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Government reform of Peter the Great

The government reforms of Peter I aimed to modernize the Tsardom of Russia based on Western and Central European models. Peter ascended to the throne at the age of 10 in 1682. After Ivan's death in 1696, Peter started his series of sweeping reforms. At first he intended these reforms to support the Great Northern War of 1700-1721. During the Great Northern War, which dominated most of Peter's reign, along with a host of allies, seized control of the Baltic Sea from Sweden and gained considerable influence in Central and Eastern Europe; the war, one of history's costliest at the time, consumed significant financial and economic resources, the administrative system Peter had inherited from his predecessors strained to gather and manage resources. During his Grand Embassy, Peter conducted negotiations with a number of European powers to strengthen his position against Sweden and the Ottoman Empire, his exposure to the more developed nations of Western Europe motivated him to take steps toward turning Russia into an industrial economy.

Despite Russia's vast size and considerable natural resources, a number of factors, including corruption and inefficiency, hampered economic growth. Peter believed that targeted reform could not only strengthen his hold on power, but increase the efficiency of the government, thus better the lot of his people. Another major goal of Peter's reform was reducing the influence of the Boyars, Russia's elite nobility, who stressed Slavic supremacy and opposed European influence. While their clout had declined since the reign of Ivan the Terrible, the Boyar Duma, an advisory council to the tsar, still wielded considerable political power. Peter saw them as backward, standing in the way of reform, he targeted the boyars with numerous taxes and obligatory services, including a tax on beards. Like most of Russia's legal system at the time, Peter's reforms were codified and articulated in a series of royal decrees, issued chiefly between 1700 and 1721. Prior to Peter's rule, Russia's administrative system was antiquated compared to that in many Western European nations.

The state was divided into uyezds, which consisted of cities and their immediate surrounding areas. In 1708, Peter abolished these old national subdivisions and established in their place eight governorates: Moscow, Kiev, Archangelgorod, Kazan and Siberian. Another decree in 1713 established Landrats in each of the governorates, staffed by between eight and twelve professional civil servants, who assisted a royally-appointed governor. Peter's distrust of the elitist and anti-reformist Boyars culminated in 1722 with the creation of the Table of Ranks, a formal list of ranks in the Russian military and royal court; the Table of Ranks established a complex system of titles and honorifics, each classed with a number denoting a specific level of service or loyalty to the Tsar. The origins of the Table of Ranks lie in Russia's military ranking system, significantly modified and revised under Peter's rule; the establishment of the Table of Ranks was among the most audacious of Peter's reforms, a direct blow to the power of the Boyars which changed Russian society significantly.

High-ranking state positions were hereditary, but with the establishment of the Table of Ranks, including a commoner, could work their way up the bureaucratic hierarchy with sufficient hard work and skill. A new generation of technocrats soon supplanted the old Boyar class and dominated the civil service in Russia. With minimal modifications, the Table of Ranks remained in effect until the Russian Revolution of 1917. Fighting the Great Northern War required unprecedented economic resources, Russia's yawning budget deficit and aging infrastructure meant that the state could not allocate resources and money in wartime. Peter's government was in dire need of money, at first it responded by monopolizing certain strategic industries, such as salt, vodka and tar. Peter taxed many Russian cultural customs and issued tax stamps for paper goods. However, with each new tax came new loopholes and new ways to avoid them, so it became clear that tax reform was not enough; the solution was a sweeping new poll tax.

Peasants had skirted the tax by combining several households into one estate. This was heavier than the taxes it replaced, it enabled the Russian state to expand its treasury sixfold between 1680 and 1724. Peter pursued proto-protectionist trade policies, placing heavy tariffs on imports and trade to maintain a favorable environment for Russian-made goods. Peter's reign deepened the subjugation of serfs to the will of landowners, he enforced class divisions, believing that "just as the landowner was to be tied to service, the townsman to his trade or handicraft, so the peasant was tied to the land." Peter endowed estate-owners to broad new rights, including a requirement that no serf leave his master's estate without written permission. Furthermore, Peter's new tax code expanded the number of taxable worke

NZR DSB class

The NZR DSB class is a class of shunting locomotive introduced to New Zealand's national rail network in 1954 by New Zealand Railways. In 1950, NZR placed an order for 25 DSB shunting locomotives, they were built by the Drewry Car Co. between 1954 and 1956. The first three DSB class locomotives were commissioned in August 1954; the DSB are a larger and more powerful locomotive than the DS and DSA, classes and were used all over New Zealand. A second batch of three locomotives built by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries was introduced in 1967. By the end of their lives, 12 DSBs were repainted in the "International Orange" livery. In line with NZR's policy of rationalising locomotive classes, the DSB class was withdrawn by the end of the 1980s. Three were purchased for industrial service with DSB 1153 going to New Zealand Milk Products to shunt their Whareroa milk factory, 1194 to Pacific Steel at Otahuhu scrap plant and 1221 to Avon Engineering at their Kamo plant. DSB 1221 was sold in 1986. In 1963 all Drewry builds were re-engined with Caterpillar D343TA replacing their National M4AA7 which they entered service with.

