, i.e. "a party cannot add a reservation after it has joined a treaty". Article 19 of Vienna Convention on the law of Treaties in 1969. International law was unaccepting of treaty reservations, rejecting them unless all parties to the treaty accepted the same reservations. However, in the interest of encouraging the largest number of states to join treaties, a more permissive rule regarding reservations has emerged. While some treaties still expressly forbid any reservations, they are now permitted to the extent that they are not inconsistent with the goals and purposes of the treaty.
When a state limits its treaty obligations through reservations, other states par
A Cabinet is a body of high-ranking state officials consisting of the top leaders of the executive branch. Members of a cabinet are called Cabinet ministers or secretaries; the function of a Cabinet varies: in some countries it is a collegiate decision-making body with collective responsibility, while in others it may function either as a purely advisory body or an assisting institution to a decision making head of state or head of government. Cabinets are the body responsible for the day-to-day management of the government and response to sudden events, whereas the legislative and judicial branches work in a measured pace, in sessions according to lengthy procedures. In some countries those that use a parliamentary system, the Cabinet collectively decides the government's direction in regard to legislation passed by the parliament. In countries with a presidential system, such as the United States, the Cabinet does not function as a collective legislative influence. In this way, the President obtains opinions and advice relating to forthcoming decisions.
Under both types of system, the Westminster variant of a parliamentary system and the presidential system, the Cabinet "advises" the Head of State: the difference is that, in a parliamentary system, the monarch, viceroy or ceremonial president will always follow this advice, whereas in a presidential system, a president, head of government and political leader may depart from the Cabinet's advice if they do not agree with it. In practice, in nearly all parliamentary democracies that do not follow the Westminster system, in three countries that do often the Cabinet does not "advise" the Head of State as they play only a ceremonial role. Instead, it is the head of government who holds all means of power in their hands and to whom the Cabinet reports; the second role of cabinet officials is to administer executive branches, government agencies, or departments. In the United States federal government, these are the federal executive departments. Cabinets are important originators for legislation.
Cabinets and ministers are in charge of the preparation of proposed legislation in the ministries before it is passed to the parliament. Thus the majority of new legislation originates from the cabinet and its ministries. In most governments, members of the Cabinet are given the title of Minister, each holds a different portfolio of government duties. In a few governments, as in the case of Mexico, the Philippines, the United Kingdom, United States, the title of Secretary is used for some Cabinet members. In many countries, a Secretary is a cabinet member with an inferior rank to a Minister. In Finland, a Secretary of State is a career official. In some countries, the Cabinet is known by names such as "Council of Ministers", "Government Council" or "Council of State", or by lesser known names such as "Federal Council", "Inner Council" or "High Council"; these countries may differ in the way that the cabinet is established. The supranational European Union uses a different convention: the European Commission refers to its executive cabinet as a "college", with its top public officials referred to as "commissioners", whereas a "European Commission cabinet" is the personal office of a European Commissioner.
In presidential systems such as the United States, members of the Cabinet are chosen by the president, may have to be confirmed by one or both of the houses of the legislature. In most presidential systems, cabinet members cannot be sitting legislators, legislators who are offered appointments must resign if they wish to accept. In parliamentary systems, several different policies exist with regard to whether legislators can be Cabinet ministers: cabinet members must, must not, or may be members of parliament, depending on the country. In the United Kingdom, cabinet ministers are mandatorily appointed from among sitting members of the parliament. In countries with a strict separation between the executive and legislative branches of government, e.g. Luxembourg and Belgium, cabinet members have to give up their seat in parliament; the intermediate case is when ministers are members of parliament, but are not required to be, as in Finland. The candidate prime minister and/or the president selects the individual ministers to be proposed to the parliament, which may accept or reject the proposed cabinet composition.
