Order of the Banner of Work
The Order of the Banner of Work was a governmental award in Poland during the 20th-century era of the communist People's Republic of Poland. The order was established by the Sejm on 2 July 1949, it was given in recognition of "unique achievements for the Nation and the Country". In 1960 the criteria for receiving this award were changed to "special achievements for building socialism in the People's Republic of Poland"; the Order was awarded to institutions, was automatically awarded to miners after 20 years of dedicated labour. Order of the Builders of People's Poland Order of the Red Banner
A symphony is an extended musical composition in Western classical music, most written by composers for orchestra. Although the term has had many meanings from its origins in the ancient Greek era, by the late 18th century the word had taken on the meaning common today: a work consisting of multiple distinct sections or movements four, with the first movement in sonata form. Symphonies are always scored for an orchestra consisting of a string section, brass and percussion instruments which altogether number about 30 to 100 musicians. Symphonies are notated in a musical score. Orchestral musicians play from parts; some symphonies contain vocal parts. The word symphony is derived from the Greek word συμφωνία, meaning "agreement or concord of sound", "concert of vocal or instrumental music", from σύμφωνος, "harmonious"; the word referred to a variety of different concepts before settling on its current meaning designating a musical form. In late Greek and medieval theory, the word was used for consonance, as opposed to διαφωνία, the word for "dissonance".
In the Middle Ages and the Latin form symphonia was used to describe various instruments those capable of producing more than one sound simultaneously. Isidore of Seville was the first to use the word symphonia as the name of a two-headed drum, from c. 1155 to 1377 the French form symphonie was the name of the organistrum or hurdy-gurdy. In late medieval England, symphony was used in both of these senses, whereas by the 16th century it was equated with the dulcimer. In German, Symphonie was a generic term for spinets and virginals from the late 16th century to the 18th century. In the sense of "sounding together," the word begins to appear in the titles of some works by 16th- and 17th-century composers including Giovanni Gabrieli's Sacrae symphoniae, Symphoniae sacrae, liber secundus, published in 1597 and 1615, respectively. 16, published in 1607. 18, published in 1610. 6, Symphoniarum sacrarum secunda pars, op. 10, published in 1629 and 1647, respectively. Except for Viadana's collection, which contained purely instrumental and secular music, these were all collections of sacred vocal works, some with instrumental accompaniment.
In the 17th century, for most of the Baroque period, the terms symphony and sinfonia were used for a range of different compositions, including instrumental pieces used in operas and concertos—usually part of a larger work. The opera sinfonia, or Italian overture had, by the 18th century, a standard structure of three contrasting movements: fast, slow and dance-like, it is this form, considered as the direct forerunner of the orchestral symphony. The terms "overture", "symphony" and "sinfonia" were regarded as interchangeable for much of the 18th century. In the 17th century, pieces scored for large instrumental ensemble did not designate which instruments were to play which parts, as is the practice from the 19th century to the current period; when composers from the 17th century wrote pieces, they expected that these works would be performed by whatever group of musicians were available. To give one example, whereas the bassline in a 19th-century work is scored for cellos, double basses and other specific instruments, in a 17th-century work, a basso continuo part for a sinfonia would not specify which instruments would play the part.
A performance of the piece might be done with a basso continuo group as small as a single cello and harpsichord. However, if a bigger budget was available for a performance and a larger sound was required, a basso continuo group might include multiple chord-playing instruments and a range of bass instruments, including cello, double bass, bass viol or a serpent, an early bass woodwind instrument. LaRue, Bonds and Wilson write in the second edition of The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians that "the symphony was cultivated with extraordinary intensity" in the 18th century, it played a role in many areas of public life, including church services, but a strong area of support for symphonic performances was the aristocracy. In Vienna the most important location in Europe for the composition of symphonies, "literally hundreds of noble families supported musical establishments dividing their time between Vienna and their ancestral estate ". Since the normal size of the orchestra at the time was quite small, many of these courtly establishments were capable of performing symphonies.
