United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit
The United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the courts in the following districts: Central District of Illinois Northern District of Illinois Southern District of Illinois Northern District of Indiana Southern District of Indiana Eastern District of Wisconsin Western District of WisconsinThe court is based at the Dirksen Federal Building in Chicago, Illinois and is composed of eleven appellate judges. It is one of thirteen United States courts of appeals; the court offers a unique internet presence that includes wiki and RSS feeds of opinions and oral arguments. It is notable for having one of the most prominent law and economics scholars, Judge Frank H. Easterbrook, on its court. Richard Posner, another prominent law and economics scholar served on this court until his retirement in 2017; as of May 23, 2018, the judges on the court are as follows: Chief judges have administrative responsibilities with respect to their circuits, preside over any panel on which they serve unless the circuit justice is on the panel.
Unlike the Supreme Court, where one justice is nominated to be chief, the office of chief judge rotates among the circuit judges. To be chief, a judge must have been in active service on the court for at least one year, be under the age of 65, have not served as chief judge. A vacancy is filled by the judge highest in seniority among the group of qualified judges; the chief judge serves until age 70, whichever occurs first. The age restrictions are waived if no members of the court would otherwise be qualified for the position; when the office was created in 1948, the chief judge was the longest-serving judge who had not elected to retire on what has since 1958 been known as senior status or declined to serve as chief judge. After August 6, 1959, judges could not remain chief after turning 70 years old; the current rules have been in operation since October 1, 1982. The court has eleven seats for active judges, numbered in the order. Judges who retire into senior status leave their seat vacant.
That seat is filled by the next circuit judge appointed by the president. Federal judicial appointment history#Seventh Circuit Same-sex marriage in the Seventh Circuit Courts of Illinois "Standard Search". Federal Law Clerk Information System. Archived from the original on October 21, 2005. Retrieved July 2, 2005.primary but incomplete source for the duty stations "Instructions for Judicial Directory". University of Texas Law School. Archived from the original on November 11, 2005. Retrieved July 2, 2005.secondary source for the duty stations data is current to 2002 "U. S. Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit". Official website of the Federal Judicial Center. Archived from the original on April 18, 2005. Retrieved July 2, 2005.source for the state, term of active judgeship, term of chief judgeship, term of senior judgeship, termination reason, seat information United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit Recent opinions from FindLaw Official wiki of the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit — Launched April 18, 2007 The Seventh Circuit Review
Joseph W. Fifer
Joseph Wilson Fifer was the 19th Governor of Illinois, serving from 1889 to 1893. He served as a member of the Illinois Senate, 1881–83."Private Joe" Fifer was born at Staunton, Virginia on October 28, 1840. At the age of 16, in 1856, he moved with his family to Danvers and worked in his father's brickyard for several years. Fifer enlisted as a Private in the 33rd Illinois Infantry at the start of the Civil War and was wounded at Jackson, Mississippi during General Grant's Vicksburg campaign, he spent the rest of the war guarding a prison boat. After the war, Fifer married Gertrude Lewis, had three children; the oldest child died in infancy, leaving Florence. He became the tax collector at Danvers Township, he served as a state's attorney as well. In 1880, he was elected to the state senate, his name was elevated to state level after fighting with General John Black, the pension commissioner, when the latter tried to remove him as a "typical Republican politician who did not deserve a pension." Fifer's pension was $24 a month.
Due to his celebrity status "Private Joe" Fifer was elected Governor of Illinois in 1889. One of his notable acts as Governor was to commute the life sentence of murderer Neill Cream, allowing his release, freeing Cream to commit at least four more murders in London. Fifer lost a reelection bid, twice refused the nomination to run again for governor, he was appointed to the Interstate Commerce Commission by President William McKinley in 1899. Governor Fifer lived to see his daughter, Florence Fifer Bohrer, elected as the first female State Senator of Illinois in 1924. Works by or about Joseph W. Fifer at Internet Archive bio squib at Illinois National Guard bio squib at Daily Pantagraph Joseph Fifer House Fifer-Bohrer Papers Collection - McLean County Museum of History archivesThis article incorporates facts obtained from: Lawrence Kestenbaum, The Political Graveyard
Dan Walker (politician)
Daniel J. "Dan" Walker was an American lawyer and Democratic politician from Illinois. He was the 36th Governor of Illinois from 1973 to 1977, he was raised in San Diego and served in the Navy as an enlisted man and officer during World War II and the Korean War. He moved to Illinois between the wars to attend Northwestern University School of Law and entered politics there in the 1960s. Walker was best known for walking the state of Illinois in 1971 during his candidacy for governor and for being an outsider to Illinois' machine politics. Running against the machine's candidate for the Democratic nomination for governor, Walker scored a rare upset in the March, 1972 primary election, he went on that year to defeat the Republican incumbent, but lost his own bid for re-election in 1976. His post political career was marked by high living, but marred by a guilty plea to bank fraud and perjury at the peak of the late 1980s savings and loan crisis. After a year and a half in federal prison, Walker retired to the San Diego metro area and authored several books until his death in 2015.
