The Chickasaw are an indigenous people of the Southeastern Woodlands. Their traditional territory was in the Southeastern United States of Mississippi and Tennessee, they are federally recognized as the Chickasaw Nation. Sometime prior to the first European contact, the Chickasaw migrated from western regions and moved east of the Mississippi River, where they settled in present-day northeast Mississippi and into Lawrence County, Tennessee; that is where they encountered European explorers and traders, having relationships with French and Spanish during the colonial years. The United States considered the Chickasaw one of the Five Civilized Tribes, as they adopted numerous practices of European Americans. Resisting European-American settlers encroaching on their territory, they were forced by the US to sell their country in the 1832 Treaty of Pontotoc Creek and move to Indian Territory during the era of Indian Removal in the 1830s. Most Chickasaw now live in Oklahoma; the Chickasaw Nation in Oklahoma is the 13th largest federally recognized tribe in the United States.
Its members share a common history with them. The Chickasaw are divided in two groups: the Intcutwalipa, they traditionally followed a system of matrilineal descent, in which children were considered to be part of the mother's clan, whence they gained their status. Some property was controlled by women, hereditary leadership in the tribe passed through the maternal line; the name Chickasaw, as noted by anthropologist John Swanton, belonged to a Chickasaw leader. Chickasaw is the English spelling of Chikashsha, meaning "rebel" or "comes from Chicsa". A documented prior source was when the Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto named them as "Chicaza" when De Soto's expedition came into contact with them in 1540 as the first Europeans that explored the North American south east; the origin of the Chickasaw is uncertain. Twentieth-century scholars, such as the archaeologist Patricia Galloway, theorize that the Chickasaw and Choctaw split into as distinct peoples in the 17th century from the remains of Plaquemine culture and other groups whose ancestors had lived in the Lower Mississippi Valley for thousands of years.
When Europeans first encountered them, the Chickasaw were living in villages in what is now Northeastern Mississippi. The Chickasaw migrated into Mississippi, their oral history says they migrated along with the Choctaw from west of the Mississippi River into present-day Mississippi in prehistoric times. The Mississippian Ideological Interaction Sphere spanned the Eastern Woodlands; the Mississippian cultures emerged from previous moundbuilding societies by 880 CE. They built complex, dense villages supporting a stratified society, with centers throughout the Mississippi and Ohio River Valleys and their tributaries. In the 15th century, proto-Chickasaw people left the Tombigbee Valley after the collapse of the Moundville chiefdom and settled into the upper Yazoo and Pearl River valleys in Mississippi. Historians Arrell Gibson and anthropology John R. Swanton believed the Chickasaw Old Fields were in Madison County, Alabama; these people are the only nation from whom I could learn any idea of a traditional account of a first origin.
Another version of the Chickasaw creation story is that they arose at Nanih Waiya, a great earthwork mound built about 300 CE by Woodland peoples. It is sacred to the Choctaw, who have a similar story about it; the mound was built about 1400 years before the coalescence of each of these peoples as ethnic groups. The first European contact with the Chickasaw ancestors was in 1540 when the Spanish explorer Hernando De Soto encountered them and stayed in one of their towns, most near present-day Tupelo, Mississippi. After various disagreements, the American Indians attacked the De Soto expedition in a nighttime raid, nearly destroying it; the Spanish moved on quickly. The Chickasaw began to trade with the British after the colony of Carolina was founded in 1670. With British-supplied guns, the Chickasaw raided their neighbors and enemies the Choctaw, capturing some members and selling them into Indian slavery to the British; when the Choctaw acquired guns from the French, power between the tribes became more equalized and the slave raids stopped.
