NYPD Blue is an American police procedural drama television series set in New York City, exploring the struggles of the fictional 15th Precinct detective squad in Manhattan. Each episode intertwines several plots involving an ensemble cast; the show was created by Steven Bochco and David Milch, was inspired by Milch's relationship with Bill Clark, a former member of the New York City Police Department who became one of the show's producers. The series was broadcast on the ABC network, debuted on September 21, 1993‚ and aired its final episode on March 1, 2005, it was ABC's longest-running primetime one-hour drama series until Grey's Anatomy surpassed it in 2016. NYPD Blue was met with critical acclaim, praised for its grittiness and realistic portrayal of the cast's personal and professional lives, though the show garnered controversy for its depiction of nudity and alcoholism. In 1997, "True Confessions", written by Art Monterastelli and directed by Charles Haid, was ranked #36 on "TV Guide's 100 Greatest Episodes of All Time."
In 2009, "Hearts and Souls", Jimmy Smits' final episode as a main cast member, #30 on "TV Guide's 100 Greatest Episodes of All Time." Produced by 20th Century Fox and Steven Bochco Productions, film production took place in the greater Los Angeles area. The show did film in New York, but only for exterior shots. In the final season, the show was filmed only in Los Angeles to save money. Exterior shots of the 15th Precinct used the 9th Precinct building on East 5th Street in New York City used for Kojak; the show was a vehicle for David Caruso. John Kelly was the main character, the first season revolved around him and his professional and personal lives. Promotional shots for the show depicted Caruso in the foreground and other first-season characters set off behind him. Season two had the departure of John Kelly, the show was thereafter built around an ensemble cast. Dennis Franz, as Andy Sipowicz, a veteran New York City Police detective, evolved into the show's lead character, who assumed a mentorship role to other characters as the series progressed.
His co-stars included Jimmy Smits as Det. Bobby Simone, Rick Schroder as Det. Danny Sorenson, Mark-Paul Gosselaar as Det. John Clark, Jr.. John Kelly and Andy Sipowicz are detectives in the 15th squad. Sipowicz is the elder partner, but is an alcoholic who drinks on the job, as well as off duty, his behavior causes doubt that the partnership will last much longer. Kelly has a genuine affection for his partner, but becomes exasperated by Sipowicz's behavior. In addition to his alcoholism, Sipowicz is a negative, homophobic bigot. In the pilot, Sipowicz is shot by a suspect he had humiliated earlier; this leads to his decision to save his job. While Sipowicz is recuperating, the squad's lieutenant, Arthur Fancy, teams Kelly with a young cop from Anticrime, James Martinez. Kelly's personal life is as frenetic as his professional life, he is reluctantly going through a divorce from his wife, is embarking on an affair with a uniformed cop, Janice Licalsi. To complicate matters further, Licalsi's police-officer father is on the payroll of mob boss Angelo Marino.
Licalsi, in an attempt to protect her father, has been ordered to do a "hit" on Kelly. Instead, Licalsi murders Marino, the repercussions come back to haunt both Kelly and her. Sipowicz, sobers up and begins a relationship with ADA Sylvia Costas; the other detective in the squad, Greg Medavoy, a married man, embarks on an affair with the squad's new administrative aide, Donna Abandando. Licalsi is found guilty of the manslaughter of Marino and his driver, is given a two-year sentence; because of Kelly's involvement with Licalsi, the held belief that he withheld evidence that could have given her a longer sentence, he is transferred out of the 15th and chooses to leave the department altogether. He is replaced by Bobby Simone, a widower whose previous job was that of driver for the police commissioner; this does not sit well with Sipowicz, but after learning that Simone took the assignment to be present for his wife, suffering from cancer, Sipowicz learns to accept his new partner and builds a strong friendship with him.
