A cenotaph is an empty tomb or a monument erected in honour of a person or group of people whose remains are elsewhere. It can be the initial tomb for a person who has since been reinterred elsewhere. Although the vast majority of cenotaphs honour individuals, many noted cenotaphs are instead dedicated to the memories of groups of individuals, such as the lost soldiers of a country or of an empire; the English word "cenotaph" derives from the Greek: κενοτάφιον kenotaphion. Cenotaphs were common in the ancient world, with many built in Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece and across Northern Europe; the cenotaph in Whitehall, London - designed in 1919 by Sir Edwin Lutyens - influenced the design of many other war memorials in Britain and in the British sectors of the Western Front, as well as those in other Commonwealth nations. The Church of Santa Engrácia, in Lisbon, turned into a National Pantheon in 1966, holds six cenotaphs, namely to Luís de Camões, Pedro Álvares Cabral, Afonso de Albuquerque, Nuno Álvares Pereira, Vasco da Gama and Henry the Navigator.
The Basilica di Santa Croce in Florence, contains a number of cenotaphs, including one for Dante Alighieri, buried in Ravenna. A cenotaph is the focal point of the Voortrekker Monument in South Africa, it is situated below the other main point of interest, a marble Historical Frieze in the Hall of Heroes, is visible through a round opening in the floor. The Hall of Heroes itself has a dome from the summit of which one can view the interior of the monument. At noon on 16 December each year the sun shines through another opening in the dome onto the middle of the cenotaph, where the words Ons vir Jou, Suid-Afrika are inscribed; the ray of sunshine symbolises God's blessing on the endeavours of the Voortrekkers. 16 December is the date in 1838. Durban, South Africa, has a striking and unusual cenotaph made of granite and lavishly decorated with brightly coloured ceramics. Port Elizabeth, South Africa, has a cenotaph. Located on the edge of St George's Park in Rink Street, it was designed by Elizabeth Gardner to commemorate the men who died in the First World War and was erected by the monumental mason firm of Pennachini Bros.
On either side of the central sarcophagus are statues by Technical College Art School principal, James Gardner, who served in the trenches during the war. One depicts St George and the Dragon, the other depicts the sanctity of family life. Surrounding the sarcophagus are a number of bas-relief panels depicting scenes and people during the First World War, it was unveiled by Mrs W F Savage and dedicated by Canon Mayo on 10 November 1929. A surrounding memorial wall commemorates the men and women killed during World War II. In Livingstone there is a cenotaph at the Eastern Cataract of The Victoria Falls with the names of the men of Northern Rhodesia who died during the Great War 1914–18, it was unveiled by HRH Prince Arthur of Connaught on 1 August 1923. There is a cenotaph in Lusaka at Embassy Park, opposite the Cabinet Office along Independence Avenue, commemorates those Zambians who fought and died in World Wars I & II; the cenotaph was commemorated in 1977. A monument which has come to be known to as the "Cenotaph" was erected in Plaza San Martín, in downtown Buenos Aires, to commemorate the Argentinian soldiers who died during the Falklands War, in 1982.
The monument consists of a series of plaques of black marble with the names of the fallen, surrounding a flame, during the day is guarded by two soldiers. Another cenotaph, a replica of the Argentine Military Cemetery in Darwin on the Falkland Islands, exists in Campo de Mayo, a large Army facility and training field just outside Buenos Aires. A limestone replica of the Cenotaph at Whitehall in London was erected outside the Cabinet Building in Hamilton, Bermuda in 1920. In Canada, major cenotaphs commemorating the nation's war dead in World War I and conflicts include the National War Memorial in Ottawa, and in Midland Ontario. In the Falkland Islands, there are several war memorials to commemorate those killed in the Falklands War in 1982; the main memorial for Falkland Islanders is the 1982 Liberation Memorial, a cenotaph erected in Stanley in 1984 which lists all the British Army regiments, RAF squadrons, Royal Navy vessels and the Royal Marine formations and units that took part in the conflict.