Walker was born in Washington, D. C. the son of Virginia May and Lewis Wesley Walker, who were both from Texas. He was raised near San Diego and was valedictorian when he graduated from high school there in 1940, he joined the Naval Reserve while still in high school, serving on a four pipe destroyer during the summers. His college plans at San Diego State College were interrupted when he was called to active duty in 1940 and served as an enlisted man on a minesweeper out of Point Loma, San Diego. In 1941 he took an exam to become an officer, ranking fifth out of over three thousand that were tested, he was attending the Naval Academy Preparatory School in Norfolk. He graduated the United States Naval Academy in 1945 and would be the second governor of Illinois to graduate from Annapolis. After that, he served as a naval officer near the end of World War II. Walker moved to Illinois to attend Northwestern in 1947, he was communications officer on USS Kidd. A 1950 graduate of the Northwestern University School of Law, Walker served as a law clerk for Chief Justice of the United States Fred M. Vinson, as an aide to Illinois Governor Adlai Stevenson II.
Walker became an executive for Montgomery Ward while supporting reform politics in Chicago. In 1970, Walker was campaign chairman for the successful U. S. Senate campaign of Adlai Stevenson III; the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence appointed Walker to head the Chicago Study Team that investigated the violent clashes between police and protesters at the 1968 Democratic National Convention. In December, the team issued Rights in Conflict, better known as the Walker Report; the Report became controversial, its author well-known. The report stated that while protesters had deliberately harassed and provoked police, the police had responded with indiscriminate violence against protesters and bystanders, which he described as a "police riot"; the Report charged that many police had committed criminal acts, condemned the failure to prosecute or discipline those police. Walker announced his candidacy for Governor of Illinois in 1971 and attracted wide attention by walking 1,197 miles across Illinois in 1971.
He narrowly won the 1972 Democratic primary against then-Lieutenant Governor Paul Simon. Though Simon had a "good government" reputation, Walker attacked Simon for soliciting and accepting the endorsement of the Cook County Democratic Party chaired by Chicago Mayor Richard J. Daley, which Walker charged reflected servility to the "Daley Machine". In the 1972 general election, he defeated incumbent Republican Richard B. Ogilvie by a 51% to 49% margin. In the early 1970s, Walker was discussed as a possible presidential candidate; the enmity between Walker and Chicago Mayor Richard J. Daley's political organization was deep. In 1974, Walker supported state legislative candidates against Daley allies. Walker's deputy governor, Victor deGrazia said: "... I knew from the beginning that every time Daley looked at Walker, he saw the Church of England and the British suppression of the Irish, when Dan would look at Daley, he would see the quintessential politician, only interested in political gain.""We never established anything approaching a personal rapport.
To some degree, this was an natural result of my independent political activity. But it went deeper – much deeper," said Walker. During his tenure, Walker was at odds with both Republicans and Democrats in the state legislature, he did obtain passage of the first law requiring disclosure of campaign contributions and issued a series of executive orders prohibiting corrupt practices by state employees. In 1976 Walker was defeated in the Democratic primary, losing to Secretary of State Michael Howlett, the candidate supported by Mayor Daley, by a 54% to 46% margin. In the general election, Howlett was overwhelmingly defeated by James R. Thompson. A Democrat would not serve as governor of the state for the next 26 years, when Rod Blagojevich was elected in 2002. In the 1980s, Walker entered the private sector by forming Butler-Walker, Inc, a chain of self-named quick oil change franchises bought by Jiffy Lube and acquiring two savings and loan associations, one of, First American Savings and Loan Association of Oak Brook which would be declared insolvent.
