Samuel Holden was an English merchant and nonconformist activist. The son of Joseph Holden by his second wife Priscilla Watt, he was employed when still young by the Russia Company at Riga, he became a successful merchant in London, a director of the Bank of England, its Deputy Governor and its Governor. A Dissenter, Holden chaired from 1732 a committee for the repeal of the Corporation Act and other Test Acts, he entered Parliament as Member for East Looe in 1735. Undertakings by Sir Robert Walpole not to obstruct moves for repeal turned out to be irrelevant when Holden tried to introduce legislation in the area, he resigned from the committee in 1736, forced out in favour of Benjamin Avery. He married Jane Whitehalgh of the Whitehaugh, Staffordshire, with whom he had a son and 3 daughters. In 1744 his daughter and co-heir Mary married John Jolliffe, the MP for Petersfield. Holden left £60,000 on his death in 1740. Holden Chapel at Harvard College was constructed with some of this money
Humphry Morice (Governor of the Bank of England)
Humphry Morice was a British merchant, MP and Governor of the Bank of England. He inherited his father's trading business around the age of eighteen, learned finance and speculation from an uncle. Placed in Parliament through a cousin's interest in 1713, his Whig politics provoked a breach with his Tory cousin, he had to be given another seat in 1722 by Robert Walpole's administration, he rose to be Deputy Governor and Governor of the Bank of England in 1727, but unknown to his contemporaries, his fortune was fictitious and he was embezzling from the Bank and his daughters' trust fund. He died in 1731 having poisoned himself to forestall the discovery of his frauds, left behind enormous debts. Humphry was the only son of Humphry Morice, a London merchant trading extensively in Africa, America and Russia, his wife Alice, the daughter of Sir Thomas Trollope, 1st Baronet; because of the early death of his mother, the young Humphry was raised at Werrington, the seat of his uncle Sir William Morice, 1st Baronet.
He succeeded his father in his mercantile business in 1689. His father's will left him in the guardianship of his two uncles and Nicholas; the latter was a skilled financial speculator, who trained Humphry in that business. On 26 June 1704, Humphry married Judith Sandes, the daughter of a London merchant, by whom he had three daughters who survived him. Morice's mercantile business was extensive: he was one of four creditors for £18,000 of another merchant gone bankrupt in 1707, he owned over £4,000 of Bank of England stock in 1710, making him eligible to become a director of the institution. Morice did, in fact, become a director in 1716, continued to hold that office, He was involved with the launch of the South Sea Company, acting as a commissioner for subscriptions in 1711. Morice several times testified on trade subjects before Parliament: in 1707 on losses in the West Indies trade due to the lack of convoys, in 1710 and 1713 in favour of dismantling the Royal African Company's monopoly on West African trade.
In light of his activity and wealth, he not unnaturally wished to enter Parliament. In 1715, Humphry Morice, named "the foremost London slave merchant of his time" by the 1985 gathering of Atlantic Slave Trade Scholars at the University of Nantes, commissioned the spectacular Whydah Gally merchant ship, the following year appointed Dutch Captain Lawrence Prince as its commander. After transporting and selling nearly 500 Africans into slavery in the Caribbean, the Whydah was captured in the lower Bahamas by the pirate Captain Samuel Bellamy and appointed his flagship. With upwards of five tons of treasure aboard Whydah taken from more than 50 ships in the Caribbean and the North American coast, Bellamy sailed her to Cape Cod where she wrecked on the shoals of Wellfleet 26 April 1717. Massachusetts Bay Colony Governor Samuel Shute commissioned noted cartographer Captain Cyprian Southack to recover anything of value from the Whydah wreck, but, as he expressed with great exasperation in a number of letters to the governor, continuing storms, deadly surf and intense resistance from the local community prevented the recovery of anything valuable.
In 1984, underwater explorer Barry Clifford discovered the Whydah, in 1985 he recovered the ship's bell embossed with the words "The Whydah Gally 1716", making it the world's first authenticated pirate shipwreck discovered. Humphry's cousin Sir Nicholas had succeeded to the Werrington estate baronetcy in 1690, with it a strong electoral interest the boroughs of Launceston and Newport. Humphry asked Nicholas to put him into Parliament in 1710, but as all his seats were promised, Humphry did not enter the House of Commons until 1713, sitting with Nicholas for Newport. Unlike the Tory Nicholas, Humphry leaned towards the Whigs, voted in 1714 against the expulsion of Sir Richard Steele from Parliament for advocating the Hanoverian succession in a pamphlet, his recorded Parliamentary activity shows a continued interest in the African trade. Humphry "appeared in a most splendid manner at court" to celebrate the birthday of the new Prince of Wales in late 1714 irritating his cousin. Nonetheless, Nicholas again put Humphry in for Newport at the 1715 election.