The names of the 255 British military personnel who died during the war are listed on ten plaques behind the Memorial, divided into the service branches. Services are held at the Memorial each year on 14 June and on Remembrance Sunday, with wreaths being laid at the foot of the Memorial. In the United States, a cenotaph in Yale University's Hewitt Quad honours men of Yale who died in battle; the John Fitzgerald Kennedy Memorial in Dallas is described as a cenotaph. The Battle Monument in Baltimore, Maryland commemorates the Battle of Baltimore, the Battle of North Point on 12 September 1814, the Bombardment of Fort McHenry on 13–14 September, the stand-off on Loudenschlager's Hill, it has an Egyptian Revival cenotaph base, surmounted by a fasces bound together with ribbons bearing the names of the dead. It was designed by French émigré architect Maximilian Godefroy in 1815, construction was completed in 1827, it is considered the first war memorial in America, an early example of a memori
Grafton Bridge is a road bridge spanning Grafton Gully in Auckland, New Zealand. Built of reinforced concrete in 1910, it connects the Auckland CBD and Karangahape Road with Grafton, it spans about 97.6 metres, rises 25.6 metres above the abutments to a height of around 43 metres over the gully. The bridge is listed on the IPENZ Engineering Heritage Register. In a 2006 poll of 600 alumni of the University of Auckland School of Engineering, the bridge was third in the list of New Zealand engineering achievements, after Manapouri Power Station and Black Magic. Since 2009 the bridge has formed a core part of the Central Connector public transport route between the CBD and Newmarket, is closed to private vehicles during the day. Designed by engineers R. F. Moore and Karl Rosegger Agster for the Ferro-Concrete Company of Australasia, the bridge's completion was supervised by the city's engineer, W. E. Bush; the bridge was the third to cross Grafton Gully. The first, built in 1884, was a cable-stay pedestrian bridge from the bottom of St Martins Lane to Bridge Street in Grafton.
Designed by the City Engineer Edward Anderson, the first bridge proved to be comparatively unstable, at least towards the end of its life when it would appear that maintenance was not kept up. By the time it was approaching 20 years old, police were stationed at each end after rugby matches to ensure rowdy crowds did not cause it to wobble alarmingly by jumping or stamping on it. In 1904, a report showed, it was closed and supplemented by a temporary bridge of quite simple design at the bottom of the gully. The old disused bridge stood until 1906. Discussions within Council over the design of a new permanent bridge dragged on for years, requiring a rebuild of the temporary bridge and the construction of long flights of wooden steps from St Martins Lane and Bridge Street to make pedestrian access easier. There was conflict over whether any new bridge should be another pedestrian bridge or one that would take vehicle traffic as well; the decision to build a road bridge was taken. The current bridge was championed by the mayor Arthur Myers, who advocated for it to be twice as wide as built.
In its narrower form it was to cost £31,918, resulting in it being called "Myers' Folly" by many at the time, but was seen to symbolise a commitment to a'Greater Auckland', indicating leadership in technology development. Many people maintained that the city would never get big enough to warrant the cost of so large a piece of engineering. Conversely Myers predicted that the population of Auckland would double in the next two decades, he was proved correct. Built of reinforced concrete by the Ferro-Concrete Company of Australasia Ltd, it is believed to have been the biggest arch bridge span of that type at that time, it utilises large'false piers' on each side of the central arch, which give the appearance of strength in the classical masonry style, but are not required to be anywhere as massive, since the arch itself carries the full load via the thin vertical members. It resembles similar bridges of the period the Howard Taft Memorial Bridge in Washington DC Taft Bridge which took ten years to construct 1897-1907.
