Head of state
A head of state is the public persona who represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state. Depending on the country's form of government and separation of powers, the head of state may be a ceremonial figurehead or concurrently the head of government. In a parliamentary system the head of state is the de jure leader of the nation, there is a separate de facto leader with the title of prime minister. In contrast, a semi-presidential system has both heads of state and government as the leaders de facto of the nation. In countries with parliamentary systems, the head of state is a ceremonial figurehead who does not guide day-to-day government activities or is not empowered to exercise any kind of political authority. In countries where the head of state is the head of government, the head of state serves as both a public figurehead and the highest-ranking political leader who oversees the executive branch. Former French president Charles de Gaulle, while developing the current Constitution of France, said that the head of state should embody l'esprit de la nation.
Some academic writers discuss states and governments in terms of "models". An independent nation state has a head of state, determines the extent of its head's executive powers of government or formal representational functions. In protocolary terms, the head of a sovereign, independent state is identified as the person who, according to that state's constitution, is the reigning monarch, in the case of a monarchy, or the president, in the case of a republic. Among the different state constitutions that establish different political systems, four major types of heads of state can be distinguished: The parliamentary system, with three subset models; the non-executive model, in which the head of state has either none or limited executive powers, has a ceremonial and symbolic role. The Parliamentary-Presidential model, or South African Method, where Parliament chooses the President, who acts as both Head of State and Head of Government; some argue this is unfair, becouse citizens dont get a direct say in their executive leadership.
However, this method makes it impossible for a dictator to come to power. The semi-presidential system, in which the head of state shares key executive powers with a head of government or cabinet. In a federal constituent or a dependent territory, the same role is fulfilled by the holder of an office corresponding to that of a head of state. For example, in each Canadian province the role is fulfilled by the Lieutenant Governor, whereas in most British Overseas Territories the powers and duties are performed by the Governor; the same applies to Indian states, etc.. Hong Kong's constitutional document, the Basic Law, for example, specifies the Chief Executive as the head of the special administrative region, in addition to their role as the head of government; these non-sovereign-state heads have limited or no role in diplomatic affairs, depending on the status and the norms and practices of the territories concerned. In parliamentary systems the head of state may be the nominal chief executive officer, heading the executive branch of the state, possessing limited executive power.
In reality, following a process of constitutional evolution, powers are only exercised by direction of a cabinet, presided over by a head of government, answerable to the legislature. This accountability and legitimacy requires that someone be chosen who has a majority support in the legislature, it gives the legislature the right to vote down the head of government and their cabinet, forcing it either to resign or seek a parliamentary dissolution. The executive branch is thus said to be responsible to the legislature, with the head of government and cabinet in turn accepting constitutional responsibility for offering constitutional advice to the head of state. In parliamentary constitutional monarchies, the legitimacy of the unelected head of state derives from the tacit approval of the people via the elected representatives. Accordingly, at the time of the Glorious Revolution, the English parliament acted of its own authority to name a new king and queen. In monarchies with a written constitution, the position of monarch is a creature of the constitution and could quite properly be abolished through a democratic procedure of constitutional amendment, although there are significant procedural hurdles imposed on such a procedure.
In republics with a parliamentary system the head of state is titled president and the principal functions of such presidents are ceremonial and symbolic, as opposed to the presidents in a presidential or semi-presidential system. In reality, numerous variants exist to the position of a head of state within a parliamentary system; the older the cons
Lieutenant Governor of North Carolina
The Lieutenant Governor of North Carolina is the second highest elected official in the U. S. state of North Carolina and is the only elected official to have powers in both the legislative and executive branches of state government. The current Lieutenant Governor is a Republican; as of 2008, the administrative offices of the Lieutenant Governor are located in the historic Hawkins-Hartness House on N. Blount Street in Raleigh's Government District; the Lieutenant Governor maintains an office at the nearby North Carolina State Legislative Building. At one time, the Lieutenant Governor had an office in the North Carolina State Capitol; the office of Lieutenant Governor was created by the North Carolina Constitution of 1868. Just as the Vice President of the United States presides over the United States Senate, the lieutenant governor's primary responsibility is to preside over the North Carolina Senate; the position is now a full-time job. By virtue of the office, the lieutenant governor is a member of the Council of State, the North Carolina Board of Education, the North Carolina Capital Planning Commission, the North Carolina Board of Community Colleges, serves as the Chairman of the eLearning Commission.