When Sipowicz's relationship with Sylvia leads to marriage, he asks Simone to be his best man. After an affair with a journalist whom he suspects has used information that he disclosed to her after an intimate moment to boost her career, Simone begins a relationship with another new member of the squad, Diane Russell. Sipowicz, as a recovering alcoholic, recognizes from Russell's behavior that she has a drinking problem. After much prompting, she begins attending Alcoholics Anonymous. In another storyline, due to his low self-esteem and disbelief that a woman like Donna could love him, Medavoy's relationship with her breaks down, due in no small part to Donna's visiting sister. At the beginning of the season, Sylvia becomes pregnant with Andy's child. A baby boy, Theo, is born towards the end of the season; this is contrasted with the fate that awaits Sipowicz's older son, Andy Jr. who announces that he plans to join the police force in nearby Hackensack, New Jersey, after being discharged from the Air Force due to an injury.
Sipowicz is bonding with his long-estranged son when Andy Jr. is gunned down trying to help people in a bar holdup. This causes the elder Sipowicz to fall off the wagon. Simone kills Andy Jr.'s murderers in an act of self-defense while attempting to arrest them. Bobby and Diane, who had placed their relationship on hold while she attended AA, resume seeing each other. D
The Blackfoot Confederacy, Niitsitapi or Siksikaitsitapi is a historic collective name for the four bands that make up the Blackfoot or Blackfeet people: three First Nation band governments in the provinces of Saskatchewan and British Columbia, one federally recognized Native American tribe in Montana, United States. The Siksika, the Kainai or Kainah, the Northern Piegan or Peigan or Piikani reside in Canada. In modern use, the term is sometimes used only for the three First Nations in Canada; the member peoples of the Confederacy were nomadic bison hunters and trout fishermen, who ranged across large areas of the northern Great Plains of western North America the semi-arid shortgrass prairie ecological region. They followed the bison herds as they migrated between what are now the United States and Canada, as far north as the Bow River. In the first half of the 18th century, they acquired horses and firearms from white traders and their Cree and Assiniboine go-betweens; the Blackfoot used these to expand their territory at the expense of neighboring tribes.
By riding horses and using them to transport goods, the Blackfoot and other Plains tribes could extend the range of their buffalo hunts. In the mid to late 19th century, the systematic commercial bison hunting by white hunters nearly ended the bison herds and permanently changed Native American life on the Great Plains, since their primary food source was no longer abundant. Periods of starvation and deprivation followed; the Blackfoot tribe, like other Plains Indians, was forced to adopt ranching and farming, settling in permanent reservations. In the 1870s, their bands signed treaties with both the United States and Canada, ceding most of their lands in exchange for annuities of food and medical aid, as well as help in learning to farm, but the Blackfoot have worked to maintain their traditional language and culture in the face of assimilationist policies of both the U. S. and Canada. The Blackfoot/Plains Confederacy consisted of three peoples based on kinship and dialect, but all speaking the common language of Blackfoot, one of the Algonquian languages family.
The three were the Piikáni, the Káínaa, the Siksikáwa. They allied with the unrelated Tsuu T'ina, who became merged into the Confederacy and, with the Atsina, or A'aninin; each of these decentralized peoples were divided into many bands, which ranged in size from 10 to 30 lodges, or about 80 to 240 persons. The band was the basic unit of organization for defence; the largest ethnic group in the Confederacy is the Piegan spelled Peigan or Pikuni. Their name derives from the Blackfoot term Piikáni, they are divided into the Piikani Nation in present-day Alberta, the South Peigan or Piegan Blackfeet in Montana, United States. A once large and mighty division of the Piegan were the Inuk'sik of southwestern Montana. Today they survive only as a band of the South Peigan; the modern Kainai Nation is named for the Blackfoot-language term Káínaa, meaning "Many Chief people". These were also called the "Blood," from a Plains Cree name for the Kainai: Miko-Ew, meaning "stained with blood"; the common English name for the tribe is the Blood tribe.
