Inistioge is a small village in County Kilkenny, Ireland. It is situated on 25 kilometres southeast of Kilkenny; the name has been spelt as Ennistioge, in other ways. Inistioge, its village green, has been the scene for a number of films, including Circle of Friends, The Secret Scripture and Widows' Peak; the Woodstock Estate is located one mile outside the village. Inistioge is one of several villages that are situated along the River Nore not far from the Town of Kilkenny, Ireland; the Town is entered by crossing a 10 arch stone bridge, includes a tree-lined square and rows of 18th and 19th century homes along the river. The main bus route serving the village is Kilbride Coaches' New Ross - Thomastown - Kilkenny route. Bus Éireann route 374 provides a journey in each direction along the New Ross - Thomastown - Kilkenny route. Bus Éireann and JJ Kavanagh and Sons operate several journeys daily from Thomastown to Dublin, Dublin Airport and Waterford. Bus services to Rosslare Europort are available from New Ross.
The nearest station is Thomastown railway station on the Waterford-Kilkenny-Dublin line. It is nine kilometres distant; the earliest recorded reference to Inistioge refers to a battle between the kingdom of Osraighi and an army of Norse, recorded as taking place in the year AD 962 in the Annals of the Four Masters. Inistioge was a borough, sending two members to the Irish House of Commons; the Gaelic Athletic Association club Rower-Inistioge GAA has its home ground here. The club has had a number of All Ireland medal-winning players including Eddie Keher, Sean Cummins, Kieran Joyce, Liam Tierney and Liam Naddy. George Brown, Manchester based communist and member of the International Brigades in the Spanish Civil War was born at Ballyneale outside Inistioge in 1906, he was killed in the Battle of Brunete, Spain in 1937. An annual George Brown memorial weekend has been held in Inistioge since 2008. Nora Sands, of Jamie's School Dinners fame, is a native. Lieutenant Walter R. P. Hamilton V. C. leader of the Guides at the Residency in Kabul, killed during the Second Anglo-Afghan War, came from here.
Judge Peter Smithwick, President of the Disdtrict Court List of abbeys and priories in Ireland List of towns and villages in Ireland Inistioge - Jewel of the South East http://rootsweb.ancestry.com/~irlmayo2/inistioge_bridge_countykilkenny_ireland.html
A siege is a military blockade of a city, or fortress, with the intent of conquering by attrition, or a well-prepared assault. This derives from Latin: sedere, lit.'to sit'. Siege warfare is a form of constant, low-intensity conflict characterized by one party holding a strong, defensive position. An opportunity for negotiation between combatants is not uncommon, as proximity and fluctuating advantage can encourage diplomacy; the art of conducting and resisting sieges is called siegecraft, or poliorcetics. A siege occurs when an attacker encounters a city or fortress that cannot be taken by a quick assault, which refuses to surrender. Sieges involve surrounding the target to block the provision of supplies and the reinforcement or escape of troops; this is coupled with attempts to reduce the fortifications by means of siege engines, artillery bombardment, mining, or the use of deception or treachery to bypass defenses. Failing a military outcome, sieges can be decided by starvation, thirst, or disease, which can afflict either the attacker or defender.
This form of siege, can take many months or years, depending upon the size of the stores of food the fortified position holds. The attacking force can circumvallate the besieged place, to build a line of earth-works, consisting of a rampart and trench, surrounding it. During the process of circumvallation, the attacking force can be set upon by another force, an ally of the besieged place, due to the lengthy amount of time required to force it to capitulate. A defensive ring of forts outside the ring of circumvallated forts, called contravallation, is sometimes used to defend the attackers from outside. Ancient cities in the Middle East show archaeological evidence of having had fortified city walls. During the Warring States era of ancient China, there is both textual and archaeological evidence of prolonged sieges and siege machinery used against the defenders of city walls. Siege machinery was a tradition of the ancient Greco-Roman world. During the Renaissance and the early modern period, siege warfare dominated the conduct of war in Europe.
