Rear-Admiral Sir John Hindmarsh KH RN was a naval officer and the first Governor of South Australia, from 28 December 1836 to 16 July 1838. His grandfather William Hindmarsh was a gardener in Coniscliffe, County Durham and his father, John Hindmarsh, was born on 27 June 1753 and baptized at St Cuthberts Church, Darlington. He was pressed into the Royal Navy, and eventually became a warrant officer of the Bellerophon, on 23 August 1784, Hindmarsh married Mrs Mary Roxburgh, a widow, at St Georges-in-the East, Middlesex. Hindmarsh joined the Royal Navy either in April 1793, or on 19 July 1790, in 1793 he was listed on the muster roll of the Bellerophon as the servant of his father. He was schooled by Mr Neale, the purser of the Bellerophon and he saw action on the Bellerophon at the Battle of the Glorious First of June in 1794 and the Battle of the Nile in 1798. He was promoted to First Class Volunteer, when he was nine, captain Darby came on deck from having his wounds dressed. Nelson knew of this incident and referred to it five years when he gave Hindmarsh his promotion to lieutenant on 1 August 1803 on board the Victory, Hindmarsh suffered a contusion during the Battle of the Nile that resulted in him losing an eye.
Hindmarsh transferred to the Spencer in May 1800, and took part in the Battle of Algeciras Bay in 1801 and he served in the Nisus in the invasion of Java in 1811. He was promoted to commander on 15 June 1814, a lengthy period of inaction on half-pay followed, but from March 1830 to December 1831 he commanded the Scylla, and was promoted to captain on 3 September 1831. In 1836 Hindmarsh went to South Australia as its first governor after winning influential support, the seven clasps on Hindmarshs medal were for Java, Basque Roads 1809, Gut of Gibraltar 12 July 1801, Nile,17 June 1795 and 1 June 1794. He was listed to be awarded a service pension of £150 under the 1850-51 Navy Estimates. He was promoted to admiral on the retired list in 1856. Bluff Jack Hindmarsh, as he came to be known, arrived in South Australia on 28 December 1836, the ships in the fleet included the Cygnet, Tam OShanter, and HMS Buffalo. Initially they landed on Kangaroo Island, and sent out the team of surveyors led by Light to find a place for the capital city of the new colony.
Hindmarsh wanted it at Port Lincoln, instead of at the present site which had selected by Light. Light eventually chose the site of Adelaide, and the fleet moved up Gulf St Vincent to Holdfast Bay, now known as Glenelg, the name Adelaide was chosen by Hindmarsh in honour of Queen Adelaide, King William IVs wife. Hindmarshs proclamation on 28 December 1836 announced the government and stated that Aborigines were to be treated justly and were now British Subjects. Although most South Australians have been taught that Hindmarshs proclamation created the colony, William IV, having been empowered by an Act of Parliament in 1834, over earlier a year later, which in February 1836 in Letters Patent Erected and Established the Province of South Australia
Sir James Fergusson, 6th Baronet
Sir James Fergusson, 6th Baronet GCSI PC was a British soldier, Conservative politician and colonial administrator. Born in Edinburgh, Fergusson was the eldest son of Sir Charles Fergusson, 5th Baronet and he was educated at Cheam and University College, Oxford. He entered the Grenadier Guards in 1851 and served in the Crimean War where he was wounded and he retired from the army in 1859. Fergusson was elected Member of Parliament for Ayrshire and represented the constituency in parliament from 1854 to 1857 and 1859 to 1868. He served as Governor of South Australia from 1868 to 1873, following his retirement, he returned to the House of Commons, as Member of Parliament for Manchester North East, which he represented between 1885 and 1906. He again held office as Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs between 1886 and 1891 and as Postmaster General between 1891 and 1892 in Lord Salisburys Conservative administration. Fergusson married firstly Lady Edith Christian, daughter of James Broun-Ramsay, 1st Marquess of Dalhousie and they had two sons and two daughters.