In order to dispel doubts about the strength of the still untested type of construction, at the opening in April 1910 two steam rollers were driven across it. This lack of trust led to a stipulation in the original construction contract that no progress payments should be made, causing the construction company to go into bankruptcy, with the bridge having to be completed by the city; this added to the final costs, which were around £33,000. The bridge crosses part of the Symonds Street Cemetery, a historic Auckland cemetery containing the graves of many important early settlers, including the first Governor William Hobson; when the current bridge was constructed the cemetery had been in existence for 70 years and the bridge was inserted in such a way as to require the moving of only eight graves. The bridge carries a footpath on each side, it underwent reinforcing repairs in 1938 when cracks were discovered in the Vierendeel frames of the approach areas of the bridge. The remedy was to erect two steel trusses on the deck to support the damaged area.
The octagonal openings were are no longer a feature of the bridge. These repairs cost £21,800. After this point a weight limit was imposed on traffic using the bridge. Further reinforcing was carried out in 1957; the bridge was closed for reinforcement works between late 2008 and October 2009 as part of the Central Connector, a 3 km bus priority route connecting the Auckland CBD to Newmarket and other destinations. It received a $7 million carbon fibre strengthening upgrade to bring it up to current earthquake standards and to enable it to serve as a dedicated route for large numbers of buses, it can now accommodate up to 1200 bus trips a day. The bridge now has a load-carrying capacity instead of the previous 13 tonnes. In October 2009 the bridge was reopened by Mayor John Banks; the footpaths are covered with curved transparent screens installed in 2002, to prevent people from falling or jumping off and providing weather cover (the bridge had suicide prevention barriers from as early as 1936, replaced with mesh screens in 1957 that were removed in 1997.
After the removal, suicides increased
Mount Eden is a suburb in Auckland, New Zealand whose name honours George Eden, 1st Earl of Auckland. It is 4 kilometres south of the Central Business District. Mt Eden Road winds its way around the side of Mount Eden Domain and continues to weave back and forth as it descends into the valley. Mt Eden village centre is located between Valley Road and Grange Road; the domain is accessible on foot from many of the surrounding streets, by vehicle from Mt Eden Road. The central focus of the suburb is Maungawhau / Mount Eden, a dormant volcano whose summit is the highest natural point on the Auckland isthmus. In pre-European times Mount Eden was utilised as a fortified hill pa by various Māori tribes; the pa is thought to have been abandoned around 1700 AD after conflict between the resident Waiohua people and the Hauraki tribes The earth ramparts and terraces from this period contribute to the distinctive outline of the hill today. The area directly around the hill consists of fertile free-draining soil mixed with a great deal of volcanic debris in the form of scoria rocks.
When Europeans came to the area, they found a landscape devoid of large trees, as anything of any size had been cut down by the Maori for various uses, such as the timber palisades of the pa. The land was covered with bracken and Manuka trees, with whau shrubs growing on the hill; the Europeans cleared the land of the scoria rocks and made fences with them to define property boundaries. This resulted in a landscape reminiscent of the Scottish lowlands; these scoria walls are still a feature of the suburb today. The land was utilised for farms, but from quite early on the area hosted country residences of professionals and business people from Auckland. Most of the farm land was subdivided into large suburban plots between 1870 and 1875, the principal roads were formed by the Crown. Mt Eden's first school opened in 1877 on the corner of Mt Valley roads. In 1879 the mountain was protected as a public reserve; the tea kiosk on the slope of Mt Eden was built in 1927. Mt Eden is now a "leafy suburb" predominantly of large houses from the first half of the 20th century.