Allied with the British, the Chickasaw were at war with the French and the Choctaw in the 18th century, such as in the Battle of Ackia on May 26, 1736. Skirmishes continued until France ceded its claims to the region east of the Mississippi River after being defeated by the British in the Seven Years' War. Following the American Revolutionary War, in 1793-94, Chickasaw fought as allies of the new United States under General Anthony Wayne against the Indians of the old Northwest Territory; the Shawnee and other, allied Northwest Indians were defeated in the Battle of Fallen Timbers on August 20, 1794. The 19th-century historian Horatio Cushman wrote, "Neither the Choctaws nor Chicksaws engaged in war against the American people, but always stood as their faithful allies." Cushman believed the Chickasaw, along with the Choctaw, may have had origins in present-day Mexico and migrated north. That theory does not have consensus. In 1797, a general appraisal of the tribe and its territorial bounds was made by Abraham B
Oklahoma's 4th congressional district
Oklahoma's Fourth Congressional District is located in south-central Oklahoma and covers a total of 15 counties. Its principal cities include Midwest City, Moore, Duncan, Lawton/Ft. Sill, Ardmore; the district includes much of southern Oklahoma City. The district is represented by Republican Tom Cole; as with the rest of the state, the district gives GOP candidates wide margins - George W. Bush received 61 percent of the vote in 2000, 67% in 2004 and John McCain received 66% of the vote in 2008; the district borders Texas along the Red River to the south. To the north, the district includes a small square-shaped portion of south-central Oklahoma County and Cleveland, McClain, Garvin, Comanche, Cotton, Jefferson and Love counties; the district is 63 percent urban, 5 percent Latino, 3.5 percent foreign-born. In 2010, no Democrat or independent candidate filed to run in the district; the results printed here are from the Republican primary. Oklahoma's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C..
The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
Chickasha is a city in and the county seat of Grady County, United States. The population was 16,036 at the 2010 census. Chickasha is home to the University of Arts of Oklahoma; the city is named for and connected to Native American heritage, as "Chickasha" is the Choctaw word for Chickasaw. Chickasha was founded by Hobart Johnstone Whitley, a land developer, banker and Rock Island Railroad executive; the founding took place in 1892 when the Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railway built a track through Indian Territory. A post office was established in June 1892. One of the earliest industrial plants to come to Chickasha was the Chickasha Cotton Oil Company, established in 1899; the town incorporated in 1902. In 1908, the Oklahoma Industrial Institute and College for Girls was established in Chickasha. A local rancher named J. B. Sparks donated land for the school in memory of Nellie; the girl was a Chickasaw descendent, the land had been part of her allotment. The Nellie Sparks Dormitory commemorated her.
The school was renamed as the Oklahoma College for Women in 1916. It became coeducational in 1965, was renamed the Oklahoma College of Liberal Arts, it was renamed again in 1975 as the University of Arts of Oklahoma. The Wilson and Bonfis Flying School opened in October 1941 to train cadets of the U. S. Army Air Force. Over eight thousand cadets completed training there during World War II. After the war, the facility became the Chickasha Municipal Airport. During the war, the army built and used Borden General Hospital; this site now contains Grady Memorial Hospital, Five Oaks Medical Group, Southern Plains Medical Center and Borden Park. A prisoner of war camp established in 1944 is now the site of the Grady County Fairgrounds. Chickasha is located west of the center of Grady County at 35°2′18″N 97°56′46″W; the city is 42 miles southwest of Oklahoma City, accessible via Interstate 44. I-44 passes through the southeast side of the city, with access from Exits 80 and 83, leads southwest 47 miles to Lawton.
U. S. Route 62 runs through the city as Choctaw Avenue, leading east and northeast 18 miles to Blanchard and west 18 miles to Anadarko. U. S. Route 81 passes through the city center, leading south 40 miles to Duncan and north 35 miles to El Reno. U. S. Route 277 enters Chickasha from the south with US 81 and leaves to the east with US 62. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 22.1 square miles, of which 0.04 square miles, or 0.22%, is water. The Washita River flows through the northern end of the city turns south and forms part of the city's eastern border; as of the 2010 Census, there were 16,036 people, 6,374 households, 3,898 families residing in the city. From 2000 to 2010, the Chickasha city population growth percentage was 1.2%. There were 7,380 housing units; the racial makeup of the city was 80.0% White, 7.1% African American, 4.8% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 2.1% from other races, 5.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.5% of the population.
Of the 6,434 households, 27.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.5% were married couples living together, 14.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.8% were non-families. 32.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.95. The population included 22.8% under the age of 18, 12.4% from 18 to 24, 24.9% from 25 to 44, 24.6% from 45 to 64, 15.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.3 males. According to the 2009-2013 American Community Survey, the median income for a household in the city was $38,341, the median income for a family was $44,547. Males had a median income of $38,987 versus $27,357 for females; the per capita income for the city was $20,848. About 12.9% of families and 17.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.0% of those under age 18 and 10.8% of those age 65 or over.