The Siksika Nation's name derives from Siksikáwa, meaning "Those of like". The Siksika call themselves Sao-kitapiiksi, meaning "Plains People"; the Sarcee call themselves the Tsu T'ina, meaning "a great number of people." During early years of conflict, the Blackfoot called them Saahsi or Sarsi, "the stubborn ones", in their language. The Sarcee are from an different language family; the Sarcee are an offshoot of the Beaver people, who migrated south onto the plains sometime in the early eighteenth century. They joined the Confederacy and merged with the Pikuni; the Gros Ventre people call themselves the Haaninin spelled A'aninin. The French called misinterpreting a physical sign for waterfall; the Blackfoot referred to them because of years of enmity. Early scholars thought the A'aninin were related to the Arapaho Nation, who inhabited the Missouri Plains and moved west to Colorado and Wyoming, they were allied with the Confederacy from circa 1793 to 1861, but came to disagreement and were enemies of it thereafter.
The Confederacy occupied a large territory where they foraged. But during the late nineteenth century, both governments forced the peoples to end their nomadic traditions and settle on "Indian reserves" or "Indian reservations"; the South Peigan are the only group. The other three Blackfoot-speaking peoples and the Sarcee are located in Alberta. Together, the Blackfoot-speakers call themselves the Niitsítapi. After leaving the
Ronald Owen Perelman is an American banker, businessman and philanthropist. MacAndrews & Forbes Incorporated, his company, has invested in companies with interests in groceries, Liquorice, cars, television, camping supplies, gaming, jewelry and comic book publishing. Perelman is annually one of the world's largest philanthropic donors; as of January 2019, Perelman is the 49th-richest American, 152nd-richest person in the world, with an estimated wealth of $9.4 billion. In September, 2017, Forbes magazine named Perelman as one of the "100 Greatest Living Business Minds." Perelman was born in Greensboro, North Carolina on January 1, 1943, the son of Ruth and Raymond G. Perelman, he was raised in a Jewish family. He managed with family members the American Paper Products Corporation. Raymond left the company and bought Belmont Iron Works, a manufacturer of structural steel. From his father, Perelman learned the fundamentals of business. By the time Ronald turned eleven years old he sat in on board meetings of his father's company.
A 2006 article published in the Forbes 400 discusses their rough relationship in detail. Perelman first attended Villanova University's School of Business attended the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania where he majored in business, he graduated in 1964 and completed his master's in 1966. Perelman's first major business deal took place in 1961 during his Freshman year at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, he and his father bought the Esslinger Brewery for $800,000 sold it three years for a $1 million profit. Throughout Perelman's tenure at the Belmont Iron Works he assisted his father on other deals, their general strategy was purchase a company, sell off superfluous divisions to reduce debt and generate profit, bring the company back to its core business, either sell it or hang onto it for cash flow. In 1978, twelve years after Perelman formally joined Belmont Industries, he was the vice president but he still strove for more power and influence in the company.
Raymond told him. Perelman moved to New York; the two spoke to one another for the next six years. He orchestrated the purchase of Cohen-Hatfield Jewelers in 1978, his first deal as an independent investor free of his father's influence and took a loan from his wife, Faith Golding. Within a year, Perelman had sold all of the company's retail locations and reduced the company to its lucrative wholesale jewelry division, earning him $15 million. Perelman acquired a distributor of licorice extract and chocolate, he faced resistance from the management and investors who filed an unsuccessful lawsuit to prevent the acquisition, but Perelman prevailed. In 1983, Perelman started selling bonds to acquire the remaining 66% stake in MacAndrews & Forbes Group Inc. to take MacAndrews & Forbes Group Inc. private. In 1983, MacAndrews had acquired Technicolor Inc. Despite the bond debt, in 1984, MacAndrews & Forbes purchased Consolidated Cigar Holdings Ltd. from Gulf & Western Industries, in addition to Video Corporation of America.