In 1987, Walker was charged with Federal bank fraud based on two loans. A private contractor borrowed $279,000 from First American to build schools. Walker personally borrowed $45,000 from that individual on a "handshake" basis; those two loan
Flag and seal of Illinois
The Great Seal of the State of Illinois is the official emblem of the state, signifies the official nature of a document produced by the state of Illinois. The flag of the state of Illinois consists of the seal of Illinois on a white background, with the word "Illinois" underneath the seal; the present seal was adopted in 1869, the flag bearing the central elements of the seal was adopted in 1915, the word Illinois was added to the flag in 1970. The current flag depicts the Great Seal of Illinois, designed in 1819 and emulated the Great Seal of the United States. In the eagle's beak there is a banner with the state motto, "State Sovereignty, National Union." The dates on the seal, 1818 and 1868, represent the year Illinois became a state and the year in which the Great Seal was redesigned by Sharon Tyndale. Although "State Sovereignty" comes first in the motto, "State" is at the bottom and "Sovereignty" is upside-down; the first Great Seal of the State of Illinois was adopted in 1819 by the first Illinois General Assembly.
The first law authorizing the Great Seal required the Secretary of State of Illinois to procure and keep the seal. The first seal engraved was a duplicate of the Great Seal of the United States, it was used until 1839. The seal designed in 1839 became the Second Great Seal. Illinois Secretary of State Sharon Tyndale spearheaded the drive to create a third state seal for Illinois. In 1867, he asked State Senator Allen C. Fuller to introduce legislation requiring a new seal, suggested to Fuller that the words of the state motto be reversed, from "State Sovereignty, National Union", to "National Union, State Sovereignty". However, the bill passed by the legislature on March 7, 1867, kept the original wording. Despite declining his suggestion, the legislature nonetheless entrusted Tyndale with designing the new seal, and Tyndale managed to twist the legislature's intent. Tyndale's seal features a bald eagle pitched on a rock carrying a shield in its talons and a banner with the state motto in its beak.
Thirteen stars and thirteen stripes on the shield represent the original thirteen states of the Union. The date August 26, 1818, when Illinois's first constitution was adopted in Kaskaskia, appears along the bottom arc of the circle, 1818, the year of statehood, displays on the seal below 1868, the year the current seal was adopted; this basic design has survived through several minor modifications. The Illinois Secretary of State is still the keeper of the Great Seal of the State of Illinois. During her time as state regent of the Daughters of the American Revolution in 1912, Ella Park Lawrence began a campaign to have Illinois adopt a state flag, she was unsuccessful during her time as state regent, but continued to lobby members of the Illinois General Assembly to adopt a state flag as a member of the Rockford chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution. On April 1, 1914, Lawrence sent a letter to every Illinois chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution announcing a contest to design an Illinois state flag, with the winner receiving a prize of $25.
Thirty-five designs were submitted in response to this contest. The contest was judged by a panel chaired by Lewis Stevenson, Illinois Secretary of State, they selected the design of Lucy Derwent. The flag became the official state banner on July 6, 1915, following its passage in the Illinois State House and Senate. Governor Edward F. Dunne did not sign the bill. In the 1960s, Chief Petty Officer Bruce McDaniel petitioned to have the name of the state added to the flag, he noted. Governor Richard B. Ogilvie signed the addition to the flag into law on September 17, 1969, the new flag was designed by Mrs. Sanford Hutchinson and became the official flag on July 1, 1970. For Illinois's first 100 years of statehood in 1918, Wallace Rice, who designed Chicago's flag, designed a centennial flag for the state, it had three horizontal bands of equal width alternating white, white. It was charged with 21 stars along the edge of the hoist. There were 10 blue stars in the upper white band and 10 in the lower white band, representing the 10 northern and 10 southern states at the time of Illinois' statehood in 1818.
The center blue band had one white star for the state of Illinois itself. Illinois Centennial half dollar State of Illinois Symbols of Illinois The Great Seal of the State of Illinois Illinois State Flag
Illinois Naval Militia
The Illinois Naval Militia was a naval militia created by the Illinois General Assembly in 1893, dissolved in 1988. The naval militia was reauthorized by Governor Rod Blagojevich through an executive order in 2006; as a naval militia it was not part of the Illinois National Guard or National Guard of the United States. In September 1892 a meeting was called by Lieutenant-Commander B. M. Shaffner, attended by more than 20 graduates of the Naval Academy at Annapolis who were resident in Chicago, which proposed the formation of a State Naval Militia; the following year a bill was passed, approved by Governor Altgeld, which provided for the creation and establishment of the Illinois Naval Militia, to consist of two battalions, each having a maximum strength of 400 men, a minimum of 140. The 1st Battalion was based in Chicago, the 2nd Battalion in Moline on the Mississippi; the 1st Battalion had 225 men, divided into four divisions, while the 2nd Battalion, had 176 men at its foundation, soon rising to 206.