Chickasha has an elected city council, with a city manager on its staff. Agriculture wheat production, cattle raising have been important to the city's economy since its earliest days. Manufacturing became important about the middle of the 20th century. ArvinMeritor Replacement Parts and Delta Faucet opened facilities in the 1970s; the city's annual Festival of Light takes place at the 43-acre Shannon Springs Park and opens nightly from around Thanksgiving to the end of December. Concessions, carriage rides, pictures with Santa, shopping are available; the Festival of Light has received many prestigious awards over the years including Regional Event of the Year, A. B. A. Top 100 Event, National Top 25 Holiday Event, Festival of the Year, Best Community Festival Event and Best Place to Take Out of Town Visitors; the festival has been featured statewide on Discover Oklahoma, ranked as a Top Place to Visit by Fine Living Network, designated as an official 2007 Oklahoma Centennial Event. Over 140 businesses and clubs sponsor the event in various ways.
The installation of lights in 290 trees, 8 miles of walk-ways, arbors and buildings begins in September. More than 1,200 volunteers donate time and skill, now Display Sponsors have reached the 100 mark; the park has over 3.5 million lights, the
The Washita River is a river in the states of Texas and Oklahoma in the United States. The river is 295 miles long and terminates at its confluence with the Red River, now part of Lake Texoma on the Texas–Oklahoma border; the Washita River forms in eastern Roberts County, near the town of Miami in the Texas Panhandle. The river crosses Hemphill County and enters Oklahoma in Roger Mills County, it cuts through the Oklahoma counties of Roger Mills, Washita, Grady, Murray and Johnston before emptying into Lake Texoma, the modern border between Bryan County and Marshall County. The river bisects the heart of the Anadarko Basin, the fifth-largest natural gas formation area in the United States; when the river reaches the Arbuckle Mountains, it drops 30 feet per mile as it cuts through Big Canyon, a limestone gorge 300 feet deep. The Washita's river bed is made up of unstable mud and sand, its banks are composed of steeply incised and erosive red earth; this makes it one of the most silt-laden streams in North America.
Along its path, the Foss Dam impounds the Washita River in Custer County to create the huge Foss Reservoir. Several reservoirs in the Washita River valley hold the waters of small tributaries, including Fort Cobb Lake, Lake Chickasha, Arbuckle Reservoir. French explorers discovered the Washita River in the early 18th century while traveling upstream on the Red River and thought it was the same stream described by friendly Choctaw tribesmen as the Ouachita River, they soon found that it appeared different from descriptions of the Ouachita, named it the Faux Ouachita. The name was referred to by English-speaking American settlers as False Washita. After the American Civil War, Americans referred to the river as the Washita. In 1842, General and future President Zachary Taylor established Fort Washita near the lower end of the river to protect resettled citizens of the Choctaw and Chickasaw nations, removed from the Southeastern United States, from the Plains Indians inhabiting the area; the fort was about 19 miles above the confluence of the Red rivers.
During the Indian Wars, the Battle of Washita River occurred at dawn on November 27, 1868. Lt. Col. George Armstrong Custer’s 7th U. S. Cavalry attacked Black Kettle’s Cheyenne village on the Washita River near present-day Cheyenne, killing many inhabitants. Capt. Wyllys Lyman's wagon train was besieged by Indians near the Washita in Hemphill County on September 9–14, 1874. List of Oklahoma rivers List of Texas rivers U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Washita River Washita River from the Handbook of Texas Online Washita River Paddling Information Oklahoma Digital Maps: Digital Collections of Oklahoma and Indian Territory Public domain photos of streams of the Llano Estacado
Henry W. Grady
Henry Woodfin Grady was a journalist and orator who helped reintegrate the states of the Confederacy into the Union after the American Civil War. Grady encouraged the industrialization of the South and preached white supremacy, emphasizing that it was necessary for whites to remain in social control over the newly free blacks. Grady was the father-in-law of Federal Reserve Chairman Eugene Robert Black and grandfather of banker and World Bank President Eugene R. Black Sr; as a teenager, Henry Grady witnessed fierce Civil War fighting in his home state of Georgia and his father William was killed by a Union soldier. After his father's death, he was raised by his mother Anne in Georgia, he was educated in the classical tradition of a southern gentleman of the time at the University of Georgia. In 1867, he became a member of the Phi Kappa Literary Society, attended the University of Virginia to study law, but became interested in the Greek and Anglo-Saxon languages and literature, which led to a career in journalism.