The Technicolor Inc. divisions were sold off and, in 1988, its core business was sold to Carlton Communications for 6.5 times the purchase price. Using the proceeds from the Technicolor division sell off, MacAndrews & Forbes purchased a 20 percent stake in Compact Video Inc. a television and film syndication company. Ronald Perelman's controlling buyout of Compact Video was in 1986. In 1989, Perelman acquired New World Entertainment, with David Charnay's Four Star Television becoming a unit of Ronald Perelman's Compact Video that year. Ownership of Compact Video Inc. was increased to 40% in 1989 after the buyout of Four Star International. After Compact shut down, its remaining assets, including Four Star, were folded into MacAndrews and Forbes Incorporated. In 1989, Perelman acquired New World Entertainment with Four Star becoming a division of New World as part of the transaction. Four Star International was purchased through a golden parachute deal, negotiated with David Charnay by Ronald Perelman after Charnay was notified of stock purchases made by Perelman in 1989.
By the end of 1989, MacAndrews refinanced the Holding companies' junk bonds for standard bank loans. The bulk of New World's film and home video holdings were sold in January 1990 to Trans-Atlantic Pictures, a newly formed production company founded by a consortium of former New World executives, his company MacAndrews & Forbes became a holding company with interests in a diversified portfolio of public and private companies and was still wholly owned by Perelman, who served as its chairman and chief executive officer. MacAndrews & Forbes's current holdings include AM General, Revlon, Scientific Games, SIGA Technologies and VTV, he has done deals with Revlon Corporation, thrifts for $315 million and renamed it First Gibraltar Bank, Coleman Company, Sunbeam Products, New World Entertainment. On February 17, 2005, Perelman filed a lawsuit against Morgan Stanley. Two facts were at issue. Did Morgan Stanley know about the problems with Sunbeam and was Perelman misled? During the discovery phase, the judge became exasperated with what she perceived as deliberate stonewalling on the part of Morgan Stanley and ordered the jury to assume Morgan Stanley deliberately and knowingly defrauded Perelman.
Hobbled, Morgan Stanley had no choice but to argue that Perelman was too savvy an investor to have fallen for their transparent tricks. After a five-week trial, the jury deliberated for two days, found in favor of Perelman, awarded him $1.45 billion. The damages stung becau
Tribeca Film Festival
The Tribeca Film Festival is a prominent film festival held in the Tribeca neighborhood of Manhattan, showcasing a diverse selection of independent films. Since its inaugural year in 2002, it has become a recognized outlet for independent filmmakers in all genres to release their work to a broad audience. In 2006 and 2007, the Festival held 1,500 screenings; the Festival's program line-up includes a variety of independent films including documentaries, narrative features and shorts, as well as a program of family-friendly films. The Festival features panel discussions with personalities in the entertainment world and a music lounge produced with ASCAP to showcase artists. One of the more distinctive components of the Festival is its Artists Awards program in which emerging and renowned artists celebrate filmmakers by providing original works of art that are given to the filmmakers' competition winners. Past artists of the Artists Award Program have included Chuck Close, Alex Katz, Julian Schnabel.
The festival now draws an estimated three million people—including often-elusive celebrities from the worlds of art and music—and generates $600 million annually. The Tribeca Film Festival was founded in 2002 by Jane Rosenthal, Robert De Niro and Craig Hatkoff in response to the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center and the consequent loss of vitality in the Tribeca neighborhood in Lower Manhattan, although there are reports that its founding was underway prior to the events of 9/11; the inaugural festival launched after 120 days of planning with the help of more than 1,300 volunteers. It was featured several up-and-coming filmmakers; the festival included juried narrative and short film competitions. The 2003 festival brought more than 300,000 people; the festival showcased an expanded group of independent features and short films from around the world, coupled with studio premieres, panel discussions and comedy concerts, a family festival, sports activities, outdoor movie screenings along the Hudson River.