The gardens are verdant and the trees have grown large. On the eastern slopes of Mt Eden were constructed several large country houses set in extensive grounds; these included "Harewood House", Justice Gillies "Rocklands Hall", Alfred Buckland's "Highwic", the Hellaby family's "Florence Court", Josiah Clifton Firth's "Clifton House" and Professor Sir Algernon Thomas' "Trewithiel". Close by the current Government House is Eden Garden, a ornamental public garden set up in a disused quarry. In the 1950s and 1960s the inner suburbs became unfashionable and the old houses of the Mt Eden area were comparatively cheap to buy. Mt Eden developed a bohemian image during this time as a community of artists, writers and university lecturers made it their home. Mt Eden village is still regarded by many as the "Home Of Arts" in Auckland, due to the large amount of creative activity in and around the suburb and the large number of artists who live nearby; the Presbyterian Boys' Hostel at 22 View Road is a historic building that became the first home for many young men, who moved to Auckland to train in government and industry at low rates of pay.
In Mt Eden, the plentiful supply of volcanic stone, as well as the ready supply of labourers from the Mt Eden Prison, allowed for a progressive development of early roads, many of which still exist today as main arterial routes. Toll gates were established on several main roads, including Mt Eden Road and Dominion Road, during the 19th century in order to help pay for their upkeep. Public transportation extended from the inner city to the surrounding areas in the late 1870s and early 1880s with horse-drawn buses being the first mode of regular public transportation in the late 1870s. In 1881, the long-awaited railway came, connecting Newmarket with Helensville with stops in Mt Eden, Morningside and Mt Albert. At the beginning of the 20th century, trams began connecting Mt. Eden, Kingsland, Mt Albert with the city; the trams ran for the last time in the 1950s. Mt Eden falls within the Epsom constituencies for the national Parliament. In terms of local government, Mt Eden comes under the Albert-Eden Local Board, of Auckland Council.
The Albert-Eden Local Board includes the suburbs of Waterview, Point Chevalier, Mount Albert, Owairaka, Kingsland, Mt Eden and Greenlane. During the 19th century, the planning and maintenance of the main arterial roads provided the impetus to form local governing bodies in the area; the Mt Eden Highway Board held its first meeting in 1868. At the time it was responsible for building and maintaining the roads, as well as dealing with the pigs, horses and sheep that roamed the area. In 1882 it became the Mt Eden Road Board. In 1906 Mt Eden gained the Mt Eden Borough Council was formed. In 1989 the Borough Council amalgamated with Auckland City Council in a nationwide local government reorganisation, and in November 2010, the City Council was dissolved and was incorporated into the new larger Auckland Council. Oliver Nicholson, 1906–1918 Charles Hudson, 1918–1920 John Wisdom Shackelford, 1920–1923 Rev. James Leslie Allan Kayll, 1923–1923 Ernest Herbert Potter, 19
St Peter's College, Auckland
St Peter's College is a Catholic secondary school for boys, located in Auckland, New Zealand, in the central city suburb of Grafton. With a roll of over 1300, the school is one of the largest Catholic schools in New Zealand. St Peter's College was established in 1939 as a successor of Auckland's earliest school and of St Peter's School, founded in 1857; the Outhwaite family, who acquired the land around 1841, donated the site of the college. The Christian Brothers provided staff for the college for 70 years, it is the oldest Catholic boys' school in Auckland still on its original site. For nearly 50 years, the school had direct access to an adjacent railway station created for the college and known as the "St Peter's College station"; the school was integrated into the state system along with 240 other New Zealand Catholic schools in 1982. The school aims to achieve a diverse, family-oriented and good exam results. Auckland's first school of any sort was a Catholic school for boys, its first classes were held on 27 September 1841.
It was set up by Catholic laymen of Auckland following the first visit of Bishop Pompallier. The teacher was Edmund Powell, classes were first held in his residence in Shortland Crescent on 27 September 1841; this school appears to have existed only for a short time. In 1857, St Peter's School was established by a group of laymen led by Father O'Hara, the curate at St Patrick's Cathedral, as Auckland's first Catholic secondary school for boys. In that year Bishop Pompallier prepared a list of church schools for the Government and for "propaganda" which stated: "St Peter's Select School is established for the more advanced boys; the Greek, French and German languages are taught in it Geometry, Arithmetic, English Grammar etc... Terms per Annum 12.0.0 for each pupil." The school had a Board of Governors composed of its founders which included the Member of Parliament, Patrick Dignan. Classes commenced in rented accommodation in Drake St, Freemans Bay. John Logan Campbell donated a sum of £500 and a block of land on the corner of Pitt and Wellington Streets.