The 1st Battalion met one evening each week and practiced boat-drill, both sail and oar, were trained in the use of torpedoes, for which a steam-launch was specially fitted. The Navy Department presented the First Battalion with a complete stand of Hotchkiss rifles and revolvers, a Hotchkiss Rotary Gun and a battery of four 3-inch breech-loading field guns; each summer there was a three-week cruise, for which the Militia was loaned a ship obsolete, by the Navy. Up until 1901 this was the USS Michigan; the officers of the militia were all former naval men, several were veterans of the Civil War. There was an associate membership, composed of many of the leading merchants and professional men of Chicago, including Marshall Field, Lyman J. Gage, Charles Deering. Further, honorary memberships were awarded to Shelby M. Cullom, J. Frank Aldrich, Colonel Leroy P. Stewart, Inspector General of the First Brigade of the Illinois National Guard. Following the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition, there were plans to move the replica battleship Illinois to a pier near Van Buren Street, where the ship would have become the headquarters of the militia.
By 1896, the Illinois Naval Militia had five divisions: three in Chicago, one in Moline, one in Alton, of 250, 100, 50 men respectively. At that time, it received $25,000 in federal funds annually, operated several boats and a steam launch. In late 1916 the Illinois Naval Militia was federalized into the National Naval Volunteers, created by an act of Congress and approved on August 29, 1916, under which the President was permitted to call them up for active duty with the United States Navy. Detailed plans for mobilization were prepared, within forty-eight hours of the declaration of war on April 6, 1917, the entire Illinois Naval Militia had left Chicago by train for the Philadelphia Navy Yard; some were at sea within a week of the declaration of war, many more on the first group of ships that left the United States bound for Europe. At that time the Illinois Naval Militia consisted of 579 men organised into: Headquarters and staff, Chicago, 38 men under the command of Captain Edward A. Evers, including medical staff and commissary 1st Division, Chicago, 40 men, Lieutenant John A. Mulholland 2nd Division, Chicago, 45 men, Lieutenant James D. Davidson 3rd Division, Chicago, 59 men, Lieutenant Glen G. Meade 4th Division, Chicago, 58 men, Lieutenant George H. Melvin 5th Division, Chicago, 54 men, Lieutenant Fred B. Orr 6th Division, Chicago, 38 men, Lieutenant Walter E. Davis 7th Division, Moline, 21 men, Lieutenant Otis W. Howard 8th Division, Peoria, 44 men, Lieutenant Benjamin R. Belsley 9th Division, Alton, 28 men, Lieutenant Josiah B.
Maxfield 10th Division, Quincy, 55 men, Lieutenant William A. Johnson Marine Company, Chicago, 41 men, Captain Franklin T. Steele World War I marked the high-point of the Illinois Naval Militia; the United States Naval Reserve was formed in 1915, those states that maintained Naval Militias received little federal aid, only if the members of their state Naval Militia were members of the Naval Reserve, which offered more benefits. There was competition for personnel from the Marine Corps Reserve and Coast Guard Auxiliary; the Naval Militia's popularity began to decline. By the 1970s, the Illinois Naval Militia had become little more than a social club located on the Chicago waterfront; when the city annexed the property, the militia ceased to exist, but was not formally dissolved until 1988. However, on January 19, 2006, it was reauthorized, though never re-established, by an executive order of Governor Rod Blagojevich. Senate Republicans disputed the governor's authority to resurrect the militia.