Grady was a lifelong devoted member of the Chi Phi Fraternity. He was a charter member of the Eta Chapter of Chi Phi at the University of Georgia. In 1882 he was elected as the first Grand Alpha from the south after the union of the Northern and Southern Orders of Chi Phi in 1871 Upon graduation, he held a series of brief journalistic jobs with the Rome Courier, the Atlanta Herald, the New York Herald. After working in New York City, Grady returned to the South as a reporter-editor for the Atlanta Constitution. In 1880, with $20,000 borrowed from Cyrus West Field, Grady bought a one-fourth interest in the paper and began a nine-year career as one of Georgia's most celebrated journalist publishers. On the business end, he built the newspaper into the state's most influential, with a national circulation of 120,000. In the tumultuous decades following Reconstruction, when hatreds lingered and many whites worked to re-establish white supremacy, Grady popularized an antithesis between the "old South" which "rested everything on slavery and agriculture, unconscious that these could neither give nor maintain healthy growth," and a "new south" – "thrilling with the consciousness of growing power and prosperity": The new South presents a perfect democracy....
As he said in an 1886 speech in New York. His audience included J. P. Morgan and H. M. Flagler at Delmonico's Restaurant, at a meeting of the New England Society of New York. From 1882 to 1886, along with Nathaniel E. Harris, Grady promoted the founding in Atlanta of the Georgia Institute of Technology, a state vocational education school intended to train workers for new industries. Grady was praised for his great passion for political oratory, commitment to the new peace, well-known sense of humor; that sense of humor and quick wit got Grady through more than one difficult situation. Once at a banquet of northern elites, he was waxing eloquent about the brilliant prospects for northern investments in a New South determined to rise from the ashes of defeat. Grady spotted General William T. Sherman in the audience, the celebrated Yankee soldier, credited with defeating and burning much of Georgia, Atlanta, on his infamous march to the sea. Without missing a beat, Grady acknowledged the general by noting that the people of Georgia thought Sherman an able military man, "but a mite careless about fire."
In another speech, Grady wanted to chastise his Southern audience for what he believed to be Georgia's economic shortcomings. Rather than pounding them with statistics, he entertained them with stories, he said: I attended a funeral once in Pickens county in my State. This funeral was peculiarly sad, it was a poor "one gallus" fellow, whose breeches struck him under the armpits and hit him at the other end about the knee—he didn't believe in decollete clothes. They buried him in the midst of a marble quarry: they cut through solid marble to make his grave, yet a little tombstone they put above him was from Vermont, they buried him in the heart of a pine forest, yet the pine coffin was imported from Cincinnati. They buried him within touch of an iron mine, yet the nails in his coffin and the iron in the shovel that dug his grave were imported from Pittsburg, they buried him by the side of the best sheep-grazing country on the earth, yet the wool in the coffin bands and the coffin bands themselves were brought from the North.