A brick school building was built there. The founding teacher was Richard O'Sullivan and, during his tenure, the school was identified with him. Amongst his students were John Sheehan, Joseph Tole, Peter Dignan and Charles and William Outhwaite. O'Sullivan resigned in 1861. In 1865 the teacher was Peter Morand. Bishop Pompallier made an annual inspection of the school. On 16 December 1864 he visited the school along with many parents; the proceedings were commenced by an address "to the Right Reverend Dr Pompallier, Bishop of Auckland", delivered by a pupil, Laurence Lorigan, on behalf of all the pupil's. Earlier in 1864, St Peter's School gave an address to Bishop Pompallier on his feast day, the feast of St John the Baptist; that address was delivered by Martin Maher on behalf of the pupils. St Peter's School was prominent in St Patrick's Day celebrations. On Friday 17 March 1865, St Peter's boys together with pupils of other Catholic schools began their celebrations with a Pontifical High Mass whose principal celebrant was Bishop Pompallier, in the Cathedral.
After addresses to the Bishop, the pupils went to the "paddocks" of Peter Grace Esq where "the sports for the youths consisted of feats of bat and ball, football etc. etc. A spirited cricket match came off between 11 students of St Francis de Sales School and a corresponding number of St Peter's School, the former being the victors in the game". In 1867 the celebration occurred on Monday 18 March. After Mass, the addresses to the bishop were read by a pupil of St Patrick's School and by "Master Anthony Martin, son of Mr Anthony Martin of Hobson St" on behalf of St Peter's; the pupils went to paddocks of Mr Dinnin on Ponsonby Road for sports, entertainments and "refreshments". In the 1870s and 1880s, Mr B Hammill was a well-known teacher, he was said to have a "first-class certificate from the Irish Board of Education" and to be "enthusiastically devoted to his profession". Mr Peter Leonard was another prominent teacher. In 1874, a report of the annual public examination of the boys attending St Peter's, presided over by Bishop Croke, stated that there was a "regular and good" attendance of about 70 pupils at the school.
In 1879 St Peter's had a roll of 43. In 1881, Mr Cronin was a teacher at St Peter's School which in an advertisement for pupils offered night classes to prepare pupils for "mercantile pursuits, civil service and teacher's examinations". In about 1884, St Peter's started to use a larger adjacent building as the number of pupils was exceeding the capacity of the brick school. In October 1884, William Mahoney, who received all his early education under Mr Hammill at St Peter's, paid a visit to the school on his return to New Zealand as a priest, he was Auckland's first New-Zealand-born priest. St Peter's School continued until the Marist Brothers established their own school on the site in 1885. Walter Herman Jacobus Steins S. J. third Catholic Bishop of Auckland thought, that as they were a French congregation, the Marist Brothers might not be welcome in Auckland and that it would be better to invite the Irish Christian Brothers as most of the Ca
Newton, New Zealand
Newton is a small suburb of Auckland City, New Zealand, under the local governance of the Auckland Council. It had a population of 1,176 in the 2006 census. Since the construction of the Central Motorway Junction in 1965–75, Newton has been divided into two parts, as a result, lost much of its size and coherence; the northern part is centred on Karangahape Road, the southern part on Newton Road and upper Symonds Street. Both Karangahape and Newton Roads intersect with Symonds Street to the east. Newton Road joins the Great Karangahape Road intersection to the west. At the southern end of Symonds Street are the Symonds Street Shops. Here Upper Symonds Street has two major intersections with other arterial roads: Newton Road and Khyber Pass Road, Mt Eden Road and New North Road. Symonds Street is named after Captain William Cornwallis Symonds, an officer of the 96th Regiment of Foot of the British Army, he came to New Zealand in the early 1830s as agent of the Waitemata and Manukau Land Company and was instrumental in the founding of Auckland and the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi.