This increased their power output from 195 kW to 293 kW. As of July 2014 only one has been preserved, DSB 313 was purchased in January 1991 by the Mainline Steam Heritage Trust for shunting at their Parnell depot. Road numbers ORBs 1 and 2 Maker's Nos 1475 and 1476Two 0-6-0 locomotives were built by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries for industrial service for the Ohai Railway Board in 1967. ORB 1 was withdrawn in 1989 due to heavier trains and was replaced by DJ 3303. In 1990 the New Zealand Railways Corporation took over the Ohai Railway Boards section of the Wairio Branchline, it was stored in Wairio until being sold to the Ohai Railway Board Heritage Trust for preservation. ORB 2 shares a similar operating history to ORB 1, but was withdrawn in 1990. Stored in Wairio until 1992 when it was purchased by Reid McNaught for Steam Incorporated, it was sold to Richard Gibbard in the early 2000s and is still in service for shunting by Steam Inc

Orders, decorations, and medals of Terengganu

The following is the orders and medals given by Sultan of Terengganu. When applicable, post-nominal letters and non-hereditary titles are indicated. Precedence: The Most Exalted Supreme Royal Family Order of Terengganu - Darjah Utama Kerabat Diraja Terengganu Yang Amat Dihormati Founded by Sultan Mahmud al-Muktafi Billah Shah on 10 March 1981. Limited to ruling princes and awarded in one class, Member or Ahli - D. K. T; the Most Distinguished Royal Family Order of Terengganu - Darjah Kerabat Diraja Terengganu Yang Amat Mulia Founded by Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin on 6 July 2000 as a family order for members of the Trengganu and other Royal houses. Awarded in one class, Member or Ahli - D. K. R; the Most Distinguished Family Order of Terengganu - Darjah Kebesaran Kerabat Terengganu Yang Amat Mulia Founded by Sultan Ismail Nasiruddin Shah on 19 June 1962 as a family order for members of the Trengganu and other Royal houses. Awarded in two classes: 1. First Class Member or Ahli Yang Pertama - D. K. I 2.

Second Class Member or Ahli Yang Kedua - D. K. IIThe Most Select Order of Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin of Terengganu - Darjah Kebesaran Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin Terengganu Yang Amat Terpilih Founded by Sultan Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin on 6 July 2001 Awarded in a supreme class, Sri Utama - SUMZ and four ordinary classes: 1. Knight Grand Companion or Dato’ Sri Setia - S. S. M. Z. 2. Knight Companion or Dato’ Setia - D. S. M. Z. 3. Companion or Setia - S. M. Z. 4. Member or Ahli - A. M. Z; the Most Revered Order of Sultan Mahmud I of Terengganu - Darjah Kebesaran Sultan Mahmud I Terengganu Yang Amat Terpuji Founded by Sultan Mahmud al-Muktafi Billah Shah on 28 February 1982. Awarded in three classes: 1. Member Grand Companion or Ahli Sri Setia - S. S. M. T. 2. Member Knight Companion or Ahli Dato’ Setia - D. S. M. T. 3. Member Companion or Ahli Setia - A. S. M; the Most Distinguished Order of the Crown of Terengganu - Darjah Kebesaran Mahkota Terengganu Yang Amat Mulia Founded by Sultan Ismail Nasiruddin Shah on 19 June 1962.

Awarded in four classes: 1. Knight Grand Commander or Dato’ Sri Paduka - S. P. M. T. 2. Knight Commander or Dato’ Paduka - D. P. M. T. 3. Companion or Setia - S. M. T. 4. Member or Ahli - A. M. T. Conspicuous Gallantry Star - Bintang Keberanian Handal Instituted by Sultan Mahmud al-Muktafi Billah Shah on 7 July 1981 to reward supreme acts of gallantry within the borders of the state of Trengganu or by Trengganu subjects. Limited to officers. Awarded in a single class, silver star. Conspicuous Gallantry Medal - Pingat Keberanian Handal Instituted by Sultan Ismail Nasiruddin Shah on 22 June 1951 as a reward for supreme acts of gallantry within the borders of the state of Trengganu or by Trengganu subjects. Limited to non-commissioned officers and other ranks after 1981. Awarded in a single class, silver medal. Distinguished Service Medal - Pingat Jasa Cemerlang Instituted by Sultan Mahmud al-Muktafi Billah Shah on 10 March 1981 to reward distinguished services to the state. Awarded in a single class, silver medal.

Distinguished Conduct Medal - Pingat Pekerti Terpilih Instituted by Sultan Ismail Nasiruddin Shah on 22 June 1951 as a reward for acts of bravery and distinguished conduct within the borders of the state of Trengganu or by Trengganu subjects. Awarded in a single class, nickel medal. Meritorious Service Medal - Pingat Jasa Kebaktian Instituted by Sultan Ismail Nasiruddin Shah on 22 June 1951 as a reward for meritorious services to the state. Awarded in a single class, bronze medal. Long Service and Good Conduct Star - Bintang Kerana Lama Berjawatan dan Baik Pekerti Instituted by Sultan Ismail Nasiruddin Shah on 10 January 1955 as a reward for twenty-one years of continuous long service and good conduct in state service, at the level of officer or executive, or above. Awarded in a single class, six pointed silver star. Long Service and Good Conduct Medal - Pingat Kerana Lama Berjawatan dan Baik Pekerti Instituted by Sultan Ismail Nasiruddin Shah on 10 January 1955 as a reward for twenty-one years of continuous long service and good conduct in state service, at the non-executive level or below.

Awarded in a single class, a medal in white metal. Jubilee Medal - Pingat Jubli Instituted by Sultan Ismail Nasiruddin Shah to commemorate his silver jubilee in 1970. Awarded in a single class, silver medal. Defence Medal - Pingat Pertahanan Instituted by Sultan Mahmud al-Muktafi Billah Shah in 1972 as a medal of service. Awarded in a single class, silver medal. Installation Medal 1970 - Pingat Pertabalan 1970 Instituted by Sultan Mahmud al-Muktafi Billah Shah to commemorate his installation as sultan in 1970. Awarded in a single class, silver medal. Installation Medal 1998 - Pingat Pertabalan 1998 Instituted by Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin to commemorate his installation as sultan in 1998. Awarded in a single class, silver medal. Orders and medals of the Malaysian states and federal territories#Terengganu List of post-nominal letters