Unlike in a presidential system, the cabinet in a parliamentary system must not only be confirmed, but enjoy the continuing confidence of the parliament: a parliament can pass a motion of no confidence to remove a government or individual ministers. But not these votes are taken across party lines. In some countries attorneys general sit in the cabinet, while in many others this is prohibited as the attorneys general are considered to be part of the judicial branch of government. Instead, there is a minister of justice, separate from the attorney general. Furthermore, in Sweden and Estonia, the cabinet includes a Chancellor of Justice, a civil servant that acts as the legal counsel to the cabinet. In multi-party systems, the formation of a government may require the support of multiple parties. Thus, a coalition government is formed. Continued cooperation between the participating political parties is nece
Swedish Police Authority
The Swedish Police Authority is the central administrative authority for the police in Sweden, responsible for law enforcement, general social order and public safety within the country. The agency is headed by the National Police Commissioner, appointed by the Government and has the sole responsibility for all activities of the police. Although formally organised under the Ministry of Justice, the Swedish police is—similar to other authorities in Sweden—essentially autonomous, in accordance with the constitution; the agency is governed by general policy instruments and is subject to a number of sanctions and oversight functions, to ensure that the exercise of public authority is in compliance with regulations. Police officers wear a dark-blue uniform consisting of combat style trousers with a police duty belt, a polo shirt or a long sleeve button shirt, a side-cap embellished with a metal cap badge; the standard equipment includes pepper spray and an extendable baton. The first modern police force in Sweden was established in the mid-19th century, the police remained in effect under local government control up until 1965, when it was nationalized and became centralized, to organize under one authority January 1, 2015.
Concurrent with this change, the Swedish Security Service formed its own agency. The new authority was created to address shortcomings in the division of duties and responsibilities, to make it easier for the Government to demand greater accountability; the agency is organized into eight national departments. It is one of the largest government agencies in Sweden, with more than 28,500 employees, of which police officers accounted for 75 percent of the personnel in 2014, it takes two and a half years to become a police officer in Sweden, including six months of paid workplace practice. A third of all police students are women, in 2011 women accounted for 40 percent of all employees; the first modern police force in Sweden was established in the mid-1800s. Prior to that, police work wasn't carried out by a law enforcement agency in the modern sense. In rural areas, the king's bailiffs were responsible for law and order until the establishment of counties in the 1630s. In the cities, local governments were made responsible for law and order, by way of a royal decree issued by Magnus III in the 13th century.
The cities organized various watchmen, who patrolled the streets. In the late 1500s in Stockholm the paroling duties were in large part taken over by a special corps of salaried city guards; the city guard was organized and armed like a military unit. These guards were assisted by the military, fire patrolmen, a civilian unit that didn't wear a uniform, but instead wore a small badge around their neck; the civilian unit monitored compliance with city ordinances relating to—for example—sanitation issues and taxes. In 1776, Gustav III ushered in a fundamental change in how police work was organized in Stockholm, modelled after how law enforcement was organized in Paris at the time; the office of Police Commissioner was created, with the first title holder being Nils Henric Liljensparre, given command of the civilian unit responsible for law and order in the city, now financed by the State. The reform was considered a success. However, the system of fire patrolmen and the city guard was still kept intact and administered separately.
In the mid-1800s, during a time of widespread social unrest, it became clear that law enforcement didn't function properly. In 1848, the March Unrest, broke out on the streets of Stockholm, inspired by a wave of revolutions in Europe. Large crowds vandalized the city, shouting slogans of reform and calling for the abolition of monarchy. King Oscar I responded with military force. In the rural areas, local county administrators was in charge of law and order, reporting to the county governors; the office was a mixture of police chief, tax official and lower-level prosecutor, who in turn was assisted by a number of part-time police officers. Their time was spent on tax matters, instead of doing actual police work. More police officers were duly employed, some dubbed "extra police", devoted much more to police work. In 1850, a new type of organization was launched in Stockholm, where the entire police force was placed under one agency; the title of Police Constable was used for the first time in Sweden, the police were given their own uniforms and was armed with batons and sabers.