Lady Edith died in October 1871, aged 32, Fergusson married secondly Olive, daughter of John Henry Richman, in 1873. She died of cholera in January 1882 and he married thirdly Isabella Elizabeth, daughter of Richard Twysden and widow of Charles Hugh Hoare, in 1893. Fergussons son Charles and grandson Bernard Fergusson both became Governors-General of New Zealand, Fergusson was killed in an earthquake in Jamaica in 1907, aged 74. The town of Jamestown, South Australia, Fergusson Island in Papua New Guinea and Fergusson College in Pune, newspaper report 1897 New Zealand Governor biography Mennell, Philip. Dictionary of National Biography,1912 supplement, Sir James, of Kilkerran, sixth baronet. Hansard 1803–2005, contributions in Parliament by Sir James Fergusson, Bt
Premier of South Australia
The Premier of South Australia is the head of government in the state of South Australia, Australia. The Government of South Australia follows the Westminster system, with a Parliament of South Australia acting as the legislature, the current Premier is Jay Weatherill, the Leader of the South Australian Branch of the Australian Labor Party. Weatherill replaced Mike Rann on 21 October 2011, after Rann resigned as Premier, before the 1890s when there was no formal party system in South Australia, MPs tended to have historical liberal or conservative beliefs. The liberals dominated government from the 1893 election to 1905 election with the support of the South Australian United Labor Party, Labor took government with the support of eight dissident liberals in 1905 when Labor won the most seats for the first time. The rise of Labor saw non-Labor politics start to merge into various party incarnations, Labor formed South Australias first majority government after winning the 1910 state election, triggering the merger.
The 1910 election came two weeks after federal Labor formed Australias first elected majority government at the 1910 federal election, no Country or rural conservative parties emerged as serious long-term forces in South Australian state politics, often folding into the main non-Labor party. There are six living former premiers, the oldest being Steele Hall, the most recent premier to die was John Bannon on 13 December 2015. In the following timeline, the legend includes the Liberal and Democratic Union, the Liberal Union, the Liberal Party of Australia is represented as Liberal only. The grey area represents the duration of Playmander electoral malapportionment, beginning in 1936, in effect until the 1970 election
Sir Henry Edward Fox Young, KCMG was the fifth Governor of South Australia, serving in that role from 2 August 1848 until 20 December 1854. He was the first Governor of Tasmania, from 1855 until 1861, Young was the third son of Sir Aretas William Young, a well-known peninsular officer, and was born at Brabourne, Kent. He was educated at Deans School, Middlesex, intended for the bar, Young was, appointed in 1827 to a position in the colonial treasury, and in 1828 was transferred to Demerara, British Guiana. From 1833, Young was involved in the emancipation of slaves in the British Caribbean colonies, in 1834, he was posted briefly to St Lucia as treasurer and member of the council, and in 1835 returned to British Guiana as government secretary. In 1847, Young returned to London, before he was appointed lieutenant-governor of the Eastern District of the Cape Colony in South Africa, Young was transferred a few months to South Australia where he arrived on 1 August 1848 on the Forfarshire. Under Young, South Australia received its first formal parliament, the South Australian House of Assembly comprised 36 members each elected from a different area.
It was Governor Young who offered a prize of £2000 in 1851 for the first person to travel up the Murray River to its junction with the Darling River in a paddle steamer, the prize was claimed in 1853 by Francis Cadell with his steamer Lady Augusta. Due to the difficulty of navigating the Murray Mouth, Young supported building the railway from the port of Goolwa to the new sea port at Port Elliot. Young was president of the Adelaide Philosophical Society 1853–1854, Young began his duties in Van Diemens Land in January 1855. Sir Henry was the first Tasmanian Governor to occupy Government House, Hobart, at this time the constitution act was awaiting the royal assent, and the legislative council might wisely have postponed meeting until news of this had been received. It, met in July and one of its acts was to form a committee to inquire into the working of the convict department, dr Hampton, the comptroller-general of convicts, was summoned to appear as a witness and refused to attend. The council decided he was guilty of contempt and arrested him, Hampton served a writ of habeas corpus upon the sergeant-at-arms and the opinion of the law officers of the crown was against the legality of the councils proceedings.