From 1868 through 1977, the lieutenant governor, like the governor of North Carolina, was limited to a single four-year term. In 1977, the North Carolina Constitution was amended to allow both the governor and the lieutenant governor to serve two consecutive terms; the lieutenant governor is the first official in line to succeed the Governor of North Carolina, should that office be vacated. This has occurred five times in the history of the office. Lieutenant governors have run for governor, but few have been successful. Jim Hunt, elected governor in 1976, Beverly Perdue, elected governor in 2008, are the two most recent exceptions; the lieutenant governor is elected on a separate ballot from the governor. This has happened twice in North Carolina since the 1977 constitutional amendment, once from 1985 to 1989, during the present 2016 to 2020 term. Parties Democratic Republican Notes North Carolina Lieutenant Governor Elections: 1996, 2000, 2004, 2008, 2012, 2016 As of April 2018, six former lieutenant governors of North Carolina were alive, the oldest being Robert B.
Jordan, III. The most recent death of a former lieutenant governor of North Carolina was that of Hoyt Patrick Taylor Jr. on April 22, 2018. The most serving lieutenant governor to die was James C. Green, on February 4, 2000. Office of the Lieutenant Governor NC History Project
Samuel Ashe (North Carolina)
Samuel Ashe was the ninth Governor of the U. S. state of North Carolina from 1795 to 1798. Ashe was born in Beaufort in the Province of North Carolina, his father, John Baptista Ashe, brother, John Ashe, both served as Speaker of the North Carolina Colonial Assembly, or House of Burgesses. Ashe became an orphan at the age of nine, he married Mary Porter in 1748. After Mary died, Ashe remarried, this time to the former Elizabeth Merrik. Ashe studied law and was named Assistant Attorney for the Crown in the Wilmington district of the colony, he became involved in the revolutionary movement and served in the North Carolina Provincial Congress and as a member of the North Carolina militia. For a little more than one month in 1776, Ashe served as president of the Council of Safety, the state's executive authority, he was appointed to the committee that drafted the first North Carolina Constitution. In 1776, he was elected its first speaker; the following year, Ashe was appointed presiding judge of the state Superior Court, a post which he held until 1795.
In 1795, the General Assembly elected him governor at the age of 70. He served three one-year terms, the maximum constitutional limit, before retiring in 1798. Ashe was active in politics after his term as governor, serving as a member of the United States Electoral College in 1804, when his fellow Democrat-Republican, Thomas Jefferson, was reelected over Federalist Charles C. Pinckney. Ashe County and the cities of Asheville and Asheboro are named in his honor. In World War II, the United States liberty ship SS Samuel Ashe was named in his honor. Ashe's grandson, William Ashe, was a Confederate soldier in the American Civil War, a son of John B. and the former Eliza Hay. He was killed at Shiloh in Tennessee in 1862, a battle in which William's brother, Samuel Swann Ashe fought; the Gov. Samuel Ashe Grave near Rocky Point, North Carolina was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2001. Biographical Directory of the Governors of the United States, 1789–1978, Robert Sobel and John Raimo, eds.
Westport, CT: Meckler Books, 1978. North Carolina Government 1585–1979, A narrative and statistical history, Thad Eure-Secretary of State, North Carolina Department of Secretary of State-Raleigh, North Carolina
North Carolina State Capitol
The North Carolina State Capitol is the former seat of the legislature of the U. S. state of North Carolina which housed all of the state's government until 1888. The Supreme Court and State Library moved into a separate building in 1888, the General Assembly moved into the State Legislative Building in 1963. Today, their immediate staff occupy offices on the first floor of the Capitol; the building was built following the destruction by fire of the first North Carolina State House in 1831, today houses the offices of the Governor of North Carolina. It is located in the state capital of Raleigh on Union Square at One East Edenton Street; the cornerstone of the Greek Revival building was laid with Masonic honors by the Grand Master of North Carolina Masons Simmons Jones Baker on July 4, 1833. Construction was completed in 1840, it was designed by the architectural firm of Ithiel Town and Alexander Jackson Davis. Credited to that team, the design of the capitol was the result of a sequence of work by William Nichols, Sr. and his son William Nichols, Jr.