The family festival featured children's movie screenings, family panels and interactive games culminating in a daylong street fair that drew a crowd estimated at 250,000 people. At the end of 2003, De Niro purchased the theater at 54 Varick Street which had housed the closed Screening Room, an art house that had shown independent films nightly, renaming it the Tribeca Cinema, it became one of the venues of the festival. In an effort to serve its mission of bringing independent film to the widest possible audience, in 2006, the Festival expanded its reach in New York City and internationally. In New York City, Tribeca hosted screenings throughout Manhattan as the Festival's 1,000-plus screening schedule outgrew the capacity downtown. Internationally, the Festival brought films to the Rome Film Fest; as part of the celebrations in Rome, Tribeca was awarded the first "Steps and Stars" award, presented on the Spanish Steps. A total of 169 feature films and 99 shorts were selected from 4,100 film submissions, including 1,950 feature submissions—three times the total submissions from the first festival in 2002.
The festival featured 90 world premieres, nine international premieres, 31 North American premieres, 6 U. S. premieres, 28 New York City premieres. In 2009, Hatkoff and De Niro were named number 14 on Barron's list of the world's top 25 philanthropists for their role in regenerating TriBeCa's economy after September 11; as of 2010, the festival is run as a business by Tribeca Enterprises. Andrew Essex has been the CEO of Tribeca Enterprises since January, 2016. In 2011, L. A. Noire became the first video game to be recognized by the Tribeca Film Festival. In 2013, Beyond: Two Souls, featuring Ellen Page and Willem Dafoe, became only the second game to be premiered at the festival. 2018 – Diane and directed by Kent Jones. 2017 – Keep the Change written and directed by Rachel Israel 2016 – Dean, directed by Demetri Martin 2018 – Jeffrey Wright in O. G. 2017 – Alessandro Nivola in One Percent More Humid 2016 – Dominic Rains for Burn Country 2018 – Alia Shawkat in Duck Butter 2017 – Nadia Alexander in Blame 2016 – Mackenzie Davis for Always Shine 2018 – Wyatt Garfield for Diane 2017 – Chris Teague for Love After Love 2016 – Michael Ragen for Kicks 2018 – Diane, written by Kent Jones 2017 – Abundant Acreage Available, written by Angus MacLachlan 2017 – Son of Sofia written and directed by Elina Psykou 2016 – Junction 48, directed by Udi Aloni 2015 – Virgin Mountain, directed by Dagur Kári 2014 – Zero Motivation, directed by Talya Lavie 2013 – The Rocket, directed by Kim Mordaunt 2012 – War Witch, directed by Kim Nguyen 2011 – She Monkeys, directed by Lisa Aschan 2010 – When We Leave, directed by Feo Aladag 2009 – About Elly, directed by Asghar Farhadi 2008 – Let the Right One In, directed by Tomas Alfredson 2007 – My Father My Lord, directed by David Volach 2006 – Iluminados por el fuego, directed by Tristán Bauer 2005 – Stolen Life, directed by Li Shaohong 2004 – Green Hat, directed by Liu Fendou 2003 – Blind Shaft, directed by Li Yang 2002 – Roger Dodger, directed by Dylan Kidd 2017 – Rachel Israel, director of Keep the Change 2015 – Zachary Treitz for Men Go to Battle 2014 – Josef Wladyka for Manos Sucias 2013 – Emanuel Hoss-Desmarais for Whitewash 201
Lee Louis Daniels is an American film and television writer and producer. He produced Monster's Ball and directed Precious, which received six Academy Award nominations, including Best Director. In 2012, Daniels directed The Butler, a historical fiction drama featuring an ensemble cast portraying unique events on the 20th century presidents of the United States at the White House. Daniels is a co-creator, executive producer, director of the television series Empire and Star, which debuted in 2015 and 2016, respectively. Daniels was born on December 24, 1959 in Philadelphia, the son of Clara Watson and William L. Daniels, his younger sister Leah is a casting director. He graduated from Radnor High School in 1978, Lindenwood University in St. Charles, Missouri. Daniels couldn't afford film school, so he started at a liberal arts college in Missouri but realized it wasn't for him, moved to Hollywood working as a receptionist in a nursing agency. Realizing he could do it on his own, he started his own agency.