Michigan Dorothea Nashville Dubuque Isla de Luzon Somers Patrol Illinois Air National Guard Illinois Army National Guard Illinois Reserve Militia Illinois Wing Civil Air Patrol United States Coast Guard Auxiliary United States Naval Sea Cadet Corps United States Power Squadrons
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern and Great Lakes region of the United States. It has the fifth largest gross domestic product, the sixth largest population, the 25th largest land area of all U. S. states. Illinois is noted as a microcosm of the entire United States. With Chicago in northeastern Illinois, small industrial cities and immense agricultural productivity in the north and center of the state, natural resources such as coal and petroleum in the south, Illinois has a diverse economic base, is a major transportation hub. Chicagoland, Chicago's metropolitan area, encompasses over 65% of the state's population; the Port of Chicago connects the state to international ports via two main routes: from the Great Lakes, via the Saint Lawrence Seaway, to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River, via the Illinois Waterway to the Illinois River. The Mississippi River, the Ohio River, the Wabash River form parts of the boundaries of Illinois. For decades, Chicago's O'Hare International Airport has been ranked as one of the world's busiest airports.
Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and, through the 1980s, in politics. The capital of Illinois is Springfield, located in the central part of the state. Although today's Illinois' largest population center is in its northeast, the state's European population grew first in the west as the French settled the vast Mississippi of the Illinois Country of New France. Following the American Revolutionary War, American settlers began arriving from Kentucky in the 1780s via the Ohio River, the population grew from south to north. In 1818, Illinois achieved statehood. Following increased commercial activity in the Great Lakes after the construction of the Erie Canal, Chicago was founded in the 1830s on the banks of the Chicago River at one of the few natural harbors on the southern section of Lake Michigan. John Deere's invention of the self-scouring steel plow turned Illinois's rich prairie into some of the world's most productive and valuable farmland, attracting immigrant farmers from Germany and Sweden.
The Illinois and Michigan Canal made transportation between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River valley faster and cheaper, new railroads carried immigrants to new homes in the country's west and shipped commodity crops to the nation's east. The state became a transportation hub for the nation. By 1900, the growth of industrial jobs in the northern cities and coal mining in the central and southern areas attracted immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe. Illinois was an important manufacturing center during both world wars; the Great Migration from the South established a large community of African Americans in the state, including Chicago, who founded the city's famous jazz and blues cultures. Chicago, the center of the Chicago Metropolitan Area, is now recognized as a global alpha-level city. Three U. S. presidents have been elected while living in Illinois: Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Barack Obama. Additionally, Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was born and raised in the state.
Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official state slogan Land of Lincoln, displayed on its license plates since 1954. The state is the site of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum in Springfield and the future home of the Barack Obama Presidential Center in Chicago. "Illinois" is the modern spelling for the early French Catholic missionaries and explorers' name for the Illinois Native Americans, a name, spelled in many different ways in the early records. American scholars thought the name "Illinois" meant "man" or "men" in the Miami-Illinois language, with the original iliniwek transformed via French into Illinois; this etymology is not supported by the Illinois language, as the word for "man" is ireniwa, plural of "man" is ireniwaki. The name Illiniwek has been said to mean "tribe of superior men", a false etymology; the name "Illinois" derives from the Miami-Illinois verb irenwe·wa - "he speaks the regular way". This was taken into the Ojibwe language in the Ottawa dialect, modified into ilinwe·.
The French borrowed these forms, changing the /we/ ending to spell it as -ois, a transliteration for its pronunciation in French of that time. The current spelling form, began to appear in the early 1670s, when French colonists had settled in the western area; the Illinois's name for themselves, as attested in all three of the French missionary-period dictionaries of Illinois, was Inoka, of unknown meaning and unrelated to the other terms. American Indians of successive cultures lived along the waterways of the Illinois area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans; the Koster Site demonstrates 7,000 years of continuous habitation. Cahokia, the largest regional chiefdom and urban center of the Pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois, they built an urban complex of more than 100 platform and burial mounds, a 50-acre plaza larger than 35 football fields, a woodhenge of sacred cedar, all in a planned design expressing the culture's cosmology.
Monks Mound, the center of the site, is the largest Pre-Columbian structure north of the Valley of Mexico. It is 100 feet high, 951 feet long, 836 feet wide, covers 13.8 acres. It contains about 814,000 cubic yards of earth, it was topped by a structure thought to have measured about 105 feet in length and 48 feet in width, covered an area 5,000 square feet, been as much as 50 feet high, making its peak 150 feet above the level of the pl
Illinois State Fair
The Illinois State Fair is an annual festival, centering on the theme of agriculture, hosted by the U. S. state of Illinois in the state capital, Springfield. The state fair has been celebrated every year since 1853. In 2018 369,144 visits were tallied; this marked a sharp decline from the more than 700,000 visitors counted in 2008, when the fair had been the 13th largest state fair in the United States. The fair is held annually at the Illinois State Fairgrounds over an 11-day period in mid-August of each year. In 2018, the State Fair was held from August 9-19, an admission fee was charged; the first Illinois State Fair was celebrated in 1853 in Springfield. In that first year, the admission fee was 25 cents; the fair moved to Chicago in 1855. The 1850s were a golden age of agricultural journalism, with a wide variety of editors offering many suggestions, well-founded or not, to increase farm productivity; the first State Fairs, in Illinois and other states, were created and organized by farmers in order to compare notes with their colleagues and distinguish between good and bad advice.
