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Governor of Massachusetts

The governor of Massachusetts the governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the chief executive of the Government of Massachusetts and serves as commander-in-chief of the commonwealth's military forces. Massachusetts has a republican system of government, akin to a presidential system, where the governor acts as the head of government while having a distinct role from that of the legislative branch; the governor has far reaching political obligations ranging from ceremonial to political. While being the chief representative of Massachusetts as a US State, the governor is in charge of the cabinet, signs bills into law, has veto power; the governor is a member of the Massachusetts Governor's Council, a popularly elected council with eight members who provide advice and consent on certain legal matters and appointments. Beginning with the Massachusetts Bay Company in 1629, the role of Governor has changed throughout its history in terms of powers and selection; the modern form of the position was created in the 1780 constitution, which called for the position of a "supreme executive magistrate".

Governors are elected every four years during state elections on the first Tuesday of November after the 1st, the most recent being in 2018. Elected governors are inaugurated on the first Thursday of the following January after the 1st; the current governor is Charlie Baker. The role of Governor has existed in Massachusetts since the Royal Charter of 1628; the original role of the governor was one of a president of the board of a joint-stock company, namely the Massachusetts Bay Company. The governor would be elected by freemen; these shareholders were colonists themselves who fit certain religious requirements. The governor acted in a vice-regal manner, functioning of the colony, they were supposed to reside in London, as was the case with other colonial company governors, although this protocol was broken when John Winthrop was appointed Governor. The governor served as the executive of the colony elected annually, they were joined by a Council of Assistants; this council was a group of magistrates who performed judicial functions, acted as an upper house of the General Court, provided advice and consent to the governor.

The early governors of Massachusetts Bay were staunchly Puritan colonists who wished to form a state that coincided with religious law. With the founding of the Dominion of New England, the New England colonies were combined with the Province of New York, Province of West Jersey, the Province of East Jersey. During this period Massachusetts had no governor of its own. Instead there existed a royally appointed governor who resided in Boston and served at the King's pleasure. Though there existed a council which served as a quasi-legislature, however the logistics of calling the council to meet were so arduous that the Dominion was governed by the Crown through the Royal Governor; the reason for the creation of such a post was there existed tremendous hostility between the Kingdom of England and the colonists of Massachusetts Bay. In an effort to bring the colonies under tighter control the Crown dismantled the old assembly system and created the Viceroy system based on the Spanish model in New Spain.

This model of government was disliked by the colonists all throughout British North America but in New England where colonists at one time did have some semblance of democratic and local control. With the Glorious Revolution and the Boston Revolt the Dominion was abolished in 1689. With the creation of the Massachusetts Charter in 1691, the role of civilian governor was restored in Massachusetts Bay. Now the Province of Massachusetts Bay, the colony encompassed the territory of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, the Plymouth Colony, areas of what is now the state of Maine; the governor however would not be chosen by the electorate, instead the position would remain a royal appointment. In order to ease tensions with royal authorities and the colonists the General Court was reestablished and given significant powers; this created the assembly of the General Court. The governor could veto any decision made by the assembly and had control over the militia, however the General Court had authority of the treasury and provincial finances.

This meant that in the event the governor did not agree with or consent with the rulings and laws of the General Court the assembly would threaten to withhold any pay for the governor and other Royal Officers. From 1765 on the unraveling of the Province into a full political crisis only increased the tensions between the governor and the people of Massachusetts Bay. Following the passage of the Stamp Act Governor Thomas Hutchinson had his home broken into and ransacked; the early stages of the American Revolution saw political turmoil in Massachusetts Bay. With the passage of the Intolerable Acts the Royal Governor Thomas Gage dissolved the General Court and began to govern the province by decree. In 1774 the Massachusetts Provincial Congress was formed as an alternative revolutionary government to the royal government in Boston. With Massachusetts Bay declaring its independence in May of 1776 the role of Governor was vacant for four years; the executive role during this time was filled by the Governor's Council, the Committee of Safety, the president of the Congress when in session.