The bond between the two was violently strained in 1716, when Humphry, after giving Nicholas to understand that he opposed the Septennial Act, voted for it instead. Humphry followed Robert Walpole into opposition to the government the following year, for the time being, both he and Nicholas were opponents of the sitting ministry. However, on Walpole's return to the cabinet in 1720, he recruited Humphry to whip the London Whigs for crucial votes. Nicholas ran out of patience, rather brusquely informed Humphry to look to Walpole for a seat, as he would not be returning him for Newport at the next election. Walpole was, in fact, willing to do so, arranged through Lord Falmouth to have Morice returned for Grampound in 1722, again in 1727. Meanwhile, Morice's wife had died in 1720, on 5 June 1722, he married Catherine, daughter of Peter Paggen of Wandsworth and widow of William Hale, they had two sons and Nicholas. Morice served as Deputy Governor of the Bank of England from 1725 to 1726, as Governor from 1727 to 1729.
During this period, he defrauded the bank of £29,000 by presenting fictitious bills of exchange for discounting by the Bank. He died on 16 November 1731 of gout, but he was believed to have poisoned himself to forestall exposure. After his deat
Sir Gilbert Heathcote, 1st Baronet
Sir Gilbert Heathcote, 1st Baronet was a British merchant and politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1701 and 1733. He was a Governor of the Bank of England and was Lord Mayor of London in 1711. Caleb Heathcote is his brother, he belonged to an old Derbyshire family. He was born in Chesterfield, the eldest of eight sons of Gilbert Heathcote and his wife, Anne, he was educated at Christ's College and went on to become a merchant in London. His trading ventures were successful. In 1702 he was knighted. In November 1705 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. In 1700 Heathcote was sent to Parliament as member for the City of London, but he was soon expelled for his share in the circulation of some exchequer bills. In 1714 he was member for Helston, in 1722 for New Lymington, in 1727 for St Germans, he was a consistent Whig, was made a baronet eight days before his death. Although rich, Heathcote's meanness is referred to by Pope, he died in London on 25 January 1733 and was buried at Normanton Hall, a residence which he had purchased in 1729 from Sir Thomas Mackworth, 4th Baronet.
A monument by the Flemish sculptor Rysbrack is now in Edith Weston church. He had married daughter of Christopher Rayner, merchant, of London. A descendant, Sir Gilbert John Heathcote, 5th Baronet, was created Baron Aveland in 1856. Heathcote
The civil service is independent of government and is composed of career bureaucrats hired on professional merit rather than appointed or elected, whose institutional tenure survives transitions of political leadership. A civil servant or public servant is a person employed in the public sector on behalf of a government department or agency. A civil servant or public servant's first priority is to represent the interests of citizens; the extent of civil servants of a state as part of the "civil service" varies from country to country. In the United Kingdom, for instance, only Crown employees are referred to as civil servants whereas county or city employees are not. Many consider the study of service to be a part of the field of public administration. Workers in "non-departmental public bodies" may be classed as civil servants for the purpose of statistics and for their terms and conditions. Collectively a state's civil servants form its civil public service. An international civil servant or international staff member is a civilian employee, employed by an intergovernmental organization.
These international civil servants do not reside under any national legislation but are governed by internal staff regulations. All disputes related to international civil service are brought before special tribunals created by these international organizations such as, for instance, the Administrative Tribunal of the ILO. Specific referral can be made to the International Civil Service Commission of the United Nations, an independent expert body established by the United Nations General Assembly, its mandate is to regulate and coordinate the conditions of service of staff in the United Nations common system, while promoting and maintaining high standards in the international civil service. The origin of the modern meritocratic civil service can be traced back to Imperial examination founded in Imperial China; the Imperial exam based on merit was designed to select the best administrative officials for the state's bureaucracy. This system had a huge influence on both society and culture in Imperial China and was directly responsible for the creation of a class of scholar-bureaucrats irrespective of their family pedigree.