Leonardo da Vinci gained as much of his renown from the design of fortifications as from his artwork. Medieval campaigns were designed around a succession of sieges. In the Napoleonic era, increasing use of more powerful cannon reduced the value of fortifications. In the 20th century, the significance of the classical siege declined. With the advent of mobile warfare, a single fortified stronghold is no longer as decisive as it once was. While traditional sieges do still occur, they are not as common as they once were due to changes in modes of battle, principally the ease by which huge volumes of destructive power can be directed onto a static target. Modern sieges are more the result of smaller hostage, militant, or extreme resisting arrest situations; the Assyrians deployed large labour forces to build new palaces and defensive walls. Some settlements in the Indus Valley Civilization were fortified. By about 3500 BC, hundreds of small farming villages dotted the Indus River floodplain. Many of these settlements had planned streets.
The stone and mud brick houses of Kot Diji were clustered behind massive stone flood dikes and defensive walls, for neighbouring communities quarrelled about the control of prime agricultural land. Mundigak in present-day south-east Afghanistan has defensive walls and square bastions of sun-dried bricks. City walls and fortifications were essential for the defence of the first cities in the ancient Near East; the walls were built of mudbricks, wood, or a combination of these materials, depending on local availability. They may have served the dual purpose of showing presumptive enemies the might of the kingdom; the great walls surrounding the Sumerian city of Uruk gained a widespread reputation. The walls were 9.5 km in length, up to 12 m in height. The walls of Babylon, reinforced by towers and ditches, gained a similar reputation. In Anatolia, the Hittites built massive stone walls around their cities atop hillsides, taking advantage of the terrain. In Shang Dynasty China, at the site of Ao, large walls were erected in the 15th century BC that had dimensions of 20 m in width at the base and enclosed an area of some 2,100 yards squared.
The ancient Chinese capital for the State of Zhao, founded in 386 BC had walls that were 20 m wide at the base. The cities of the Indus Valley Civilization showed less effort in constructing defences, as did the Minoan civilization on Crete; these civilizations relied more on the defence of their outer borders or sea shores. Unlike the ancient Minoan civilization, the Mycenaean Greeks emphasized the need for fortifications alongside natural defences of mountainous terrain, such as the massive Cyclopean walls built at Mycenae and other adjacent Late Bronze Age centers of central and southern Greece. Although there are depictions of sieges from the ancient Near East in historical sources and in art, there are few examples of siege systems that have been found archaeologically. Of the few examples, several are noteworthy: The late 9th-century BC siege system surrounding Tell es-Safi/Gath, consists of a 2.5 km long siege trench and other elements, is the earliest evidence of a circumvallation system known in the world.
It was built by Hazael of Aram Damascus, as part of his siege and conquest of Philistine Gath in the late 9th century BC (mentio
Kilkenny is the county town of County Kilkenny in the province of Leinster in south-east Ireland. It is built on both banks of the River Nore; the city is administered by a borough council, a level below that of city council in the local government of the state, although the Local Government Act 2001 allows for "the continued use of the description city". The 2016 census gave the total population of Kilkenny as 26,512. In 2009 the City of Kilkenny celebrated its 400th year since the granting of city status in 1609. Kilkenny is a tourist destination, its environs include historic buildings such as Kilkenny Castle, St. Canice's Cathedral and round tower, Rothe House, Shee Alms House, Black Abbey, St. Mary's Cathedral, Kilkenny Town Hall, St. Francis Abbey, Grace's Castle, St. John's Priory. Kilkenny is known for its craft and design workshops, the Watergate Theatre, public gardens and museums. Annual events include Kilkenny Arts Festival, the Cat Laughs comedy festival and music at the Kilkenny Roots Festival.
Kilkenny began with an early sixth century ecclesiastical foundation within the kingdom of Ossory. Following Norman invasion of Ireland, Kilkenny Castle and a series of walls were built to protect the burghers of what became a Norman merchant town. William Marshall, Lord of Leinster, gave Kilkenny a charter as a town in 1207. By the late thirteenth century Kilkenny was under Norman-Irish control; the Statutes of Kilkenny passed at Kilkenny in 1367, aimed to curb the decline of the Hiberno-Norman Lordship of Ireland. In 1609 King James I of England granted Kilkenny a Royal Charter giving it the status of a city. Following the Rebellion of 1641, the Irish Catholic Confederation known as the "Confederation of Kilkenny", was based in Kilkenny and lasted until the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland in 1649. Kilkenny was a brewing centre from the late seventeenth century, still houses a number of breweries; the Heritage Council offices are at Church Lane. The seat of the Roman Catholic Bishop of Ossory is at St Mary's Cathedral and the Church of Ireland Bishop of Cashel and Ossory is at St Canice's Cathedral.