He was one of Governor William Hobson's closest and most effective officials and was one of the first six Police Magistrates in New Zealand as well as Chief Magistrate of Auckland and Deputy Surveyor of New Zealand. During 1841 Symonds accompanied the naturalist Ernst Dieffenbach in his survey of the North Island. Capt Symonds died on 23 November 1841 in a boating accident on the Manukau Harbour. Following his death his brother John Jermyn Symonds continued to live in the colony. Karangahape Road takes its name from the ridge it stands on - known in pre-European times as Te Ara o Karangahape - The Path of Karangahape - the name indicates the route, taken to visit an eminent Chief called Hape who lived on the shores of the Manukau Harbour to the south west. From about 1900 to the early 1960s K' Road was Auckland's busiest shopping street with a large range of clothing and shoe shops along with several department stores. During the middle of the 20th century Karangahape Road was a destination shopping centre busy on late nights due to the presence of cinemas.
In the 19th century Newton was the name given to a different area - stretching from what is now called Surrey Crescent to Eden Terrace. References to Newton can therefore describe different areas at different times in the past; the 1861 Newton Electoral district, represented by one MP, was bounded to the north by the harbour and Auckland East and West Districts, to the east by Parnell District, to the south by Cabbage Tree Rd and Karangahape Rd and to the west by Meols and Scoria Creeks. Following the death of Sir George Grey in 1898 the northwestern portion was renamed Grey Lynn, leaving Newton as the area between Karangahape Road and Eden Terrace - since the creation of the Motorway in the 1960s many people do not think of Karangahape Road as being part of Newton, reserving that name for the area around Upper Symonds Street; the Newton Post Office has always been on Karangahape Road. Its replacement is located on Karangahape Road at the corner of East Street. From the late Victorian period until 2011, there was a separate Post Office serving Newton and Eden Terrace, known as Upper Symonds Street.
The suburb had a dubious reputation. A 1920s newspaper described it as a "haunt of many of Auckland's best-known crooks"; this reputation was one of the reasons the Ponsonby Police Barracks were built on Ponsonby Road near the intersection with Karangahape and Newton Roads. This was the second most important Police facility in Auckland and was positioned there to enable a mass of Police to be on hand to quell anything in Freemans Bay or Newton Gully. Across the road from the Police Barracks was the Star Hotel this was a centre of Union Activity and probable Sedition. Michael Joseph Savage gave some of his early speeches at the Star Hotel; as Newton Gully was viewed as the home of many criminals its combination of substandard housing and Trade Union activity was a contributing factor in its eventual destruction by City Planners who used the Motorway as a convenient tool to rid the city of what they considered a problem area. This was in accord with the example set by Robert Moses in New York City and emulated by similar Town Planners around the world.
Before the 1870s there were several brick works in Newton Gully including some which manufactured tiles and even'Art Pottery'. These companies were progressively relocated to New Lynn. From the 1890s onwards Newton was the location of many small scale industries: shirt and boot factories, rattan furniture & basket manufacturing etc, it was the location of several specialist metal works including brass foundries and bicycle importers & manufacturers. Situated between the busy retail areas of Karangahape Road and Symonds Street, Newton was a densely populated suburb of a working class nature with many boarding houses; until the construction of the motorway system in the 1960s, the gully area was the location of several primary and intermediate level schools and about six churches. In the 1880s there was concern that the domestic water supplies for the area were being contaminated by the adjacent Symonds
A salon is a gathering of people under the roof of an inspiring host, held to amuse one another and to refine the taste and increase the knowledge of the participants through conversation. These gatherings consciously followed Horace's definition of the aims of poetry, "either to please or to educate". Salons in the tradition of the French literary and philosophical movements of the 17th and 18th centuries were carried on until as as the 1940s in urban settings; the salon was an Italian invention of the 16th century, which flourished in France throughout the 17th and 18th centuries. The salon continued to flourish in Italy throughout the 19th century. In 16th-century Italy, some brilliant circles formed in the smaller courts which resembled salons galvanized by the presence of a beautiful and educated patroness such as Isabella d'Este or Elisabetta Gonzaga. One important place for the exchange of ideas was the salon; the word salon first appeared in France in 1664. Literary gatherings before this were referred to by using the name of the room in which they occurred, like cabinet, réduit and alcôve.