The South didn't furnish a thing on earth for that funeral but the corpse and the hole in the ground. There they put him away and the clods rattled down on his coffin, they buried him in a New York coat and a Boston pair of shoes and a pair of breeches from Chicago and a shirt from Cincinnati, leaving him nothing to carry into the next world with him to remind him of the country in which he lived, for which he fought for four years, but the chill of blood in his veins and the marrow in his bones. Grady's prestige reached such a height that he became the only non-member to adjourn the Georgia Legislature, it occurred on the election of Grover Cleveland to the presidency. News of the close contest arrived at 11 a.m. during the Legislature's session. In his exuberance, Grady rushed to the Capitol with the announcement, he brushed past the doorkeeper and into the chamber shouting in senatorial tones, "Mr. Speaker, a message from the America
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
Interstate 44 in Oklahoma
Interstate 44 runs diagonally through the U. S. state of Oklahoma, spanning from the Texas state line near Wichita Falls to the Missouri border near Joplin. It connects three of Oklahoma's largest cities, Oklahoma City and Lawton. Most of I-44 in Oklahoma is a toll road. In southwestern Oklahoma, I-44 is the H. E. Bailey follows a north -- south direction. From Oklahoma City to Tulsa, I-44 follows the Turner Turnpike; as I-44 leaves Tulsa it becomes the Will Rogers Turnpike to the Missouri border. In the Lawton, Oklahoma City, Tulsa metro areas, I-44 is toll-free. I-44 is paralleled by former US-66 from Oklahoma City to the Missouri state line. In Oklahoma City, I-44 is known as the Will Rogers Expressway. I-44 crosses the Red River near Texas, it is toll-free until Exit 5, the last free exit before the start of the southern section of the H. E. Bailey Turnpike. At Exit 30, the tolls end and I-44 becomes a non-tolled highway again through Lawton and Fort Sill until Exit 46; the northern section of the H.
E. Bailey Turnpike carries I-44 north, serving Chickasha, before ending at U. S. Highway 62 in Newcastle. From Newcastle, I-44 heads north through rural parts of Oklahoma City before serving as the western terminus of Interstate 240, it indirectly serves Will Rogers World Airport by connecting to S. W. 59th St. and SH-152, the Airport Road freeway. I-44 meets Interstate 40 west of downtown, at an interchange sometimes referred to as the Amarillo Junction. I-44 passes west of the state fairgrounds and continues north to provide access to Bethany and Warr Acres, it turns more eastbound before reaching a junction with Interstate 235, which signifies the northern end of I-235, US-77 known as the Broadway Extension which connects Downtown, Oklahoma City to Edmond Oklahoma. It meets and follows a stretch of Interstate 35, which it overlaps with until the Turner Turnpike interchange where it takes an easterly turn again. I-44 follows the Turner Turnpike to Sapulpa, where it becomes a non-tolled road after meeting OK 66.
I-44 bypasses downtown Tulsa. After meeting the Creek Turnpike again on the east side of the city, I-44 becomes a turnpike once again, gaining the Will Rogers Turnpike designation; the Will Rogers Turnpike section serves many northeast Oklahoma towns, including Claremore and Miami. After passing Miami, I-44 crosses the state line into Missouri, about 600 feet south of the Kansas-Missouri-Oklahoma tripoint. I-44 was designated through Oklahoma to replace the section of US-66 running from Oklahoma City to Joplin, Missouri. I-44 covered the already-existing Turner Turnpike and Will Rogers Turnpike, with a western terminus at I-35 in Oklahoma City, the current western terminus of the Turner Turnpike. I-44 was assigned to the H. E. Bailey Turnpike in 1982, when I-44 was assigned to the west and north legs of I-240 and the H. E. Bailey Turnpike as part of Oklahoma's "Diamond Jubilee" celebrations. Before I-44 was assigned to it, the freeway connector to the north end of the H. E. Bailey Turnpike was named the Will Rogers Expressway.
The non-tolled section through Lawton was the Pioneer Expressway. Westbound I-44 northeast of Tulsa was affected by a sinkhole found on June 2, 2010. According to the local news, the sinkhole measured 24 feet long. Traffic was only affected for a short period of time and the roadway has since been reopened. Southeast of Catoosa, I-44 was redesigned to have an interchange with the eastern expansion of the Creek Turnpike. A 1.5 mile stretch of the original roadbed remains, however it is unused and is not maintained by ODOT or any of the surrounding cities. In 2012, the only bridge over the abandoned stretch, Pine Street, was removed and replaced with a grade crossing; the designation I-440 had been given to a stretch of Interstate Highway from I-240 to US-66 in Oklahoma City. It was a part of the original Grand Boulevard, built in compliance with Interstate standards. In 1975, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials approved renumbering I-440 as I-240 to create a single numeric designation for the Oklahoma City loop.
In 1982, as part of Oklahoma's "Diamond Jubilee", I-44's western terminus was moved from the I-35/I-44 junction near Edmond, Oklahoma to the Texas/Oklahoma state-line via the Belle Isle Freeway. E. Bailey Turnpike. While the I-440 number was dropped in 1975, it is available if needed in the future