With the adoption of the Constitution of Massachusetts in 1780 the role of an elected civilian governor was restored. John Hancock was elected as the first governor of the independent commonwealth on October 25th, 1780. Part the Second, Chapter II, Section I, Article I of the Massachusetts Constitution reads, There shall be a supreme executive ma

Víctor Espasandín

Víctor Manuel Espasandín Facal is a Spanish footballer who plays as a left back. Born in A Coruña, Espasandín finished his football formation at Real Valladolid, having joined from local SD Compostela. In the 2005 -- 06 season he made his professional debut. Espasandín signed for FC Barcelona B in July 2007, helping the Catalans return to the third level in his debut season under young manager Pep Guardiola. In early June 2010, after helping Barça B return to division two after 11 years, he signed a contract with AC Omonia from Cyprus, joining the club alongside former Barcelona teammate José Manuel Rueda. Omonia Cypriot Cup: 2010–11 Cypriot Super Cup: 2010 Víctor Espasandín at BDFutbol Víctor Espasandín at Futbolme Víctor Espasandín at Soccerway

Levi Greenwood

Levi Greenwood is an Australian rules footballer playing for the Collingwood Football Club in the Australian Football League. He played for the North Melbourne Football Club from 2009 to 2014. Greenwood grew up in the small coastal town of Port Neill on the Eyre Peninsula, moved to Whyalla in his teens. Greenwood played his junior football at the North Whyalla Football Club in South Australia, he joined the Port Adelaide Magpies in 2005, where he played under-19s football. In 2007, he played eleven games in the Port Adelaide seniors in the SANFL at the age of just eighteen, he nominated for the 2007 AFL National Draft, where he was selected by North Melbourne with its second round draft selection. Greenwood is used in the midfield. Levi played his first game in Round 5 2009 against Richmond. Finished equal second in the best and fairest 2014 before requesting a trade to the Collingwood Magpies; the deal was finalised on the second last day of trade week with Collingwood sending pick 25 in return for Greenwood.

Statistics are correct to the end of the 2018 season Levi Greenwood's profile on the official website of the Collingwood Football Club Levi Greenwood's playing statistics from AFL Tables

Albert Freeman Africanus King

Albert Freeman Africanus King an English-born American physician who witnessed the assassination of Abraham Lincoln on 14 April 1865. He was a bystander physician, pressed into service during the assassination, he was one of a few physicians who served in both the Confederate States Army and the United States Army during the American Civil War. In addition, King was one of the earliest to suggest the connection between mosquitos and malaria. On January 18, 1841, King was born in Ambrosden, a village near Bicester in the Cherwell District of north-eastern Oxfordshire in England, he was the youngest of three children of Louisa Freeman. His sister was Stella Louisa Elizabeth King and brother was Claudius Edward Richard King, his father was a doctor interested in the colonization of Africa. He was named Africanus "because of his father's admiration" for that continent, he attended the Bicester Diocesan School. His family left Liverpool on 26 August 1854 to emigrate to the United States, they arrived in Jersey City, New Jersey, on 7 September 1854 and first settled in Alexandria, Virginia.

In 1855, they moved to Prince William County. King earned his degree from National Medical College of Columbian University in 1861 at age twenty. In November he became an Acting Assistant Surgeon to Major J. W. L. Daniel of 15th AL Infantry, Confederate States Army, the University of Pennsylvania. In 1864 he was appointed Acting Assistant Surgeon in the U. S. Army, worked at the Lincoln Hospital, Washington, D. C. In 1865, he became lecturer on toxicology at the National Medical College of Columbian University, obtained his second MD degree from University of Pennsylvania. During the American Civil War, King was in Washington, DC. On 14 April 1865 he was in the audience at Ford's Theatre when President Abraham Lincoln was shot by John Wilkes Booth, he helped carry the dying President to a house across the street. Some suggest King was the first physician to reach Lincoln but the accounts of the other physicians present, Dr. Charles Augustus Leale and Dr. Charles Sabin Taft, suggest that King was second or third.

In 1871 King became a professor of obstetrics both at University of Vermont College of Medicine and Providence Hospital in Washington, D. C. and at the University of Vermont. From 1879 to 1894 he was Dean of National Medical College, Medical Department, at National Medical College of Columbian University. In 1882, King proposed a method to eradicate malaria from Washington, DC, his method was to encircle the city with a wire screen as high as the Washington Monument. Many people took this as a jest because the link between malaria and mosquitoes had, at that time, been hypothesized by only a few physicians, it was not until 1898. However impractical, King was on the right track for malaria control, well in advance of the rest of the medical profession. King was elected President of Medical Society of Washington, D. C. in 1883, again in 1903. In 1883 University of Vermont awarded him honorary master's degree. From 1885 to 1887 he was President of Gynecological Society, he received LLD degree from University of Vermont in 1894.