The young Joseph Haydn, taking up his first job as a music director in 1757 for the Morzin family, found that when the Morzin household was in Vienna, his own orchestra was only part of a lively and competitive musical scene, with multiple aristocrats sponsoring concerts with their own ensembles. LaRue, Bonds and Wilson's article traces the gradual expansion of the symphonic orchestra through the 18th century. At first, symphonies were string symphonies, written in just four parts: first violin, second violin and bass; the early symphonists dispensed with the viola part, thus creating three-part symphonies. A basso continuo part including a bassoon together with a harpsichord or other chording instrument was pos
MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database, similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the restrictions placed on the Compact Disc Database, a database for software applications to look up audio CD information on the Internet. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become a structured open online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their recorded works, the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, the length of each track; these entries are maintained by volunteer editors. Recorded works can store information about the release date and country, the CD ID, cover art, acoustic fingerprint, free-form annotation text and other metadata; as of 21 September 2018, MusicBrainz contained information about 1.4 million artists, 2 million releases, 19 million recordings. End-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as FLAC, MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC.
MusicBrainz allows contributors to upload cover art images of releases to the database. Internet Archive provides the bandwidth and legal protection for hosting the images, while MusicBrainz stores metadata and provides public access through the web and via an API for third parties to use; as with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge of maintaining and reviewing the data. Cover art is provided for items on sale at Amazon.com and some other online resources, but CAA is now preferred because it gives the community more control and flexibility for managing the images. Besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint. A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this. In 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatable's patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching; this feature allowed the database to grow quickly. However, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions.
This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, replacing TRM with MusicDNS. TRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND; some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free identification service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought; the Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský. While AcoustID and Chromaprint are not MusicBrainz projects, they are tied with each other and both are open source. Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second. Additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns; the AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity and returns the AcoustID identifier along with MusicBrainz recording identifiers if known.
Since 2003, MusicBrainz's core data are in the public domain, additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL; the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, which allows use of the code by proprietary software products. In December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye. On 20 January 2006, the first commercial venture to use MusicBrainz data was the Barcelona, Spain-based Linkara in their Linkara Música service. On 28 June 2007, BBC announced that it has licensed MusicBrainz's live data feed to augment their music Web pages; the BBC online music editors will join the MusicBrainz community to contribute their knowledge to the database. On 28 July 2008, the beta of the new BBC Music site was launched, which publishes a page for each MusicBrainz artist.
Amarok – KDE audio player Banshee – multi-platform audio player Beets – automatic CLI music tagger/organiser for Unix-like systems Clementine – multi-platform audio player CDex – Microsoft Windows CD ripper Demlo – a dynamic and extensible music manager using a CLI iEatBrainz – Mac OS X deprecated foo_musicbrainz component for foobar2000 – Music Library/Audio Player Jaikoz – Java mass tag editor Max – Mac OS X CD ripper and audio transcoder Mp3tag – Windows metadata editor and music organizer MusicBrainz Picard – cross-platform album-oriented tag editor MusicBrainz Tagger – deprecated Microsoft Windows tag editor puddletag – a tag editor for PyQt under the GPLv3 Rhythmbox music player – an audio player for Unix-like systems Sound Juicer – GNOME CD ripper Zortam Mp3 Media Studio – Windows music organizer and ID3 Tag Editor. Freedb clients can access MusicBrainz data through the freedb protocol by using the MusicBrainz to FreeDB gateway service, mb2freedb. List of online music databases Making Metadata: The Case of Mus
National Library of Australia
The National Library of Australia is the largest reference library in Australia, responsible under the terms of the National Library Act for "maintaining and developing a national collection of library material, including a comprehensive collection of library material relating to Australia and the Australian people." In 2012–13, the National Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, an additional 15,506 metres of manuscript material. It is located in Parkes, Canberra, ACT; the National Library of Australia, while formally established by the passage of the National Library Act 1960, had been functioning as a national library rather than a Parliamentary Library since its inception. In 1901, a Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was established to serve the newly formed Federal Parliament of Australia. From its inception the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was driven to development of a national collection. In 1907 the Joint Parliamentary Library Committee under the Chairmanship of the Speaker, Sir Frederick William Holder defined the objective of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library in the following words: The Library Committee is keeping before it the ideal of building up, for the time when Parliament shall be established in the Federal Capital, a great Public Library on the lines of the world-famed Library of Congress at Washington.