Young attended at the house and prorogued the council until 20 October, the Times severely commented upon Youngs conduct, but he was commended by the British government. The Tasmanian supreme court ruled against the council, and when it was taken to the council this decision was confirmed. The new constitution was soon successfully instituted and Young welcomed the change in his position, feeling that he was now above the battle and he travelled through the island, showed much interest in its development, and capably carried out the work of his office. Young left Tasmania on 10 December 1861 for Melbourne whence he travelled to England and he married in 1848 the eldest daughter of Charles Marryat who survived him. He is buried in Brompton Cemetery, the town of Port Augusta in South Australia is named after Henrys wife, Lady Young
Victoria was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she adopted the title of Empress of India. Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, both the Duke of Kent and King George III died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne aged 18, after her fathers three brothers had all died, leaving no surviving legitimate children. The United Kingdom was already a constitutional monarchy, in which the sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments, Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together, after Alberts death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances.
As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength and her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration. Her reign of 63 years and seven months is known as the Victorian era and it was a period of industrial, political and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover and her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father. Victorias father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, until 1817, Edwards niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a crisis that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent. In 1818 he married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a widowed German princess with two children—Carl and Feodora —by her first marriage to the Prince of Leiningen and her brother Leopold was Princess Charlottes widower.
The Duke and Duchess of Kents only child, was born at 4.15 a. m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London. Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace and she was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria, after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parents—Georgina and Augusta—were dropped on the instructions of the Dukes eldest brother, the Duke of Clarence and the Duke of Kent married on the same day in 1818, but both of Clarences daughters died as infants. Victorias father died in January 1820, when Victoria was less than a year old, a week her grandfather died and was succeeded by his eldest son, George IV. The Duke of York died in 1827, when George IV died in 1830, he was succeeded by his next surviving brother, William IV, and Victoria became heir presumptive
Sir Douglas Ralph Doug Nicholls, KCVO OBE was a prominent Aboriginal Australian from the Yorta Yorta people. He was an athlete, Churches of Christ pastor and church planter, ceremonial officer. Douglas Nicholls was born on 9 December 1906 on the Cummeragunja Reserve in New South Wales, schooling at the mission was provided to Grade 3 standard and strict religious principles were emphasised. At 13 he worked with his uncle as a tar boy and general hand on sheep stations and he worked hard and had a cheerful disposition. This annoyed one of the shearers so much that he challenged Nicholls to a fight, after six rounds the shearer who challenged him conceded defeat. He subsequently joined the Northcote Football Club in the VFA, and he made his name as an energetic and speedy wingman, capable of spectacular feats, and came to be regarded as the best wingman in the VFA at the time. At 52, he was one of the shortest players in the game and he was a member of Northcotes 1929 premiership team, and finished third in the Recorder Cup voting in 1931, his final season with Northcote.
In 1932, Nicholls joined the VFLs Fitzroy Football Club, in 1934, he was third in the Brownlow Medal count, and in 1935, he was the first Aboriginal player to be selected to play for the Victorian interstate team, ultimately playing four interstate games. He played a total of six seasons for Fitzroy, before returned to Northcote in 1938, knee injuries forced him to retire in 1939. He returned to Northcote as non-playing coach in 1947, during his career, particularly in the early years, Nicholls was subjected to onfield taunts or ostracised by his team-mates due to his colour. Who ensured he was made welcome within the team, like his close relative Lynch Cooper, Nicholls was a very capable sprinter. He competed in races around Victoria during the athletics seasons. Following this, the race organisers paid him a fee, board. He was the chairman of the National Aboriginal Sports Foundation. Playing football provided employment during the winter, to earn a living during the rest of the year, he boxed with Jimmy Sharmans Boxing Troupe, a travelling sideshow in which Sharman offered his fighters for challenge against all comers.