Kilkenny is the anglicised version of the Irish Cill Chainnigh, meaning Cell/Church of Cainneach or Canice. This relates to a church built in honour of St. Canice on the hill now containing St. Canice's Cathedral and the round tower; this seems to be the first major settlement. The early Christian origin of the round tower suggests an early ecclesiastical foundation at Kilkenny; the Annals of the Four Masters recorded Kilkenny in 1085. Prior to this time the early 6th century territory was known as Osraighe, referring to the whole district or the capital; the Four Masters entry was the first instance. Cill Chainnigh was a major monastic centre from at least the eighth century. There is no mention of Cill Chainnigh in the lives of Cainnech of Aghaboe, Ciarán of Saighir or any of the early annals of Ireland suggesting that Cill Chainnigh was not of ancient civil importance. Kilkenny is described as a city in the Local Government Act 2001: Kilkenny's foundation began with an early sixth century ecclesiastical settlement, with a church built in honour of St. Canice.
Now St. Canice's Cathedral, this was a major monastic centre from at least the eighth century; the Annals of the Four Masters recorded the first reference Cill Chainnigh in 1085. Prehistoric activity has been recorded, suggesting intermittent settlement activity in the area in the Mesolithic and Bronze Age. Information on the history of Kilkenny can be found from newspapers, letters, drawings and archaeology. Kilkenny is documented in manuscripts from the 13th century onwards and one of the most important of these is Liber Primus Kilkenniensis; the Kings of Ossory had residence around Cill Chainnigh. The seat of diocese of Kingdom of Osraige was moved from Aghaboe to Cill Chainnigh. Following the Norman invasion of Ireland, Richard Strongbow, as Lord of Leinster, established a castle near modern-day Kilkenny Castle. William Marshall began the development of the town of Kilkenny and a series of walls to protect the burghers. By the late thirteenth century Kilkenny was under Norman-Irish control.
The original ecclesiastical centre at St. Canice's Cathedral became known as Irishtown and the Anglo-Norman borough inside the wall came to be known as Hightown. A remarkable early trial for witchcraft was that of Kilkenny resident Alice Kyteler instigated by the Bishop of Ossory, Richard de Ledrede, in 1324; the Hiberno-Norman presence in Kilkenny was shaken by the Black Death, which arrived in 1348. The Statutes of Kilkenny passed at Kilkenny in 1367, aimed to curb the decline of the Hiberno-Norman Lordship of Ireland. In 1609 King James I of England granted Kilkenny a Royal Charter giving it the status of a city. Following the Rebellion of 1641, the Irish Catholic Confederation known as the "Confederation of Kilkenny", was based in Kilkenny and lasted until the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland in 1649. James II of England spent most of the winter months from November 1689 until January 1690 at Kilkenny, residing in the castle; the Kilkenny Design Workshops were opened in 1965 and in 1967 the Marquess of Ormonde presented Kilkenny Castle to the people of Kilkenny.
Today, it has a lively cultural scene, with annual events including the Kilkenny Arts Week Festival in the last two weeks of August, the Cat Laughs Comedy Festival at the beginning of June. Kilkenny is where the Irish ale, Smithwick's, was first brewed. There is now a brewery tour on the foundations of the original brewery. Kilkenny is referred to as the Marble City, people from Kilkenny are referred to
A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monks or nuns, whether living in communities or alone. A monastery includes a place reserved for prayer which may be a chapel, church, or temple, may serve as an oratory. Monasteries vary in size, comprising a small dwelling accommodating only a hermit, or in the case of communities anything from a single building housing only one senior and two or three junior monks or nuns, to vast complexes and estates housing tens or hundreds. A monastery complex comprises a number of buildings which include a church, cloister, library and infirmary. Depending on the location, the monastic order and the occupation of its inhabitants, the complex may include a wide range of buildings that facilitate self-sufficiency and service to the community; these may include a hospice, a school, a range of agricultural and manufacturing buildings such as a barn, a forge, or a brewery. In English usage, the term monastery is used to denote the buildings of a community of monks.