The police began to specialize. In 1853, for example, four constables were put in charge of criminal investigations, thus creating the first detective bureau in Sweden. In the early 1900s, the Swedish police had yet to uniformly organize or become regulated in legislation; the system of "extra police" did not work well because it was a temporary position lacking job security, making it difficult to recruit and retain skilled personnel. Subsequently, the Riksdag adopted the first Police Act in 1925; the act codified structures in place, but introduced a more unified police and better working conditions for the police officers. Officers began wearing the same dark-blue uniforms nationwide, with the same helmets. Local ties remained strong, with 554 small districts that had great freedom to organize police work as before though the State now had the power to issue a number of regulations about everything from the leadership to the duties of the
Löfven II Cabinet
The second cabinet of Stefan Löfven is the present Government of Sweden. It is a coalition, consisting of two parties: the Green Party; the cabinet was installed on 21 January 2019, following the 2018 general election. With only 116 out of 349 seats in the Riksdag, the “red-green” coalition begins as one of the weakest minority governments in Swedish history and it relies on support from other parties in the Riksdag; the cabinet was installed following a formal government meeting with King Carl XVI Gustaf on 21 January 2019. Stefan Löfven had announced his cabinet ministers at a parliament session on the same day
Swedish Coast Guard
The Swedish Coast Guard is a Swedish civilian government agency tasked with: maritime surveillance and other control and inspection tasks as well as environmental cleanup after oil spills at sea. Co-ordinate the civilian needs for maritime maritime information. Follow international development within the field and take part in international efforts to establish border controls, law enforcement at sea, environmental protection at sea and other maritime surveillance tasks; the Swedish Coast Guard carries out some of its surveillance by air, in the winter-time by hovercraft on the ice-covered waters of the Bothnian Bay from its Luleå station. The Coast Guard has regular maritime duties in Vänern, Europe's third largest lake, operating out of Vänersborg; the Coast Guard has 26 coastal stations, including an aviation coastal station. The stations fall under four regional areas. Four management centers control the daily operational activities and there is at least one duty officer around the clock.
The Coast Guard's central headquarters is located in the historic 17th century naval city of Karlskrona, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The total number of Coast Guard employees across the country amounts to around 800. Neither Coast Guard ships or officers carry military weapons. Instead each officer is equipped with ASP baton, OC spray and handcuffs; the Coast Guard has 22 surveillance craft which are used for patrolling with some given oil spill response capacity. The Coast Guard has 12 environmental protection vessels used for oil spill response, secondly for patrolling; the Coast Guard has nine ships which combine the characteristics of both environmental protection vessels and surveillance craft. KBV 001, KBV 002, KBV 003, KBV 031, KBV 032, KBV 033, KBV 034, KBV 201 and KBV 202; the Coast Guard operates five hovercraft in northern Sweden where they can travel over both ice and land. KBV 593 based in Luleå, KBV 592 based in Umeå, KBV 591 based in Örnsköldsvik, KBV 594 KBV based in Vaxholm, 595.
The Coast Guard maintains one large barge, KBV 866 in Härnösand, used for the storage of the absorbed oil. The Coast Guard has over 100 boats; some boats are used as a complement to larger ships. The boats are divided into four groups: High Speed/Go Fast, rib-boats and work boats. Glock 17 Gen 3 9x19mm pistol The Coast Guard has replaced its CASA C.212s with three new Bombardier Dash 8 Q-300 aircraft numbered KBV 501, 502 and 503rd. The new DASH 8 Maritime Surveillance Aircraft were modified by Field Aviation in Toronto, Canada. Coast Guard Aviation Home base is Skavsta Airport in Nyköping. Surveillance and reconnaissance flights are conducted along the Swedish coast and Vänern and lake year round, day or night. Additional regular international assignments are flown as needed; the division operate their flights as VFR and use VFR flight rules throughout the majority of their flights. Some flights however, either operating/ferrying internationally or for longer distances fly using IFR rules. On October 26, 2006 a Swedish Coast Guard CASA 212-200 crashed in the Falsterbo Canal during a surveillance mission, killing all four on board.
