Not to be confused with the similarly-named Geneva School of Diplomacy and International RelationsThe Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, or the Graduate Institute (in French: Institut de hautes études internationales et du développement, abbreviated IHEID is a government-accredited postgraduate institution of higher education located in Geneva, Switzerland. The institution counts one UN secretary-general, seven Nobel Prize recipients, one Pulitzer Prize winner, numerous ambassadors, foreign ministers, heads of state among its alumni and faculty. Founded by two senior League of Nations officials, the Graduate Institute maintains strong links with that international organisation's successor, the United Nations, many alumni have gone on to work at UN agencies; the school is a full member of the APSIA. Founded in 1927, the Graduate Institute of International Studies is continental Europe's oldest school of international relations and was the world's first graduate institute dedicated to the study of international affairs.
It offered one of the first doctoral programmes in international relations in the world. In 2008, the Graduate Institute absorbed the Graduate Institute of Development Studies, a smaller postgraduate institution based in Geneva founded in 1961; the merger resulted in the current Graduate Institute of Development Studies. Today the school enrols close to a thousand postgraduate students from over 100 countries. Foreign students make up nearly 90% of the student body and the school is a bilingual English-French institution, although the majority of classes are in English. With Maison de la Paix acting as its primary seat of learning, the Institute's campuses are located blocks from the United Nations Office at Geneva, International Labour Organization, World Trade Organization, World Health Organization, International Committee of the Red Cross, World Intellectual Property Organization and many other international organisations, it runs joint degree programmes with universities such as Smith College and Yale University, is Harvard Kennedy School's only partner institution to co-deliver double degrees.
The Graduate Institute of International Studies was co-founded in 1927 by two scholar–diplomats working for the League of Nations Secretariat: the Swiss William Rappard, director of the Mandates Section, the Frenchman Paul Mantoux, director of the Political Section. A bilingual institution like the League, it was to train personnel for the nascent international organisation, its co-founder, served as director from 1928 to 1955. The Institute's original mandate was based on a close working relationship with both the League of Nations and the International Labour Organization, it was agreed that in exchange for training staff and delegates, the Institute would receive intellectual resources and diplomatic expertise from the aforementioned organisations. According to its statutes, the Graduate Institute was "an institution intended to provide students of all nations the means of undertaking and pursuing international studies, most notably of a historic, economic and social nature." The institute managed to attract a number of eminent faculty and lecturers from countries mired in oppressive Nazi regimes, e.g. Hans Wehberg and Georges Scelle for law, Maurice Bourquin for diplomatic history, the rising young Swiss jurist, Paul Guggenheim.
Indeed, it is said that William Rappard had observed that the two men to whom the Institute owed its greatest debt were Mussolini and Hitler. Subsequently, more noted scholars would join the Institute's faculty. Hans Kelsen, the well-known theorist and philosopher of law, Guglielmo Ferrero, Italian historian, Carl Burckhardt and diplomat all called the Graduate Institute home. Other arrivals seeking refuge from dictatorships, included the eminent free market economy historian, Ludwig von Mises, another economist, Wilhelm Ropke, who influenced German postwar liberal economic policy as well as the development of the theory of a social market system. After a number of years, the Institute had developed a system whereby cours temporaires were given by prominent intellectuals on a week, semester, or yearlong basis; these cours temporaires were the intellectual showcase of the Institute, attracting such names as Raymond Aron, René Cassin, Luigi Einaudi, John Kenneth Galbraith, G. P. Gooch, Gottfried Haberler, Friedrich von Hayek, Hersch Lauterpacht, Lord McNair, Gunnar Myrdal, Harold Nicolson, Philip Noel Baker, Pierre Renouvin, Lionel Robbins, Jean de Salis, Count Carlo Sforza, Jacob Viner, Martin Wight.