In modern usage, convent tends to be applied only to institutions of female monastics communities of teaching or nursing religious sisters. A convent denoted a house of friars, now more called a friary. Various religions may apply these terms in more specific ways; the word monastery comes from the Greek word μοναστήριον, neut. of μοναστήριος – monasterios from μονάζειν – monazein "to live alone" from the root μόνος – monos "alone". The earliest extant use of the term monastērion is by the 1st century AD Jewish philosopher Philo in On The Contemplative Life, ch. III. In England the word monastery was applied to the habitation of a bishop and the cathedral clergy who lived apart from the lay community. Most cathedrals were not monasteries, were served by canons secular, which were communal but not monastic. However, some were run by monasteries orders, such as York Minster. Westminster Abbey was for a short time a cathedral, was a Benedictine monastery until the Reformation, its Chapter preserves elements of the Benedictine tradition.
See the entry cathedral. They are to be distinguished from collegiate churches, such as St George's Chapel, Windsor. In most of this article, the term monastery is used generically to refer to any of a number of types of religious community. In the Roman Catholic religion and to some extent in certain branches of Buddhism, there is a somewhat more specific definition of the term and many related terms. Buddhist monasteries are called vihara. Viharas may be occupied by men or women, in keeping with common English usage, a vihara populated by females may be called a nunnery or a convent. However, vihara can refer to a temple. In Tibetan Buddhism, monasteries are called gompa. In Thailand and Cambodia, a monastery is called a wat. In Burma, a monastery is called a kyaung. A Christian monastery may be a priory, or conceivably a hermitage, it may be a community of men or of women. A charterhouse is any monastery belonging to the Carthusian order. In Eastern Christianity, a small monastic community can be called a skete, a large or important monastery can be given the dignity of a lavra.
The great communal life of a Christian monastery is called cenobitic, as opposed to the anchoretic life of an anchorite and the eremitic life of a hermit. There has been under the Osmanli occupation of Greece and Cyprus, an "idiorrhythmic" lifestyle where monks come together but being able to own things individually and not being obliged to work for the common good. In Hinduism monasteries are called matha, koil, or most an ashram. Jains use the Buddhist term vihara. In most religions the life inside monasteries is governed by community rules that stipulate the gender of the inhabitants and require them to remain celibate and own little or no personal property; the degree to which life inside a particular monastery is separate from the surrounding populace can vary widely. Others focus on interacting with the local communities to provide services, such as teaching, medical care, or evangelism; some monastic communities are only occupied seasonally, depending both on the traditions involved and the local weather, people may be part of a monastic community for periods ranging from a few days at a time to an entire lifetime.
The life within the walls of a monastery may be supported in several ways: by manufacturing and selling goods agricultural products, by donations or alms, by rental or investment incomes, by funds from other organizations within the religion, which in the past formed the traditional support of monasteries. There has been a long tradition of Christian monasteries providing hospitable and hospital services. Monasteries have been associated with the provision of education and the encouragement of scholarship and research, which has led to the establishment of schools and colleges and the association with universities. Christian monastic life has adapted to modern society by offering computer services, accounting services and management as well as modern hospital and educational administration. Buddhist monasteries, known as vihāra i
St. Mary's Collegiate Church Gowran
St. Mary’s Collegiate Church Gowran known as the Church of the Blessed Virgin of the Assumption, is a church in the centre of the town of Gowran, County Kilkenny, Ireland; the site is a National Monument in the care of the Gowran Development Association and the Office of Public Works. The church and its family connections have been of huge importance to Gowran and further afield over the centuries; the church is a collegiate church, which means that the priests or chaplains attached to it lived in community together. The present church was not an abbey; the presence of an Ogham stone on the site, on display in the chancel, suggests there was a place of worship here dating back 2000 years to Celtic times or beyond. In 1312 A. D. Edmund Butler, Earl of Carrick and Lord Deputy of Ireland made a binding agreement before the Kings Justice in Dublin with the Dean and Chapter of St Canice's Cathedral in Kilkenny to financially support four priests in St. Mary’s Church Gowran to celebrate masses forever, for himself, his wife Joan, his son, James Butler, 1st Earl of Ormonde, his daughters and his ancestors living and dead.