The present library building was opened on 15 August 1968 by Prime Minister John Gorton. The building was designed by the architectural firm of Bunning and Madden in the Late Twentieth Century Stripped Classical style; the foyer is decorated in marble, with stained-glass windows by Leonard French and three tapestries by Mathieu Matégot. The building was listed on the Australian Commonwealth Heritage List on 22 June 2004. In 2012–13 the Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, with an estimated additional 2,325,900 items held in the manuscripts collection; the Library's collections of Australiana have developed into the nation's single most important resource of materials recording the Australian cultural heritage. Australian writers and illustrators are sought and well represented—whether published in Australia or overseas; the Library's collection includes all formats of material, from books, journals and manuscripts to pictures, maps, oral history recordings, manuscript papers and ephemera.
92.1% of the Library's collection has been catalogued and is discoverable through the online catalogue. The Library has digitized over 174,000 items from its collection and, where possible, delivers these directly across the Internet; the Library is a world leader in digital preservation techniques, maintains an Internet-accessible archive of selected Australian websites called the Pandora Archive. The Library collects material produced by Australians, for Australians or about the Australian experience in all formats—not just printed works—books, newspapers, posters and printed ephemera—but online publications and unpublished material such as manuscripts and oral histories. A core Australiana collection is that of John A. Ferguson; the Library has particular collection strengths in the performing arts, including dance. The Library's considerable collections of general overseas and rare book materials, as well as world-class Asian and Pacific collections which augment the Australiana collections.
The print collections are further supported by extensive microform holdings. The Library maintains the National Reserve Braille Collection; the Library houses the largest and most developing research resource on Asia in Australia, the largest Asian language collections in the Southern hemisphere, with over half a million volumes in the collection, as well as extensive online and electronic resources. The Library collects resources about all Asian countries in Western languages extensively, resources in the following Asian languages: Burmese, Persian, Japanese, Korean, Manchu, Thai and Vietnamese; the Library has acquired a number of important Western and Asian language scholarly collections from researchers and bibliophiles. These collections include: Australian Buddhist Library Collection Braga Collection Claasz Collection Coedes Collection London Missionary Society Collection Luce Collection McLaren-Human Collection Otley Beyer Collection Sakakibara Collection Sang Ye Collection Simon Collection Harold S. Williams Collection The Asian Collections are searchable via the National Library's catalogue.
The National Library holds an extensive collection of manuscripts. The manuscript collection contains about 26 million separate items, covering in excess of 10,492 meters of shelf space; the collection relates predominantly to Australia, but there are important holdings relating to Papua New Guinea, New Zealand and the Pacific. The collection holds a number of European and Asian manuscript collections or single items have been received as part of formed book collections; the Australian manuscript collections date from the period of maritime exploration and settlement in the 18th century until the present, with the greatest area of strength dating from the 1890s onwards. The collection includes a large number of outstanding single items, such as the 14th century Chertsey Cartulary, the journal of James Cook on the HM Bark Endeavour, inscribed on t
Grzegorz Fitelberg was a Polish conductor and composer. He was a member of the Młoda Polska group, together with artists such as Karol Szymanowski, Ludomir Różycki and Mieczysław Karłowicz. Fitelberg was born in Daugavpils, Russian Empire. In 1908 he conducted in 1912 in the Vienna Opera. During the first war he collaborated with Ballets Russes. From 1921 to 1934 he was the chief conductor of the Warsaw Philharmonic Orchestra, where he excessively promoted new music. In 1935 he organized the Polish National Radio Symphony Orchestra, he died in Katowice, Poland in June 1953. His son was the Polish-American composer Jerzy Fitelberg, his second wife, Halina Schmolz, was a ballet dancer who died in 1939, from wounds suffered during the bombing of the Poniatowski Bridge. Their home, Willa Fitelberga, has been restored; the Grzegorz Fitelberg International Competition for Conductors, one of the most important music competitions in Poland, takes place in the Silesian Philharmonic since 1979. Free scores by Grzegorz Fitelberg at the International Music Score Library Project Official website of The Grzegorz Fitelberg International Competition for Conductors
École Normale de Musique de Paris
The École Normale de Musique de Paris "Alfred Cortot" is a leading conservatoire located in Paris. At the time of the school's foundation in 1919 the term ecole normale meant a teacher training institution, the school was intended to produce music teachers as well as concert performers. Located in the 17th arrondissement of Paris, it was founded by Auguste Mangeot and pianist Alfred Cortot, it is recognised by the Ministry of Culture and Communication and is under the patronage of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The school is not recognised by the Bologna Process The school was founded on 6 October 1919 as a private institution by Franco-Swiss pianist Alfred Cortot and Auguste Mangeot, director of the magazine Le Monde musical. In 1927, the school moved from a building in the rue Jouffroy-d'Abbans to 114 bis boulevard Malesherbes, a Belle Époque mansion given by the Marquise of Maleissye, where it is now situated. In 1962, after Cortot's death, composer Pierre Petit became the school's new director.