During World War II, Nicholls was an adept boomerang thrower, there is a photograph depicting this on the Australian War Memorial archives. He organised and captained Aboriginal teams in football matches used for patriotic fundraisers during the war, Nicholls was a minister and social worker with Aboriginal people. Following his mothers death he took a renewed interest in Christianity and was baptised at Northcote Church of Christ in 1935 and he officiated at church and hymn services as a lay preacher at the Gore Street Mission Centre in Fitzroy
Sir George Grey, KCB was a British soldier, Governor of South Australia, twice Governor of New Zealand, Governor of Cape Colony, the 11th Premier of New Zealand and a writer. By political philosophy a Gladstonian liberal and Georgist, Grey eschewed the class system for the life of Aucklands new governance he helped to establish. Grey was born in Lisbon, the son of Bvt. Lieutenant-Colonel George Grey, of the 30th Regiment of Foot, who was killed at the Battle of Badajoz in Spain just a few days before. His mother, Elizabeth Anne née Vignoles, on the balcony of her hotel in Lisbon and she was the daughter of a retired soldier turned Irish clergyman, Major Rev. John Vignoles. Greys grandfather was Owen Wynne Gray, Greys uncle was John Gray, who was Owen Wynne Grays son from his second marriage. Grey was sent to the Royal Grammar School, Guildford in Surrey, early in 1830, he was gazetted ensign in the 83rd Regiment of Foot. In 1830, his regiment having been sent to Ireland, he developed much sympathy with the Irish peasantry whose misery made an impression on him.
He was promoted lieutenant in 1833 and obtained a certificate at the examinations of the Royal Military College, Sandhurst. In 1837, at the age of 25, Grey led a catastrophically ill-prepared expedition of exploration of north-west Australia – only one man of his party had seen northern Australia before. It was at that time believed that a great river entered the Indian Ocean from the north-west of Australia, others joined the party at Cape Town, and early in December they landed at Hanover Bay. Wrecked, almost drowned, and completely lost, with Grey speared in the hip in a skirmish with Aborigines and they were picked up by the Beagle and Lynher and taken to Mauritius to recover. At about this time, Grey became one of the few Europeans to learn the Noongar language of south-west Western Australia, on 2 November 1839 at King George Sound, Grey married Eliza Lucy Spencer, daughter of the late Government Resident. Their only child, born in 1841 in South Australia, died aged 5 months and it was not a happy marriage.
She lived a life of misery until old age brought a formal reunion, Grey adopted Annie Maria Matthews in 1861, following the death of her father, his half-brother, Sir Godfrey Thomas. She married Seymour Thorne George on 3 December 1872 on Kawau Island, Grey was the third Governor of South Australia, from 1841 to 1845, as a replacement for George Gawler, under whose stewardship the colony had become bankrupt. Gawler was responsible for the illegal retribution exacted by Major OHalloran on an Aboriginal tribe. Grey served as Governor of New Zealand twice, from 1845 to 1853 and he was arguably the most influential figure during the European settlement of New Zealand during much of the 19th century
Proclamation Day is the name of official or unofficial holidays or other anniversaries which commemorate or mark an important proclamation. In some cases it may be the day of, or the anniversary of, a proclamation day may celebrate the independence of a country, the end of a war, or the ratification of an important treaty. Proclamation Day in South Australia celebrates the establishment of government in South Australia as a British province, the proclamation was made by Captain John Hindmarsh beside The Old Gum Tree at the present-day suburb of Glenelg North on 28 December 1836. The proclamation specified the same protection under the law for the native population as for the settlers. The date 28 December as a holiday in South Australia was modified to the first otherwise working day after the Christmas Day public holiday. Formal ceremonies involving the most senior current officials and politicians, followed by public celebrations, the proclamation was printed by Robert Thomas, who came from England with his family on the Africaine, arriving at Holdfast Bay on 8 November 1836.
Thomas brought with him the first printing press to reach South Australia, the press was a Stanhope Invenit No. 200, and was on display in the State Library until 2001, the colonising fleet consisted of 10 vessels which had gathered at Nepean Bay before being directed to Holdfast Bay. The Africaine was the first to arrive, discharging settlers on 9 November 1836, followed by the Emma, the John Pirie, and the Tam OShanter. These deliberately preceded Governor John Hindmarsh on the Buffalo to enable preparations including the printing of the proclamation in advance of his arrival on 28 December. Thomass wife Mary published The Diary of Mary Thomas, in which she described the journey on the Africaine and the early years in South Australia. An extract from the reads, About December 20th 1836. And in this place the first printing in South Australia was produced, one of the children of Robert and Mary Thomas was a surveyor who assisted Colonel William Light in the survey which led to the founding of the City of Adelaide.