He was Fellow of British Gynecological Society, American Gynecological Society, American Association for the Advancement of Science. He was Consulting Physician at Children's Hospital in Washington, D. C.. He was elected member of Washington Academy of Sciences, Associate Member of the Victoria Institute, or Philosophical Society of Great Britain. King married Ellen Amory Dexter of Boston on 17 October 1894. Together they had Louisa Freeman and Sarah Vincent, his wife died in 1935. King died in Washington, D. C. due to senile debility, is interred at Rock Creek Cemetery. Abraham Lincoln assassination Anderson Ruffin Abbott Joseph K. Barnes Charles H. Crane Robert K. Stone History of malaria Honigsbaum, Mark; the Fever Trail: In Search of the Cure for Malaria, Picador, 2003. ISBN 0-312-42180-X Kunhardt, Dorothy Meserve, Kunhardt Jr. Phillip B. Twenty Days: A Narrative in Text and Pictures of the Assassination of Abraham Lincoln and the Twenty Days and Nights That Followed. New York: Castle Books, 1965.

McCullough, David. The Path Between the Seas. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1977. Roos, Charles A. Physicians to the Presidents, Their Patients: A Biobibliography, Bulletin of the Medical Library Association. 1961. A Manual of Obstetrics By Albert Freeman Africanus King Columbian College and the Civil War American National Biography Online

Ghostface (identity)

Ghostface is a fictional identity adopted by several characters of the Scream series. The figure is mute in person but voiced over the phone by Roger L. Jackson, regardless of, behind the mask. Ghostface first appeared in Scream as a disguise used by teenagers Billy Loomis and Stu Macher, during their killing spree in the fictional town of Woodsboro. Ghostface was created by Kevin Williamson; the mask is inspired by The Scream painting by Edvard Munch and was created and designed by Fun World costume company employee Brigitte Sleiertin as a Halloween costume, prior to being discovered by Marianne Maddalena and Craven for the film. The identity is used as a disguise for the antagonists of each film to conceal their identity, while conducting serial murders and as such has been portrayed by several actors. In Scream, the identity is temporarily adopted by the killers' target, Sidney Prescott, using it against them. In the Scream universe, the costume is not unique and is obtainable, allowing others to wear a similar outfit.

Ghostface calls its targets to taunt or threaten them while using a voice changer that hides its true identity. In Scream 3, this is taken further by Roman Bridger who uses a device that enables him to sound like several other characters, in order to manipulate targets; the changing identity of the person beneath the mask means that Ghostface has no definite motivation, ranging from revenge and seeking fame to "peer pressure". However, each killer shares the common goal of killing Sidney due to a chain of events indirectly caused by her mother Maureen Prescott. Billy Loomis created the identity with Stu Macher in order to kill Sidney because of her mother's affair with Billy's father; the Ghostface persona remains the same throughout the Scream series, featuring a black hood and cloak with a jagged base and a white rubber-mask resembling a ghost with a screaming expression. Though each iteration of Ghostface is human, they exhibit extreme durability against physical harm, high levels of physical strength, an supernatural stealth ability.

The character has appeared in popular culture since its inception, referenced in film and television as well as spawning a series of action figures and merchandise. In the anthology television series Scream, two different characters are similar to Ghostface, named the Lakewood Slasher, who appeared in the series for the first two seasons and the Shallow Grove Slasher, who appeared in the Halloween special episodes of the second season, both are voiced by Mike Vaughn. On September 18, 2017, it was announced. On October 10, 2017, Keke Palmer confirmed in an interview that Roger L. Jackson, who voiced Ghostface in the film series, would return for the third season, replacing Vaughn; the third season premiered on July 8, 2019. Ghostface first appears in the opening scene of Scream; the character, voiced by Roger L. Jackson and taunts teenager Casey Becker with horror clichés and trivia questions murdering her boyfriend Steve Orth in front of her before she herself is killed; the identity has been adopted by the primary antagonists of each successive film to conceal their identity, prior to being revealed in each film's final act.