Full article: 2006 Falsterbo Swedish Coast Guard crash Swedish Armed Forces Swedish Maritime Administration Swedish National Board of Fisheries Swedish Coast Guard – official website
The European Union is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located in Europe. It has an area of an estimated population of about 513 million; the EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states in those matters, only those matters, where members have agreed to act as one. EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods and capital within the internal market, enact legislation in justice and home affairs and maintain common policies on trade, agriculture and regional development. For travel within the Schengen Area, passport controls have been abolished. A monetary union was established in 1999 and came into full force in 2002 and is composed of 19 EU member states which use the euro currency; the EU and European citizenship were established when the Maastricht Treaty came into force in 1993. The EU traces its origins to the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community, established by the 1951 Treaty of Paris and 1957 Treaty of Rome.
The original members of what came to be known as the European Communities were the Inner Six: Belgium, Italy, the Netherlands, West Germany. The Communities and its successors have grown in size by the accession of new member states and in power by the addition of policy areas to its remit; the latest major amendment to the constitutional basis of the EU, the Treaty of Lisbon, came into force in 2009. While no member state has left the EU or its antecedent organisations, the United Kingdom signified the intention to leave after a membership referendum in June 2016 and is negotiating its withdrawal. Covering 7.3% of the world population, the EU in 2017 generated a nominal gross domestic product of 19.670 trillion US dollars, constituting 24.6% of global nominal GDP. Additionally, all 28 EU countries have a high Human Development Index, according to the United Nations Development Programme. In 2012, the EU was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Through the Common Foreign and Security Policy, the EU has developed a role in external relations and defence.
The union maintains permanent diplomatic missions throughout the world and represents itself at the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G7 and the G20. Because of its global influence, the European Union has been described as an emerging superpower. During the centuries following the fall of Rome in 476, several European States viewed themselves as translatio imperii of the defunct Roman Empire: the Frankish Empire and the Holy Roman Empire were thereby attempts to resurrect Rome in the West; this political philosophy of a supra-national rule over the continent, similar to the example of the ancient Roman Empire, resulted in the early Middle Ages in the concept of a renovatio imperii, either in the forms of the Reichsidee or the religiously inspired Imperium Christianum. Medieval Christendom and the political power of the Papacy are cited as conducive to European integration and unity. In the oriental parts of the continent, the Russian Tsardom, the Empire, declared Moscow to be Third Rome and inheritor of the Eastern tradition after the fall of Constantinople in 1453.
The gap between Greek East and Latin West had been widened by the political scission of the Roman Empire in the 4th century and the Great Schism of 1054. Pan-European political thought emerged during the 19th century, inspired by the liberal ideas of the French and American Revolutions after the demise of Napoléon's Empire. In the decades following the outcomes of the Congress of Vienna, ideals of European unity flourished across the continent in the writings of Wojciech Jastrzębowski, Giuseppe Mazzini or Theodore de Korwin Szymanowski; the term United States of Europe was used at that time by Victor Hugo during a speech at the International Peace Congress held in Paris in 1849: A day will come when all nations on our continent will form a European brotherhood... A day will come when we shall see... the United States of America and the United States of Europe face to face, reaching out for each other across the seas. During the interwar period, the consciousness that national markets in Europe were interdependent though confrontational, along with the observation of a larger and growing US market on the other side of the ocean, nourished the urge for the economic integration of the continent.
In 1920, advocating the creation of a European economic union, British economist John Maynard Keynes wrote that "a Free Trade Union should be established... to impose no protectionist tariffs whatever against the produce of other members of the Union." During the same decade, Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi, one of the first to imagine of a modern political union of Europe, founded the Pan-Europa Movement. His ideas influenced his contemporaries, among which Prime Minister of France Aristide Briand. In 1929, the latter gave a speech in favour of a European Union before the assembly of the League of Nations, precursor of the United Nations. In a radio address in March 1943, with war still raging, Britain's leader Sir Winston Churchill spoke warmly of "restoring the true greatness of Europe" once victory had been achieved, mused on the post-war creation of a "Council of Europe" which would bring the European nations together to build peace. After World War II, European integration was seen as an antidote to the extreme nationalism which had devastated the continent.
In a speech delivered on 19