He went to work casting actors using his skills from "casting" nurses. He began his career in entertainment as a casting director and manager after a chance meeting with a Hollywood producer, working on such projects as Under the Cherry Moon and Purple Rain, he continued managing talent. The documentary My Big Break features Daniels early in his career when he was managing actor Wes Bentley, who starred as Ricky Fitts in American Beauty. In the documentary, Daniels comments on Bentley's reluctance to capitalize on his newfound celebrity status, his father, Philadelphia police officer William, was "killed in the line of duty" when Daniels was a teenager in 1975. Daniels has been open about his father being physically abusive towards him trying "to beat it out of me." Monster's Ball, the debut production of Lee Daniels Entertainment, was a critical and box office success. Halle Berry won the Oscar for Best Actress, his 2004 production The Woodsman, starring Kevin Bacon, Kyra Sedgwick, Mos Def, premiered at the Sundance Film Festival.
It went on to garner three nominations at the 2005 Independent Spirit Awards, the CICAE Arthouse Prize at the Cannes Film Festival, the Jury Prize at the Deauville International Film Festival, a "Special Mention for Excellence in Filmmaking" award from the National Board of Review. Former president Bill Clinton persuaded Daniels to produce public service announcements to encourage young people of color to vote; the campaign was launched in featured Grammy winners LL Cool J and Alicia Keys. His first directorial effort, 2006's Shadowboxer, debuted at the Toronto International Film Festival, it starred Helen Mirren, Cuba Gooding Jr. Stephen Dorff, Vanessa Ferlito, Mo'Nique, Joseph Gordon-Levitt, Macy Gray, it was nominated for Best New Director at the San Sebastian Film Festival. His 2008 production Tennessee was directed by Aaron Woodley. Along the way they meet Krystal, an aspiring singer who flees her controlling husband to join them on their journey, his 2009 film Precious told the story of an obese, illiterate, 16-year-old girl who lives in a Section 8 tenement in Harlem.
She has been impregnated twice by her father and suffers long-term physical and emotional abuse from her unemployed mother, Mary. Carey appeared as a social worker; the film went on to garner widespread acclaim. Daniels was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Director, the film received a Best Picture nomination, it was a financial success grossing $63 million worldwide against a budget of $10 million. In 2010 Grace Hightower De Niro, who appeared in Precious, presented Daniels with the Pratt Institute's Creative Spirit Award. Daniels directed The Paperboy, based on the 1995 novel by Pete Dexter who penned the original script, further developed by Daniels; the film competed for the Palme d'Or at the 2012 Cannes Film Festival. He directed the historical fiction drama film The Butler, starring Forest Whitaker, John Cusack, Jane Fonda, Mariah Carey, Terrence Howard, Alan Rickman, Oprah Winfrey; the Butler received positive reviews from critics and grossed over a $100 million in the United States against a budget of $30 million.
Empire, a television series created by Daniels, premiered on January 7, 2015. Daniels co-wrote it with The Butler screenwriter Danny Strong; the series stars Terrence Howard and Taraji P. Henson, is about a family's music empire. In 2015, Daniels was listed as one of the nine runners-up for The Advocate's Person of the Year. In June 2016, the Human Rights Campaign released a video in tribute to the victims of the 2016 Orlando gay nightclub shooting. On December 2, 2016, Daniels received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame for his contributions to the television industry. On February 8, 2018, amfAR, The Foundation for AIDS Research paid tribute to Daniels at their 20th annual amfAR Gala New York at Cipriani Wall Street. Award-winning actress and songwriter Queen Latifah presented him the amfAR Award of Courage, describing his past work with HIV/AIDS patients, she shared that as a gifted creative force, he creates “unfailingly human” characters, who are “often striving to ri
Flight attendants or cabin crew are members of an aircrew employed by airlines to ensure the safety and comfort of passengers aboard commercial flights, on select business jet aircraft, on some military aircraft. The role of a flight attendant derives from that of similar positions on passenger ships or passenger trains, but it has more direct involvement with passengers because of the confined quarters on aircraft. Additionally, the job of a flight attendant revolves around safety to a much greater extent than those of similar staff on other forms of transportation. Flight attendants on board a flight collectively form a cabin crew, as distinguished from pilots and engineers in the cockpit; the German Heinrich Kubis was the world's first flight attendant, in 1912. Kubis first attended the passengers on board the DELAG Zeppelin LZ 10 Schwaben, he attended to the famous LZ 129 Hindenburg and was on board when it burst into flames. He survived by jumping out a window. Origins of the word "steward" in transportation are reflected in the term "chief steward" as used in maritime transport terminology.