Another son, William Kyffin Thomas, inherited from his father the newspaper of the time, The Register, William had a son, called Robert, who became senior proprietor of The Register. He was knighted by King Edward VII in 1909 when President of the first great Press Conference in London, a majestic statue of that king stands prominently outside the South Australian Institute building in North Terrace, Adelaide. Proclamation Day refers to October 21,1836, the day that government was proclaimed in Western Australia. It used to be a holiday in Western Australia. In 1919 it was renamed Labour Day, and shortly afterwards the celebration date changed, privy Council of the United Kingdom)
Born and raised in Adelaide, South Australia, Oliphant graduated from the University of Adelaide in 1922. There, he used a particle accelerator to fire heavy hydrogen nuclei at various targets and he discovered the nuclei of helium-3 and tritium. He discovered that when they reacted with other, the particles that were released had far more energy than they started with. Energy had been liberated from inside the nucleus, and he realised that this was a result of nuclear fusion, Oliphant left the Cavendish Laboratory in 1937 to become the Poynting Professor of Physics at the University of Birmingham. He attempted to build a 60-inch cyclotron at the university, and he became involved with the development of radar, heading a group at the University of Birmingham that included John Randall and Harry Boot. They created a new design, the cavity magnetron, that made microwave radar possible. Oliphant formed part of the MAUD Committee, which reported in July 1941, that a bomb was not only feasible. Oliphant was instrumental in spreading the word of this finding in the United States, in the war, he worked on it with his friend Ernest Lawrence at the Radiation Laboratory in Berkeley, developing electromagnetic isotope separation.
He retired in 1976, but was appointed Governor of South Australia on the advice of Premier and he assisted in the founding of the Australian Democrats political party, and he was the chairman of the meeting in Melbourne in 1977 at which the party was launched. Late in life he watched his wife, suffer before her death in 1987 and he died in Canberra in 2000. Marcus Mark Laurence Elwin Oliphant was born on 8 October 1901 in Kent Town and his mother was Beatrice Edith Fanny Oliphant, née Tucker, an artist. He was named after Marcus Clarke, the Australian author, and Laurence Oliphant, most people called him Mark, this became official when he was knighted in 1959. He had four brothers, Keith, Nigel. His parents were theosophists, and as such were opposed to eating meat, Marcus became a lifelong vegetarian while a boy, after witnessing the slaughter of pigs on a farm. He was found to be deaf in one ear and he needed glasses for severe astigmatism. Oliphant was first educated at schools in Goodwood and Mylor.
He attended Unley High School in Adelaide, for his year in 1918. After graduation he failed to obtain a bursary to attend university and he got a cadetship with the State Library of South Australia, which allowed him to take courses at the University of Adelaide at night
Hieu Van Le
Hieu Van Le AC is the 35th and current Governor of South Australia, in office since 1 September 2014. He had previously been the states lieutenant-governor since 31 August 2007, as well as a chairman of the South Australian Multicultural, Le is the first person of Asian heritage to be appointed a state governor in Australia. Le was born in Quảng Trị, South Vietnam, in 1954 and he was raised and educated in Đà Nẵng, and attended Dalat University. He fled Vietnam from the new communist regime in November 1977 and their two sons were born in Australia and are named after Australian cricketers Sir Donald Bradman and Kim Hughes. After arriving in Australia, Le attended the University of Adelaide, receiving an MBA and he was a senior investigator and manager with the Australian Securities and Investments Commission from the early 1990s until his retirement in 2009. He is a member of the Australian Society of Certified Practising Accountants, les appointment as Governor of South Australia to replace Kevin Scarce was announced on 26 June 2014, he took office on 1 September, with Scarces term expiring on 7 August.