Town and Davis, David Paton. The Capitol housed the entire state government until 1888, the North Carolina General Assembly met in the capitol building until 1961; the legislature relocated to its current location in the North Carolina State Legislative Building in 1963. The North Carolina Supreme Court has convened in the building in the past, most meeting in the capitol's senate chamber in 2005 while the Supreme Court Building was undergoing renovations; the Governor and the governor's immediate staff has continued to occupy offices in the building. The Capitol remains unaltered from its 1840 state. Only three rooms have been altered through remodeling: the two committee rooms in the east and west wings of the second floor, which were divided horizontally to provide space for restrooms, the office in the east wing of the first floor, part of which had to be cut away to permit space for an elevator to be installed in 1951; the Capitol was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1973 and the building is located in the Capitol Area Historic District.
List of National Historic Landmarks in North Carolina National Register of Historic Places listings in Wake County, North Carolina List of state and territorial capitols in the United States Media related to North Carolina State Capitol at Wikimedia Commons North Carolina State Capitol NC State Capitol Foundation The North Carolina State Capitol: Pride of the State, a National Park Service Teaching with Historic Places lesson plan
Government of North Carolina
The government of North Carolina is divided into three branches: executive and judicial. These consist of the Council of State, the bicameral legislature, the state court system; the Constitution of North Carolina delineates the function of the state government. The elected ten-member Council of State of North Carolina is composed of: The nine North Carolina Cabinet departments are the: Department of Administration, Department of Commerce, Department of Cultural Resources, Department of Environmental Quality, Department of Health and Human Services, Department of Revenue, Department of Public Safety, Department of Military and Veterans Affairs, Department of Transportation; the North Carolina Register includes information about state agency rules, administrative rules, executive orders and other notices, is published bimonthly. The North Carolina Administrative Code contains all the codified rules; the North Carolina General Assembly is the state legislature. Like all other states except for Nebraska, the legislature is bicameral, consisting of the 120-member North Carolina House of Representatives and the 50-member North Carolina Senate.
Both the state House and the state Senate have Republican majorities. The lieutenant governor is the ex officio president of the state Senate; the Senate elects its own president pro tempore and the House elects its speaker. Its session laws are published in the official North Carolina Session Laws and codified as the North Carolina General Statutes; the state court system is led by the Supreme Court of North Carolina, the state supreme court, which consists of seven justices. The North Carolina Court of Appeals is the state's intermediate appellate court and consists of fifteen judges who rule in rotating panels of three. Together, the Supreme Court and Court of Appeals constitute the appellate division of the court system; the trial division includes the District Court. The Superior Court is the state trial court of general jurisdiction. A jury of 12 hears the criminal cases; the District Court is a court of limited jurisdiction. It has original jurisdiction over family law matters. Magistrates of the District Court may accept guilty pleas for minor misdemeanors, accept guilty pleas for traffic violations, accept waivers of trial for worthless check and other charges.
In civil cases, the magistrate is authorized to try small claims involving up to $5,000 including landlord-tenant and eviction cases. Magistrates perform civil marriages. District Court only conducts bench trials, with no jury. Politics of North Carolina List of Governors of North Carolina Law of North Carolina NC.gov
Abner Nash was the second Governor of the U. S. state of North Carolina between 1781 and 1782, represented North Carolina in the Continental Congress from 1782 to 1786. Nash was born in Prince Edward County in the Colony of Virginia, he was admitted to the bar in Virginia. He began his political career there, serving in the House of Burgesses from 1761 to 1765, before moving to New Bern, North Carolina, he married the widow of former colonial governor Arthur Dobbs. Nash was an active supporter of the revolutionary cause, he represented New Bern in the rebel "provincial congress" assembled from 1774, in 1776 was a member of the committee that drafted the state's new constitution. He became a member of the North Carolina House of Commons in 1777 and the State Senate in 1779, he was elected Governor by the legislature in 1780. During his brief tenure as governor, North Carolina saw some of its worst conflicts as a battleground in the American Revolutionary War. Unlike his brother Francis, his temper and poor health were poorly suited to the needs of war.
This brought him into difficulty with the legislature. The assembly appointed Richard Caswell as commander-in-chief of the militia though the constitution assigned this responsibility to the governor. In December 1780 they named a Council Extraordinary that further encroached on his office. Nash resigned and went home in the spring of 1781. Thomas Burke was named to replace him. In 1782, North Carolina eased political tensions by sending Nash as a delegate to the Continental Congress, he would serve there the rest of his life. Abner was buried in St. Paul's Churchyard in Manhattan, but his body was returned for burial in a private, family plot in Craven County, North Carolina, his son, Frederick Nash, was a lawyer and political leader. He would serve as Chief Justice of the North Carolina Supreme Court. Another descendant named Frederick, would become a famous poet, going by his middle name, Ogden Nash. Biographic sketch at US Congress website