Two years 1964, conductor Charles Munch was named school president. In 1968, Henri Dutilleux succeeded Münch's position as president and stayed in office until 1974; the board of directors included musicians of renowned standing including Elliott Carter and Jean-Michel Damase. Since 1 January 2013, Françoise Noël-Marquis has held the post of director of the school, replacing Henri Heugel. In 1929, the renowned architect Auguste Perret, who responsible for the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées, designed a new 500-seat concert hall for the school. Named "Salle Cortot" after the school's founder, the hall was designed in the "Art Deco" style. Cortot once described it as: "A hall which sounds like a Stradivarius". In 2001, a restoration of the Hall was carried out with the support of the French Ministry of Culture and Liliane Bettencourt. Today it hosts musical events every year. Both the Salle Cortot and the school are registered as historical landmarks by the French Administration; every Tuesday and Thursday at 12:30, a free concert at Salle Cortot is given by the school's students of higher levels and/or its professors.
The concept of the program was started by Jacques Lagarde in 1981 and carried on with the direction by Narcis Bonet. Starting from the concert season of 2012-2013, Véronique Bonnecaze succeeded Bonet's place as its new artistic director; each year a set of public master classes with the participation of renowned musicians and artists is announced. Classes take place at Salle Cortot. Notable masters who have given lessons include Alfred Cortot himself, Samson François, Mstislav Rostropovich, Thomas Hampson, more masterclasses by Anne Queffélec, Inva Mula, Natalia Gutman, fr:Karine Deshayes, François-René Duchâble, Vincent Le Texier and Mikhail Rudy. Former distinguished members of faculty include Jean-François Antonioli, Pierre Bernac, Nadia Boulanger, Pablo Casals, Alfred Cortot, Georges Dandelot, Paul Dukas, Georges Enescu, Henri Dutilleux, Arthur Honegger, Wanda Landowska, Charles Munch, Yoshihisa Taïra, Jacques Thibaud, Jean Micault and Zino Francescatti. Prominent current members of faculty include Mireille Alcantara, Pierre-Yves Artaud, Erik Berchot, Ludmila Valentinovna Berlinskaya, Narcís Bonet, Peggy Bouveret, Chantal de Buchy, Guy Deplus, Nelson Delle-Vigne Fabbri, Carol Dumas, Pascal Gallois, Jean-Marc Luisada, Roselyne Masset-Lecocq, Victoria Melki, Michel Merlet, Jean Mouillere, Isabelle Perrin, Alberto Ponce, Thomas Prevost, Bruno Rigutto, Rena Cherechevskaïa, Marie-Claude Theuveny, Pierre-Henri Xuereb, Ramzi Yassa.