Appointments to the bureaucracy were based on the patronage of aristocrats. In the areas of administration the military, appointments were based on merit; this was an early form of the imperial examinations, transitioning from inheritance and patronage to merit, in which local officials would select candidates to take part in an examination of the Confucian classics. After the fall of the Han dynasty, the Chinese bureaucracy regressed into a semi-merit system known as the nine-rank system; this system was reversed during the short-lived Sui dynasty, which initiated a civil service bureaucracy recruited through written examinations and recommendation. The first civil service examination system was established by Emperor Wen of Sui. Emperor Yang of Sui established a new category of recommended candidates for the mandarinate in AD 605; the following Tang dynasty adopted the same measures for drafting officials, decreasingly relied on aristocratic recommendations and more and more on promotion based on the results of written examinations.
The structure of the examination system was extensively expanded during the reign of Wu Zetian The system reached its apogee during the Song dynasty. In theory, the Chinese civil service system provided one of the major outlets for social mobility in Chinese society, although in practice, due to the time-consuming nature of the study, the examination was only taken by sons of the landed gentry; the examination tested the candidate's memorization of the Nine Classics of Confucianism and his ability to compose poetry using fixed and traditional forms and calligraphy. In the late 19th century the system came under increasing internal dissatisfaction, it was criticized as not reflecting the candidate's ability to govern well, for giving precedence to style over content and originality of thought; the system was abolished by the Qing government in 1905 as part of the New Policies reform package. The Chinese system was admired by European commentators from the 16th century onward. In the 18th century, in response to economic changes and the growth of the British Empire, the bureaucracy of institutions such as the Office of Works and the Navy Board expanded.
Each had its own system, but in general, staff were appointed through patronage or outright purchase. By the 19th century, it became clear that these arrangements were falling short. "The origins of the British civil service are better known. During the eighteenth century a number of Englishmen wrote in praise of the Chinese examination system, some of them going so far as to urge the adoption for England of something similar; the first concrete step in this direction was taken by the British East India Company in 1806." In that year, the Honourable East India Company established a college, the East India Company College, near London to train and examine administrators of the Company's territories in India. "The proposal for establishing this college came from members of the East India Company's trading post in Canton, China." Examinations for the Indian "civil service"—a term coined by the Company—were introduced in 1829. British efforts at reform were influenced by the imperial examinations system and meritocratic system of China.
Thomas Taylor Meadows, Britain's consul in Guangzhou, China argued in his Desu
Monarchy of the United Kingdom
The monarchy of the United Kingdom referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies and its overseas territories. The current monarch and head of state is Queen Elizabeth II, who ascended the throne in 1952; the monarch and their immediate family undertake various official, ceremonial and representational duties. As the monarchy is constitutional, the monarch is limited to non-partisan functions such as bestowing honours and appointing the Prime Minister; the monarch is commander-in-chief of the British Armed Forces. Though the ultimate executive authority over the government is still formally by and through the monarch's royal prerogative, these powers may only be used according to laws enacted in Parliament and, in practice, within the constraints of convention and precedent; the British monarchy traces its origins from the petty kingdoms of early medieval Scotland and Anglo-Saxon England, which consolidated into the kingdoms of England and Scotland by the 10th century.
England was conquered by the Normans in 1066, after which Wales too came under control of Anglo-Normans. The process was completed in the 13th century when the Principality of Wales became a client state of the English kingdom. Meanwhile, Magna Carta began a process of reducing the English monarch's political powers. From 1603, the English and Scottish kingdoms were ruled by a single sovereign. From 1649 to 1660, the tradition of monarchy was broken by the republican Commonwealth of England, which followed the Wars of the Three Kingdoms; the Act of Settlement 1701 excluded Roman Catholics, or those who married them, from succession to the English throne. In 1707, the kingdoms of England and Scotland were merged to create the Kingdom of Great Britain, in 1801, the Kingdom of Ireland joined to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland; the British monarch was the nominal head of the vast British Empire, which covered a quarter of the world's surface at its greatest extent in 1921. In the early 1920s the Balfour Declaration recognised the evolution of the Dominions of the Empire into separate, self-governing countries within a Commonwealth of Nations.
After the Second World War, the vast majority of British colonies and territories became independent bringing the Empire to an end. George VI and his successor, Elizabeth II, adopted the title Head of the Commonwealth as a symbol of the free association of its independent member states; the United Kingdom and fifteen other independent sovereign states that share the same person as their monarch are called Commonwealth realms. Although the monarch is shared, each country is sovereign and independent of the others, the monarch has a different and official national title and style for each realm. In the uncodified Constitution of the United Kingdom, the monarch is the head of state; the Queen's image is used to signify British sovereignty and government authority—her profile, for instance, appearing on currency, her portrait in government buildings. The sovereign is further both mentioned in and the subject of songs, loyal toasts, salutes. "God Save the Queen" is the British national anthem. Oaths of allegiance are made to her lawful successors.