In the original Scream, the identity is used by a killer stalking the fictional town of Woodsboro, California. After the murder spree begins, Sidney Prescott begins receiving taunting and threatening phone calls from Ghostface, who claims knowledge of her mother Maureen Prescott's brutal murder, one year prior to the events of the film, a murder, blamed on Cotton Weary; the Ghostface disguise allows suspicion to fall on many people, including Sidney's boyfriend, Billy Loomis, her father, Neil Prescott, her friend, Randy Meeks, her schoolmate, Stu Macher. Ghostface is revealed in the finale as both Billy and Stu, who reveal that they murdered Sidney's mother and framed Cotton. Billy cites his motivation as abandonment by his mother, brought about by his father's affair with Maureen, while Stu cites "peer pressure". Sidney is able to gain an advantage against Billy and Stu, temporarily adopting the Ghostface persona herself to taunt them before killing Stu. Gale Weathers shoots Billy to stop him from killing Sidney, who finishes Billy off with a bullet to the head, citing the fact that "They ALWAYS come back," a common horror cliche, now her catchphrase.

This is most one of the many tropes taught to her by Randy Meeks, obsessed with horror, lists these cliches earlier in the film, during a party. Ghostface's second appearance was in Scream 2 where it was again used as a disguise by the main antagonists. A series of murders occur at Windsor College, Sidney's current location, with the initial victims sharing names with Billy and Stu's victims from Scream; the killers again taunt Sidney and attempt to kill her and kill Randy. The Ghostface disguise allows suspicion to fall on several characters, including Cotton and Sidney's boyfriend Derek. However, Mickey, a friend of Derek, reveals himself as the killer, seeking fame for his prolific exploits. Mickey's accomplice is revealed to be Billy's mother, under the alias Debbie Salt, seeking revenge against Sidney for her son's death. Mrs. Loomis shoots Mickey, claiming to have indulge

Oxford High School (Michigan)

Oxford High School is a public secondary institution located in Oxford, Michigan within the Oxford Community Schools district. The school draws from an area of The Village of Oxford and Oxford Township, as well as portions of Orion Township, Dryden Township, Metamora Township and Addison Township; the current site for Oxford High School opened in 2004. Prior to that, the current site was a middle school; when renovations were completed, the middle school and high school swapped buildings, with the middle school now located in the old high school building on Lakeville Road. Since opening the most recent building in 2004, OHS has added over 500 students to its enrollment. Oxford High School is an authorized International Baccalaureate World School for the Diploma Programme. Oxford High School offers 24 different varsity sports. Teams participate in the Oakland Activities Association, a high school athletic conference whose member schools have similar enrollments and are all located in the Oakland County area.

The statewide class designation is "Division 1" or "Class A". The primary mascot for Oxford Schools is the Wildcat. Both the high school and the middle school have teams which are referred to as the "Oxford Wildcats". Oxford's chief rival is Lake Orion, located directly in the township to the south, connected by M-24. In football, the two teams compete for the "Double-O" rivalry trophy; the teams had competed annually from at least 1950 until 1983, when Oxford moved to the Flint Metro League. During FML play, Oxford's chief rivals were Lapeer East High School and Lapeer West High School, located in Lapeer 15 miles north of Oxford on M-24. Prior to the 2010-2011 year, Oxford High School moved from the Flint Metro League, where it had been a member school since 1983, to the Oakland Activities Association. Reasons cited for the move included geographic considerations. Urban sprawl in Metro Detroit over the years had brought Oxford in from the rural–urban fringe and closer in-line with the greater Detroit area like much of the OAA, rather than the Flint area.

As a result of the move, the sports rivalry with Lake Orion resumed after a 27-year hiatus. Oxford has won state championships in boys track and wrestling. Oxford has won multiple state championships with their Equestrian Team. In 2011, Oxford athletics installed blue-colored artificial turf for the football stadium at a cost of $400,000, to be paid for with private donations; the turf was to be paid for with public bonds, however the millage failed to pass voters. The AstroTurf made headlines when it was revealed that several athletics boosters had put their personal homes up as collateral for the purchase of the field; when initial fundraising efforts came up short, the boosters were hit with a $300,000 balance and were in danger of defaulting. An agreement was reached between the boosters and AstroTurf that allowed for an extended payback period; the turf made headlines when Boise State University notified Oxford that they held a trademark on the term "Blue Turf" for their field at Albertsons Stadium.

Therefore, Oxford could not continue calling their field "blue turf", but instead could use the terms "navy turf", "Oxford blue turf", or "true blue turf". Jim Bates, 1964, former professional football coach Eric Ghiaciuc, 2000, former professional football player Mike Lantry, 1966, former University of Michigan football kicker Zach Line, 2008, professional football player Dave Rayner, 2001, former professional football player Oxford Schools: Oxford High School