The oldest inscribed monument in the church is the Christianised Ogham Stone from the 3rd or 4th century, found on the site during the rebuilding of the chancel in 1826. The Gowran Ogham Stone was used as a building stone in another part of the Church and lay undisturbed for centuries; the Ogham stones were grave memorials. The one in Gowran is a freestone or grit block: about 1.5 m tall, 380 mm across the face, 30 mm thick. Canon Carrigan gives Fr. Edmund Barry's reading as "MAQA MUCOI MAQUI-ERACIAS MAQI LI", that is, "Dalach, grandson, of Mac-Eirche, son of Lia"; the stone was Christianised about the 6th century. St. Mary’s Church has undergone many alterations. 1st/2nd Century: foundation of the Kingdom of Osraige. 3rd/4th Century: Ogham stone. The presence of this Christianised Ogham stone suggests that this site was a site of worship in pre-Christian times, before St. Patrick arrived in Ireland in 432 A. D. 455 A. D. St. Patrick builds churches in the area. Rev. John Francis Shearman on his book Loca Patriciana, published in 1879, detailing the travels of St. Patrick in Leinster and Ossory, makes several references to St. Patrick travelling through Belach Gabhrán.
Fr. Shearman says the first church was connected with the saint of Gowran, Saint Lochan, whose feast day is 31 December. St. Lochan was a son of son of Eirce, whose family history is given in Ossorian Geonology. A relation of Eirce is commemorated on the Gowran Ogham Stone. 1163 There is further evidence of a church on this site before the Norman invasion of Ireland in 1169. Dermot O Ryan, Chief of Idrone, made a grant of land for the foundation of the Cistersian Abbey of Killenny, De Valle Dei. Killenny is about a half from Goresbridge on the Mount Loftus -- Graiguenamanagh road. Laurence O Toole, Archbishop of Dublin, Dermot Mac Murrough, King of Leinster, Donagh Bishop of Leighlin, Felix O Dulaney, Abbot of the Cistersians in Ossory, many nobles of south Leinster signed the document at Gowran. 1218 Ralph was portrieve of Gowran before 1218. He was influential in the Diocese of Ossory. A monument to commemorate Ralph is on display in the chancel, he is depicted on the monument wearing his priestly vestments.
1225 An early church was built with a square tower in the centre. This is believed to be the only church in Ireland from that period with a tower in the centre. 1415 Irish enemies burned it. 1421 Edward Bruce further damaged the Church. The Pope granted Indulgences to those who, for the following ten years, gave alms for the repair and conservation of the Church of St. Mary the Virgin of Ballygowran; the height of the old tower was increased by adding the upper stories of the belfry to the tower. The tower was strengthened by building another layer of stone to the base on the north wall, which now slopes outwards at the base; the wall of the old tower and that of the new addition can be seen from the inside of the tower when looking up at the north wall. Buttresses were added to the nave. 15th century: major alterations were carried out. 1502 Margaret Fitzgerald, wife of Sir Piers Butler, decorated the Church. 1541 During the reign of King Henry the eight in England the religious practice in the church changed from Catholic to Reformed, more known as Protestant or, in the case of St. Mary’s Church, the Church of Ireland.