Le is a Catholic and credits his experiences as a refugee for strengthening his religious convictions, in 2016 he was made a Companion of the Order of Australia
A baronet or the rare female equivalent, a baronetess, is the holder of a baronetcy, a hereditary title awarded by the British Crown. The practice of awarding baronetcies was originally introduced in England in the 14th century and was used by James I of England in 1611 as a means of raising funds. A baronetcy is the only British hereditary honour that is not a peerage, with the exception of the Anglo-Irish Black Knight, White Knight, Baronets are not deemed members of the nobility, but rather, titled gentry. Their social rank is equivalent to the petty nobility in some countries of continental Europe. The term baronet has medieval origins, Sir Thomas de La More, describing the Battle of Boroughbridge, mentioned that baronets took part, along with barons and knights. Edward III is known to have created eight baronets in 1328, at least one, Sir William de La Pole in 1340, was created for payment of money. Whether or not these early creations were hereditary, all have died out, in 1619 James I established the Baronetage of Ireland, Charles I in 1625 created the Baronetages of Scotland and Nova Scotia.
The new baronets were each required to pay 2,000 marks or to support six settlers for two years. Over a hundred of these baronetcies, now known as Scottish baronetcies. As a result of the Union of England and Scotland in 1707, following the Union of Great Britain and Ireland in 1801, new creations were styled as baronets of the United Kingdom. Under royal warrants of 1612 and 1613, certain privileges were accorded to baronets, firstly, no person or persons should have place between baronets and the younger sons of peers. These privileges were extended to baronets of Ireland, and for baronets of Scotland the privilege of depicting the Arms of Nova Scotia as an augmentation of honour, the former applies to this day for all baronets of Great Britain and of the United Kingdom created subsequently. The title of baronet was initially conferred upon noblemen who lost the right of summons to Parliament. A similar title of rank was banneret. Like knights, baronets are accorded the style Sir before their first name, baronetesses in their own right use Dame, before their first name, while wives of baronets use Lady followed by the husbands surname only, this by longstanding courtesy.
Wives of baronets are not baronetesses, only women holding baronetcies in their own right are so styled, unlike knighthoods—which apply to the recipient only—a baronetcy is hereditarily entailed. With some exceptions granted with special remainder by letters patent, baronetcies descend through the male line, a full list of extant baronets appears in Burkes Peerage and Baronetage, which published a record of extinct baronetcies. A baronetcy is not a peerage, so baronets like knights and junior members of families are commoners
Excellency is an honorific style given to certain members of an organisation or state. Generally people addressed as Excellency are heads of state, heads of government, ambassadors, certain ecclesiastics and others holding equivalent rank and the FIFA President. It is sometimes misinterpreted as a title of office in itself, in reference to such an official, it takes the form His or Her Excellency, in direct address, Your Excellency, or, less formally, simply Excellency. The abbreviation HE is often used instead of His/Her Excellency, alternatively it may stand for His/Her Eminence, in most republican nations, the head of state is formally addressed as His Excellency. If a republic has a head of government, that official is often addressed as Excellency as well. If the nation is a monarchy, the customs may vary, in the case of Australia, all ambassadors, high commissioners and the governor-general and their spouses are entitled to the use of Excellency. Governors of colonies in the British Empire were entitled to be addressed as Excellency, in various international organizations, notably the UN and its agencies, Excellency is used as a generic form of address for all republican heads of state and heads of government.
Judges of the International Court of Justice are called Your Excellency, in some monarchies the husbands, wives, or children, of a royal prince or princess, who do not possess a princely title themselves, may be entitled to the style. For example, in Spain spouses or children of a born infante or infanta are addressed as Excellency, former members of a royal house or family, who did have a royal title but forfeited it, may be awarded the style afterwards. Examples are former husbands or wives of a prince or princess, including Alexandra, Countess of Frederiksborg. In some emirates, only the Emir, heir apparent and prime minister are called His Highness and their children are styled with the lower treatment of His/Her Excellency. In Spain members of the nobility, holding the dignity of grandee, are addressed as The Most Excellent Lord/Lady. Some of the high ranking counts, Excellency can attach to a prestigious quality, notably in an order of knighthood. By a decree of the Sacred Congregation of Ceremonial of 31 December 1930 the Holy See granted bishops of the Roman Catholic Church the title of Most Reverend Excellency.
In the years following the First World War, the title of Excellency. The adjective Most Reverend was intended to distinguish the title from that of Excellency given to civil officials. The instruction Ut sive sollicite of the Holy Sees Secretariat of State, dated 28 March 1969, even those who were bishops, continued to use the title of Eminence. In some English-speaking countries, the honorific of Excellency does not apply to other than the nuncio