Illustrious alumni include composers İlhan Baran, André Boucourechliev, Elliott Carter, Gabriel Cusson, Jacob Druckman, Alain Gagnon, Gérard Grisey, Jacques Hétu, Simeon ten Holt, Leonid Karev, Sophie Lacaze, Bruno Mantovani, Zygmunt Mycielski, Ron Nelson, Michel Perrault, Marcel Poot, Milton Estévez, Arturo Rodas, Joaquín Rodrigo, Antoni Szalowski and Margrit Zimmermann. SourcesSimeone, Nigel. Paris - a Musical Gazetteer. New Haven & London: Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300080544
Maria Szymanowska was a Polish composer and one of the first professional virtuoso pianists of the 19th century. She toured extensively throughout Europe in the 1820s, before settling permanently in St. Petersburg. In the Russian imperial capital, she composed for the court, gave concerts, taught music, ran an influential salon, her compositions—largely piano pieces and other small chamber works, as well as the first piano concert etudes and nocturnes in Poland—typify the stile brillant of the era preceding Frédéric Chopin. She was the mother of Celina Szymanowska. Marianna Agata Wołowska was born in Warsaw, Poland on December 14, 1789 into a prosperous Polish family with Frankist roots, one of her ancestors being Salomon Ben Elijah, the personal assistant of Jacob Frank, her father Franciszek Wołowski was a brewer. Her mother Barbara Wołowska came from a noble Polish Lanckoroński family; the history of her early years and her musical studies is uncertain. She gave her first public recitals in Warsaw and Paris in 1810.
In the same year, she married Józef Szymanowski, with whom she had three children while living in Poland: Helena, who married a Polish lawyer Franciszek Malewski, twins Celina, who married Adam Mickiewicz, Romuald, who became an engineer). The children remained with Maria after her separation from Szymanowski in 1820; the marriage ended in divorce. Szymanowska died of cholera during the summer 1831 epidemic in St Petersburg, she is presumed to be unrelated to Karol Szymanowski, considered to be the most famous Polish composer of the 20th century. Her professional piano career began in 1815, with performances in England in 1818, a tour of Western Europe 1823–1826, including both public and private performances in Germany, England, Italy and Holland. A number of these performances were given in private for royalty, her playing was well received by critics and audiences alike, garnering her a reputation for a delicate tone, lyrical sense of virtuosity and operatic freedom. She was one of the first professional piano virtuosos in 19th-century Europe and one of the first pianists to perform memorized repertoire in public, a decade ahead of Franz Liszt and Clara Wieck-Schumann.
After years of touring, she returned to Warsaw for some time before relocating in early 1828, first to Moscow and to St. Petersburg, where she served as the court pianist to the Empress of Russia Alexandra Feodorovna. Szymanowska composed around 100 piano pieces. Like many women composers of her time, she wrote music predominantly for instrumentation she had access to, including many solo piano pieces and miniatures and some chamber works, her work is labeled, stylistically, as part of the pre-romantic period stile brillant and of Polish Sentimentalism. Szymanowska scholar Sławomir Dobrzański describes her playing and its historical significance as follows: Her Etudes and Preludes show innovative keyboard writing. Szymanowska's musical style is parallel to the compositional starting point of Frédéric Chopin. While scholars have debated the reach of her influence on her compatriot Chopin, her career as a pianist and composer strikingly foreshadows his own, as well as the broader trend in 19th-century Europe of the virtuoso pianist/composer, whose abilities as a performer expanded her technical possibilities as a composer.
Because of her stature as a performance artist and because of her salon, Szymanowska developed a strong web of connections with some of the most notable composers, performing musicians, poets of her day, including: Luigi Cherubini, Gioacchino Rossini, Johann Hummel, John Field. Hummel and Field dedicated compositions to her. Goethe is rumored to have fallen in love with her; the salon she established in St. Petersburg drew prominent crowds, augmenting her status as a court musician. Album per pianoforte. Maria Szmyd-Dormus, ed. Kraków: PWM, 1990. 25 Mazurkas. Irena Poniatowska, ed. Bryn Mawr, PA: Hildegard, 1991. Music for Piano. Sylvia Glickman, ed. Bryn Mawr, PA: Hildegard, 1991. Six Romances. Maja Trochimczyk, ed. Bryn Mawr, PA: Hildegard, 1998. Szymanowska: Complete Dances for Solo Piano. Alexander Kostrita, piano. Grand Piano GP685, 2015 Three Generations of Mazurkas: Polish dances for Piano by Szymanowska, Szymanowski. Alexander Kostrita, piano. Divine Art DDA25123, 2014 Maria Szymanowska: Complete Piano Works.
Sławomir P. Dobrzański, piano. Acte Préalable AP0281-83, 2013. Maria Szymanowska: Ballades & Romances. Elżbieta Zapolska, mezzo-soprano. Acte Préalable AP0260, 2012. Maria Szymanowska: Piano Works. Anna Ciborowska, piano