The term purser and chief steward are used interchangeably describing personnel with similar duties among seafaring occupations. This lingual derivation results from the international British maritime tradition dating back to the 14th century and the civilian United States Merchant Marine on which US aviation is somewhat modeled. Due to international conventions and agreements, in which all ships' personnel who sail internationally are documented by their respective countries, the U. S. Merchant Marine assigns such duties to the chief steward in the overall rank and command structure of which pursers are not positionally represented or rostered. Imperial Airways of the United Kingdom had "cabin boys" or "stewards". In the US, Stout Airways was the first to employ stewards in 1926, working on Ford Trimotor planes between Detroit and Grand Rapids, Michigan. Western Airlines and Pan American World Airways were the first US carriers to employ stewards to serve food. Ten-passenger Fokker aircraft used in the Caribbean had stewards in the era of gambling trips to Havana, Cuba from Key West, Florida.
Lead flight attendants would in many instances perform the role of purser, steward, or chief steward in modern aviation terminology. The first female flight attendant was a 25-year-old registered nurse named Ellen Church. Hired by United Airlines in 1930, she first envisioned nurses on aircraft. Other airlines followed suit, hiring nurses to serve as flight attendants called "stewardesses" or "air hostesses", on most of their flights. In the United States, the job was one of only a few in the 1930s to permit women, coupled with the Great Depression, led to large numbers of applicants for the few positions available. Two thousand women applied for just 43 positions offered by Transcontinental and Western Airlines in December 1935. Female flight attendants replaced male ones, by 1936, they had all but taken over the role, they were selected not only for their knowledge but for their characteristics. A 1936 New York Times article described the requirements: The girls who qualify for hostesses must be petite.
Add to that the rigid physical examination each must undergo four times every year, you are assured of the bloom that goes with perfect health. Three decades a 1966 New York Times classified ad for stewardesses at Eastern Airlines listed these requirements: A high school graduate, single, 20 years of age. 5'2" but no more than 5'9", weight 105 to 135 in proportion to height and have at least 20/40 vision without glasses. Appearance was considered as one of the most important factors to become a stewardess. At that time, airlines believed that the exploitation of female sexuality would increase their profits. In the United States, they were fired if they decided to wed.. The requirement to be a registered nurse on an American airline was relaxed as more women were hired, disappeared entirely during World War II as many nurses joined military nurse corps. Ruth Carol Taylor was the first African-American flight attendant in the United States. Hired in December 1957, on February 11, 1958, Taylor was the flight attendant on a Mohawk Airlines flight from Ithaca to New York, the first time such a position had been held by an African American.
She was let go within six months as a result of Mohawk's then-common marriage ban. The U. S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission's first complainants were female flight attendants complaining of age discrimination, weight requirements, bans on marriage. In 1968, the EEOC declared age restrictions on flight attendants’ employment to be illegal sex discrimination under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. In 1968, the EEOC ruled that sex was not a bona fide occupational requirement to be a flight attendant; the restriction of hiring only women was lifted at all airlines in 1971 due to the decisive court case of Diaz vs. Pan Am; the no-marriage rule was eliminated throughout the US airline industry by the 1980s. The last such broad categorical discrimination, the weight