Another cours temporaire professor, Montagu Burton Professor of International Relations at Oxford University, Sir Alfred Zimmern, left a lasting mark on the Institute. As early as 1924, while serving on the staff of the International Council for intellectual Cooperation in Paris, Zimmern began organizing international affairs summer schools under the auspices of the University of Geneva,'Zimmern schools', as they became known; the initiative operated in parallel with the early planning for the launch of the Graduate Institute and the experience acquired by the former helped to shape the latter. Despite its small size, the Institute boasts four faculty members who have received Nobel Prizes for economics – Gunnar Myrdal, Friedrich von Hayek, Maurice Allais, Robert Mundell. Three alumni have been Nobel laureates. For a period of thirty years the school was funded predominantly through the support of the Rockefeller Foundation. Since then
Caldon Low Halt railway station was a railway station near the hamlet of Cauldon, Staffordshire. It was opened by the North Staffordshire Railway in 1905 and closed in 1935; the station was on the NSR Waterhouses branch line from Leekbrook Junction to Waterhouses. The single line branch was authorised on 1 March 1899 by the Leek, Caldon Low, Hartington Light Railways Order, 1898. and construction took until 1905. The station was for the use of workmen from the nearby Caldon Low quarries, their families. There were no goods facilities, just a single wooden platform for passengers with an old coach body to act as an waiting room; the halt a request stop and was unstaffed with passengers paying for their tickets at their destination. The only exception to this was on Leek market days when a porter from Waterhouses would walk to Caldon Low to issue tickets; the branch line was never a financial success and the halt closed on 30 September 1935 when passenger services on the line were withdrawn. Quick, Michael.
Railway passenger stations in Great Britain: a chronology. Oxford: Railway and Canal Historical Society. ISBN 978-0-901461-57-5. OCLC 612226077. Christiansen, Rex; the North Staffordshire Railway. Newton Abbot, Devon: David & Charles. ISBN 0-7153-5121-4. Jeuda, Basil; the Leek, Caldon & Waterhouses Railway. Cheddleton, Staffordshire: North Staffordshire Railway Company. ISBN 0-907133-00-2. Jeuda, Basil; the North Staffordshire Railway in LMS days. 3. Lydney, Gloucestershire: Lightmoor Press. ISBN 978-1899889-83-9
Mihailo Valtrović was a Serbian architect, professor of archeology, one of the first pioneers of art history in Serbia, key representative of the Historismus along with architect Dragutin Dragiša Milutinović. Valtrović was the first professor of archeology in Serbia, the initiator and founder of Serbian Archeology and founder and first president of the Serbian Archaeological Society, he designed a number of state decorations. Mihailo Valtrović graduated from the natural science section of Lyceum of the Principality of Serbia in Belgrade. After a brief service in the General Administration, he received a government scholarship to pursue his post-graduate studies abroad at Karlsruhe, where he chooses to study ancient architecture. After having completed his studies and training in architecture at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Valtrović first applied his profession in the construction industry and became a professor of science and technical subjects at Belgrade's Grandes écoles in 1875.
In 1881 Valtrović was awarded the chair of the newly-established Department of Archeology for his profound knowledge of antique architecture and taking part in the early 1882 archeological expeditions at Viminacium. He proposed a Monuments Protection Act in 1889. From the beginning, he devoted a significant part of his teaching activity to the classical civilizations of Greece and Rome, emphasizing the importance of the arts in the history of mankind. In 1896, Valtrović turned his efforts to the reorganization of the National Museum of Belgrade, where he held the post of the curator, he left teaching altogether. His short but significant activity at the university was marked by an effort to introduce rigorous scientific methods in the study of antiquities; the stress, was placed upon the educational importance of classical antiquity and its aesthetic and ethical values for a modern established state and its cultural development, based on its historical character. Valtrović's program was influenced by his training, as well as the role models of German universities, where the study of classics was held to be the essential component of higher education.
His protege, archeologist Miloje Vasić, would take his place at the Grandes écoles. In 1901, Valtrović's former teaching post was established for the first trained archeologist, Miloje Vasic, who received his Ph. D. in 1898 from his mentor Adolf Furtwangler at the University of Munich. For the next five decades, until Vasic's retirement in 1955, the study of archeology in Serbia was exclusively marked by his activity. About 300 drawings and watercolors of Serbian medieval monuments, which Mihailo Valtrović and Dragutin Dragiša Milutinović made as a result of fieldwork research on Serbian medieval monasteries, undertaken in 1871-1884 within a project supported by the Serbian Learned Society were published in various newspapers. However, in 1884, a specialized periodical Starinar was established for publishing articles related to archaeological research. Interest in the Serbian medieval past was further increased after the first exhibition organized in 1888 by the Serbian Royal Academy which showed the results of research on Serbian churches and monasteries since 1846.
Following the exhibition, the Academy submitted to the government the draft of the Act on Protection of Monuments, an updated version of the original 1844 Act on Protection of Ancient Monuments and in 1889 a new Act on State Archives drafted in 1866. Mihajlo Valtrović received a recognition for his life's work from the King himself. Građa za istoriju umetnosti Srbije, Belgrade, 1874 Prodomos, Vienna, 1878 Pogled na staru srpsku crkvenu arhitekturu, Belgrade,1889