The church was used for worship by the Church of Ireland community until the 1970s. 1646 Kealy Mortuary Chapel built. 1700 The second half of the 1700s saw a period of decline in the built heritage of Ireland, with many of the landlords becoming absentee landlords and the aristocracy moving to England. Gowran Castle, which close to the church fell into dereliction. A 1791 picture of the church from the book Grose’s Antiquities of Ireland shows the south wall of the nave still standing but in disrepair, with heavy growth of ivy covering the walls. 19th century: From the start of 1800s, this decline was reversed. The century saw the start of major improvements to the built heritage of Gowran. Many new houses in the town, like the Shamrock Cottages and Dovers Row, were built. 1816-1819 A new Gowran Castle was built. 1826 A new Chancel was rebuilt in St Mary’s Church to the designs o
Time in the Republic of Ireland
Ireland uses Irish Standard Time in the summer months and Greenwich Mean Time in the winter period. In Ireland, the Standard Time Act 1968 established that the time for general purposes in the State shall be one hour in advance of Greenwich mean time throughout the year; this act was amended by the Standard Time Act 1971, which established Greenwich Mean Time as a winter time period. Ireland therefore operates one hour behind standard time during the winter period, reverts to standard time in the summer months; this is defined in contrast to the other states in the European Union, which operate one hour ahead of standard time during the summer period, but produces the same end result. The instant of transition to and from daylight saving time is synchronised across Europe. In Ireland, winter time begins at 02:00 IST on the last Sunday in October, ends at 01:00 GMT on the last Sunday in March; the following table lists recent past and near-future starting and ending dates of Irish Standard Time or Irish Summer Time: Before 1880, the legal time at any place in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was defined as local mean time, as held by the appeal in the 1858 court case Curtis v. March.
The Statutes Act, 1880 defined Dublin Mean Time as the legal time for Ireland. This was the local mean time at Dunsink Observatory outside Dublin, was about 25 minutes 21 seconds behind Greenwich Mean Time, defined by the same act to be the legal time for Great Britain. After the Easter Rising, the time difference between Ireland and Britain was found inconvenient for telegraphic communication and the Time Act, 1916 provided that Irish time would be the same as British time, from 2:00 am Dublin Mean Time on Sunday 1 October 1916. Summer time had been introduced in May 1916 across the United Kingdom as a temporary efficiency measure for the First World War, the changeover from Dublin time to Greenwich time was simultaneous with the changeover from summer time to winter time. John Dillon opposed the first reading of the Time Bill for having been introduced without consultation of the Irish Parliamentary Party. T. M. Healy opposed the second reading on the basis that "while the Daylight Saving Bill added to the length of your daylight, this Bill adds to the length of your darkness".
After the Irish Free State became independent in 1922, subsequent developments tended to mirror those in the United Kingdom. This avoided having different times on either side of the border with Northern Ireland. Summer time was provided on a one-off basis by acts in 1923 and 1924, on an ongoing basis by the Summer Time Act, 1925; the 1925 act provided a default summer time period. Double summer time was considered but not introduced during the Emergency of World War II. From 1968 standard time was observed all year round, with no winter time change; this was an experiment in the run-up to Ireland's 1973 accession to the EEC, was undone in 1971. In those years, time in Ireland was the same as in the six EEC countries, except in the summer in Italy, which switched to Central European Summer Time. One artefact of the 1968 legislation is that "standard time" refers to summer time. From the 1980s, the dates of switch between winter and summer time have been synchronised across the European Union; the statutory instruments that have been issued under the Standard Time Acts are listed below, in format year/SI-number, linking to the Irish Statute Database text of the SI.
Except where stated, those issued up to 1967 were called "Summer Time Order <year>", while those issued from 1981 are "Winter Time Order <year>". 1926/, 1947/71, 1948/128, 1949/23, 1950/41, 1951/27, 1952/73, 1961/11, 1961/232, 1962/182, 1963/167, 1964/257, 1967/198, 1981/67, 1982/212, 1986/45, 1988/264, 1990/52, 1992/371, 1994/395, 1997/484, 2001/506 Possible adjustments to the Irish practice were discussed by the Oireachtas joint committee on Justice and Equality in November 2011, but the government stated it had no plans to change. In November 2012, Tommy Broughan introduced a private member's bill to permit a three-year trial of advancing time by one hour, to CET in winter and CEST in summer. Debate on the bill's second stage was adjourned on 5 July 2013, when Alan Shatter, the Minister for Justice and Equality, agreed to refer the matter to the joint committee for review, suggested that it consult with the British parliament and devolved assemblies. In July 2014, the joint committee issued an invitation for submissions on the bill.