During the years after the Civil War, the rules of agricultural judging became standardized, more and more farmers began to show their farm products. Increasing knowledge of genetics inspired the breeding and showing of purebred farm animals at both county fairs and the Illinois State Fair. In the first half of the 20th century, the internal combustion engine revolutionized life on the American farm, with manufacturers of agricultural machinery eagerly taking advantage of occasions like the Illinois State Fair to demonstrate their new products; the Illinois State Fair was held every summer during this more than 150-year-long period. On a few occasions it was suspended. In 1893, for example, the organizers of the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago prepared to offer a larger lineup of agricultural products and machinery, so the Illinois State Fair canceled itself for one year; the Illinois State Fair, like many state fairs, moved during the first 40 years of its life, 1853–92, from place to place.
It was celebrated as far north as Freeport and as far south as Du Quoin. In 1894, the State of Illinois began to use a 156-acre parcel of land on the northern boundary of Springfield, which became the heart of the permanent Illinois State Fairgrounds. A grandstand and racetrack were built, the first auto races were held at the Illinois State Fairgrounds Racetrack in 1910; the fairground site was expanded to its current 366-acre dimensions in 1924. During 1895, the Dome Building was constructed on the grounds; the building's huge glass dome, the world's second largest unsupported dome at 222 feet in diameter, had been part of the 1893 Chicago World's Fair. It was taken down in Chicago and reassembled at the state fairgrounds; the building could accommodate 10,000 people and housed horticultural displays and National Guard offices. In 1917, about 1,500 soldiers waiting to go to war were temporarily housed in the Dome Building. On August 17, the building caught fire. Within 30 minutes after the fire was discovered, the huge glass dome came crashing down.
At the time of the fire the building was valued at $300,000, but insured for only $20,000, as a result, the remains of the building were demolished. The soldiers were not to blame for the fire nor were any injured by it. There was no state fair during the period 1942-1945 because the fairgrounds were used as a U. S. Army Air Force supply depot. According to one historian, in the fall of 1943 more than 1,000 Chinese military personnel were trained on the grounds. Starting with the end of World War II, the growth of productivity in agriculture began to reduce the number of jobs in American farming, both as a percentage of total population and in absolute numbers. State fairs began to transition themselves from agricultural trade shows to entertainment operations. In Illinois, the State Fair Grandstand built as a place to watch harness racing became a venue for concerts and recitals; the "state fair circuit" became a recognized part of the overall live-music industry for many performers but not in country music.
Noted concerts held at The Grandstand include The Who, performing as an opening act for The Association in 1968. Agricultural show operations and judging continued in Springfield, but many State Fairgoers in 2015 were attending the fair to watch parades and spectacles, enjoy the festival rides, listen to music, or drink beer in one of numerous "beer tents." The Illinois State Fairgrounds now contains more than 100 permanent buildings. In addition, participants set up countless pavilions and trailers during the period the State Fair is in operation; the Illinois State Fair is operated by the Illinois Department of Agriculture, which states in the state's official "Illinois Blue Book" that the purpose of the State Fair is to "showcase Illinois agriculture and offer wholesome family entertainment." The Illinois State Fairgrounds are used as a venue for other competitive and entertainment operations throughout the year, such as motorcycle and car racing, horse shows, rodeos. Reported attendance at the Illinois State Fair was 650,000 in 2003, 671,333 in 2004, 672,615 in 2005 705,000 in 2006, 737,052 in 2008, 918,435 in 2012, 961,142 in 2013.
After a change in attendance count methodology, reported State Fair attendance dropped sharply. Attendees totaled 411,547 in 2015, 347,855 in 2016, 401,648 in 2017, 369,144 in 2018; the Illinois State Fair played a key role in the popularization of the corn dog, starting in 1946. The fair has long been noted for its annual butter cow, a life-size animal formed of pur