Before the end of the 17th century, these gatherings were held in the bedroom: a lady, reclining on her bed, would receive close friends who would sit on chairs or stools drawn around. This practice may be contrasted with the greater formalities of Louis XIV's petit lever, where all stood. Ruelle meaning "narrow street" or "lane", designates the space between a bed and the wall in a bedroom; the first renowned salon in France was the Hôtel de Rambouillet not far from the Palais du Louvre in Paris, which its hostess, Roman-born Catherine de Vivonne, marquise de Rambouillet, ran from 1607 until her death. She established the rules of etiquette of the salon which resembled the earlier codes of Italian chivalry; the history of the salon is far from straightforward. The salon has been studied in depth by a mixture of feminist, cultural and intellectual historians; each of these methodologies focuses on different aspects of the salon, thus have varying analyses of its importance in terms of French history and the Enlightenment as a whole Major historiographical debates focus on the relationship between the salons and the public sphere, as well as the role of women within the salons.
Breaking down the salons into historical periods is complicated due to the various historiographical debates that surround them. Most studies stretch from the early 16th century up until around the end of the 18th century. Goodman is typical in ending her study at the French Revolution where, she writes:'the literary public sphere was transformed into the political public'. Steven Kale is alone in his recent attempts to extend the period of the salon up until Revolution of 1848:A whole world of social arrangements and attitude supported the existence of French salons: an idle aristocracy, an ambitious middle class, an active intellectual life, the social density of a major urban center, sociable traditions, a certain aristocratic feminism; this world did not disappear in 1789. In the 1920s, Gertrude Stein's Saturday evening salons gained notoriety for including Pablo Picasso and other twentieth-century luminaries like Alice B. Toklas; the content and form of the salon to some extent defines the character and historical importance of the salon.
Contemporary literature about the salons is dominated by idealistic notions of politesse, civilité and honnêteté, but whether the salons lived up to these standards is matter of debate. Older texts on the salons tend to paint an idealistic picture of the salons, where reasoned debate takes precedence and salons are egalitarian spheres of polite conversation. Today, this view is considered an adequate analysis of the salon. Dena Goodman claims that rather than being leisure based or'schools of civilité' salons were instead at'the heart of the philosophic community' and thus integral to the process of Enlightenment. In short, Goodman argues, the 17th and 18th century saw the emergence of the academic, Enlightenment salons, which came out of the aristocratic'schools of civilité'. Politeness, argues Goodman, took second-place to academic discussion; the period in which salons were dominant has been labeled the'age of conversation'. The topics of conversation within the salons - that is, what was and was not'polite' to talk about - are thus vital when trying to determine the form of the salons.
The salonnières were expected, ideally, to moderate the conversation. There is, however, no universal agreement among historians as to what was and was not appropriate conversation. Marcel Proust'insisted that politics was scrupulously avoided'. Others suggested that little other than government was discussed; the disagreements that surround the content of discussion explain why the salon's relationship with the public sphere is so contested. Individuals and collections of individuals that have been of cultural significance overwhelmingly cite some form of engaged, explorative conversation held with an esteemed group of acquaintances as the source of inspiration for their contributions to culture, art and politics, leading some scholars to posit the salon's influence on the public sphere as being more widespread than pre