On 8 February 2018, the European Parliament voted to ask the European Commission to re-evaluate the principle of Summer Time in Europe. After a web survey showing high support for not switching clocks twice annually, on 12 September 2018 the European Commission decided to propose that an end be put to seasonal clock changes In order for this to be valid, the European Union legislative procedure must be followed that the Council of the European Union and the European Parliament must both approve the proposal; the United Kingdom is due to have left the EU by and, if the UK does not follow the reform and contin
N9 road (Ireland)
The N9 road is a national primary road in Ireland running from Junction 11 on the M7, located near Kilcullen, County Kildare, to Waterford city. The route connects Waterford; the section of the route from junction 11 on the M7 at Kilcullen to the intersection with the N24 road outside Waterford is motorway standard since 2010 and is designated as the M9 motorway. In line with Irish practice, all sections designated N9 were renumbered at that time. Only a short section of the route is still designated as N9 between the Quarry roundabout junction with the N24 and the N25 Grannagh Roundabout junction; this section is dual carriageway. The route starts as motorway southwest of Newbridge, on the southwest side of Kilcullen. Prior to the 1993 opening of the Newbridge bypass, the N9 had run from Naas; the previous route is now the R448. The previous route continued south through Kilgowan, the intersection with the N78 to Athy, the R747, Timolin and through Castledermot in County Kildare; this is bypassed by the Kilcullen to Carlow section of the M9 opened in December 2009.
This joins with another 18.5 km stretch of motorway, opened 29 May 2008 bypassing Carlow, meeting the R448 at a junction near Powerstown. Further south, the M9 crosses the River Barrow bypassing Leighlinbridge to the west, continuing south to pass west of Muine Bheag entering County Kilkenny. At Paulstown the N10 diverges west/southwest to serve Kilkenny and the present section of the M9; the M9 bypasses Gowran and Thomastown. This section of the N9 completed the M9 motorway. Motorists join the M9 via the N10 from Kilkenny onto the M9 section from Danesfort to Waterford. From Powerstown and further on, just north of Ballyhale the former N10 rejoins the R448, having proceeded south from Kilkenny. Lukeswell and Dunkitt lie along the R448 route south towards Waterford; the M9 ends at the Quarry roundabout junction with the N24. A short section of the route designated as N9 continues towards the Granagh interchange where the route terminates and intersects with the N25 Waterford bypass; the National Development Plan included plans for a motorway from Dublin to Waterford.
While these plans were altered to High Quality Dual Carriageway, in July 2008 the road was reclassified as a motorway once more. An environmental impact assessment was published in October 2003 and a CPO issued in November 2003 for the 46 km dual-carriageway forming the northern part of the Kilcullen–Waterford route, from Kilcullen, County Kildare to Powerstown, County Carlow. An EIS was published and a CPO issued in February 2005 for the 64 km southern section of the upgraded route, from Powerstown to Waterford; the southern section of route differs more from the former N9 alignment than most of the national road upgrade projects in recent years. The N10 provides a link to Kilkenny, to the west of the M9; the new alignment of the M9 passes further west, closer to Kilkenny, with a new shorter N10 link to the M9 on the northeast side of Kilkenny. The N10 remains as far as Danesfort for the link southeast of Kilkenny; the timeline of upgrades to the former N9 route was: M9 Kilcullen to Carlow. It opened as a section of the N9.
M9/N10 Carlow/Knocktopher. A bypass of Waterford was opened in 2009, as part of the N25 that passed southeast/northwest through the city; as part of the project, the new M9 joins at a roundabout just off the Granagh Interchange which allows access to Waterford City or the bypass to Rosslare/Cork. Roads in Ireland National secondary road Regional road Roads Act 1993 Order 2006 – Department of Transport N9 Proposed Motorway Declaration February 2008 N9 – N10 Kilcullen to Waterford Road Scheme – Kilkenny County Council and Kildare National Roads Design Office