The monarch takes little direct part in government. The decisions to exercise sovereign powers are delegated from the monarch, either by statute or by convention, to ministers or officers of the Crown, or other public bodies, exclusive of the monarch personally, thus the acts of state done in the name of the Crown, such as Crown Appointments if performed by the monarch, such as the Queen's Speech and the State Opening of Parliament, depend upon decisions made elsewhere: Legislative power is exercised by the Queen-in-Parliament, by and with the advice and consent of Parliament, the House of Lords and the House of Commons. Executive power is exercised by Her Majesty's Government, which comprises ministers the prime minister and the Cabinet, technically a committee of the Privy Council, they have the direction of the Armed Forces of the Crown, the Civil Service and other Crown Servants such as the Diplomatic and Secret Services. Judicial power is vested in the various judiciaries of the United Kingdom, who by constitution and statute have judicial independence of the Government.
The Church of England, of which the monarch is the head, has its own legislative and executive structures. Powers independent of government are granted to other public bodies by statute or Statutory Instrument such as an Order in Council, Royal Commission or otherwise; the sovereign's role as a constitutional monarch is limited to non-partisan functions, such as granting honours. This role has been recognised since the 19th century; the constitutional writer Walter Bagehot identified the monarchy in 1867 as the "dignified part" rather than the "efficient part" of government. Whenever necessary, the monarch is responsible for appointing a new prime minister. In accordance with unwritten constitutional conventions, the sovereign must appoint an individual who commands the support of the House of Commons the leader of the party or coalition that has a majority in that House; the prime minister takes office by attending the monarch in private audience, after "kissing hands" that appointment is effective without any other f
James Bateman (banker)
Sir James Bateman was an English merchant and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1711 to 1718. He became Lord Mayor of Governor of the Bank of England. Bateman was the son of Joas Bateman of Tooting and his second wife, Judith de la Barre, daughter of John de la Barre, merchant, of Fenchurch Street, he was baptised the same day at St Martin Orgar in London. His father was a Flemish immigrant who had become alderman. Bateman built upon his father's mercantile business. From about 1683 or 1684 he was living at Alicante in Portugal, where he was involved in the wine trade. By the early 1690s he was back in London with a considerable fortune and carried on as an importer of wine from the Iberian peninsular, he married Esther Searle, the daughter and coheiress of John Searle, a Finchley merchant by licence dated 3 December 1691. Bateman became an important player in the City of London and, subscribing to the Bank of England on its foundation in 1694, became one of its founding directors.
He began to dabble in politics. At the 1695 election he contested Totnes unsuccessfully. However, he was nearly impeached in 1695 because of his involvement with the Company of Scotland, he was active in establishing an alternative East India Company and in 1698 was a founding director of the New East Indies Company. He was knighted on 14 December 1698. At the first general election of 1701 he stood unsuccessfully at St Mawes, he seems to have decided to concentrate on City politics instead and was appointed Sheriff of London for 1701 to 1702, elected Deputy Governor of the Bank of England for 1703 to 1705 and Governor for 1705 to 1707. In 1705 he bought the Shobdon estate in Herefordshire and replaced the Jacobean house with a new Palladian style building, of which only the service block has survived, he resumed his position as a director of the Bank of England in 1707 until 1711. In 1708, he became a member of the Loriners' Company, he was a director of the United East India Company from 1709 to 1710, a prime warden of the Fishmongers’ Company for 1710 to 1712 and resigned as Director of the Bank of England in 1711 to become a sub-Governor of the South Sea Company until his death.
Bateman stood unsuccessfully for Parliament for London at the 1710 general election. He was returned unopposed as Member of Parliament for Ilchester at a by-election on 2 June 1711, was returned again at the 1713 general election. At the 1715 general election, he was defeated in a contest at Ilchester but was returned as MP for East Looe, he was elected Lord Mayor of London for 1716 to 1717. Bateman died in 1718, he had three daughters. His estates in Herefordshire and Essex were divided between his sons, his son William was created inherited Shobdon Court. Chief Cashier of the Bank of England Media related to Governors of the Bank of England at Wikimedia Commons |}
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K