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Graian Alps

The Graian Alps are a mountain range in the western part of the Alps. The name Graie comes from the Graioceli Celtic tribe, which dwelled in the area surrounding the Mont Cenis pass and the Viù valley. Other sources claim that the name comes from the Celtic "Graig" meaning rock/stone the Rocky Mountains The Graian Alps are located in France and Switzerland; the French side of the Graian Alps is drained by the river Isère and its tributary Arc, by the Arve. The Italian side is drained by the rivers Dora Baltea and Stura di Lanzo, tributaries of the Po; the Graian Alps can be divided into the following four groups: the Mont Blanc group, including the Beaufortain Massif the Central group the Western or French group, the Eastern or Italian group. The main peaks of the Graian Alps are: The main passes of the Graian Alps are shown in the table below; the group in which the pass is located is indicated with "MB" for Mont Blanc group, "C" for Central group, "E" for Eastern group, "W" for Western group.

The western group contains the Vanoise National Park, established in 1972 and covering 1250 km². On the Italian side is located the Parco Regionale del Monte Avic, a nature park of 5,747 ha established by Regione Valle d'Aosta. Italian official cartography. "Alps". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 742–743. Ascents in Gran Paradiso group - Czech and English Graian Alps on Summitpost - English

Dulaim

Dulaim or Dulaimi or Al Duliam or Dulaym is an Arab tribe, with over seven million members. The tribe's history goes back to pre-Islamic times and members reside today in Iraq and neighboring countries such as Syria and Jordan, it is spelled Dulaimi and Dalaimy. Members of this tribe are identifiable by the surnames of their own clans or by the name Al-Dulaimi; the hereditary leaders of the Dulaim tribe come from the Albu Assaf clan. The Dulaims are the largest Sunni Arab tribe in Iraq, living on the Euphrates from a point just below Al Hillah and southern Baghdad to Fallujah, Ramadi, al-Qaim and Mosul; some scholars believe. The Iraqi historian Mohammed bin Hamad Al-Bassam Al-Tamimi mentioned that the Dulaim tribe divided into four groups. German orientalist Max von Oppenheim writes about the Dulaimi tribe: Dulaim tribe is the strongest tribe among the three tribes of Zubid it's the strongest tribe in the southern part of the Al-Jazira, a quarter of the members of the Dulaim live as bedouin nomads, the rest are stable bedouins.

They are between the Dulaim peasants who use agriculture. Main place of tribe is Ramadi on the euphrates river. Dulaim original composed from four clans, joined to their tribe Albu Issa and Al-Jumeilat, which were south of Fallujah, it is noticeable that the number of Al-Bu Ridaini increased since significantly compared with the other clans, made it exceed its range as a clan. Al-Bu Dhiyab Hardan Alaath and Mtlaq Al-Shaws practiced their authority on the left bank of the river and Ali bin Suleiman Al-Bakr from Al-Bu Assaf governs the Dulaim on the right bank of the river—all these three of them belongs to Al-Bu Ridaini. Dulaim bedouin lives on both banks of the euphrates river between the Hit and Fallujah and skip this region they are sell their agricultural economy products in Hit and the Levantine cities, while Dulaim bedouin nomads sheep farmers, they own and live in large wide area expanded after the departure of the Al Ubaid tribe from Al-Jazira, starting from Anah and exceed in the east line of Samarra–Fallujah, up in the north to the urban areas, in the spring Dulaimi nomads camped in the Syrian desert also.

There is enmity between Dulaim and Shammar that pass area of Al-Jazira in the spring, but on the other hand the Dulaim allied with Al-Amart from Anza tribe who have the right of pasture in their areas. Sheikh Ali bin Suleiman Al-Bakr rule the Dulaim tribe the greatest Dulaim sheikhs influential since the period before the war. Unlike his father, he cared to not challenge the authorities. Sheikh Hardan Alaath fomenting troubles in the face of the English. While Nargs bin Al-Kaoud Sheikh of Albu Nimr remained supportive and loyal to the Ottoman Turks until the end of the war although he was their worst enemies in the past; the Dulaimis were Bedouins living between Ramadi and Al-Qa'im, but at the end of the fifteenth century the clans of Dulaim began migration towards the east until they arrived to Fallujah and south of Baghdad. The Principality of the Dulaim tribe was a state of self-rule, the Dulaim tribe flourished in the eighteenth century, continued their emigration and settlement on agricultural and pastoral areas on the banks of the Tigris and Euphrates, controlled on the areas and subject the other tribes in the region.

At the beginning of the 18th century, the Dulaimis had a role in fighting opponents of the Ottoman Empire from tribes and Persians. When the tribe abstained from paying taxes to the Ottoman Caliphate for nearly a century and a half, a series of battles occurred between them and the Ottoman troops, from 1790, 1824 and 1890. During and after World War I, most of the clans of the Dulaim tribe were considered well-armed, their proximity to the desert made it easy for them to obtain arms and ammunition. The Dulaim tribe had a reputation as raiders who displayed good fighting skills both against other tribes and against Ottoman troops before World War I; each year when the Ottoman authorities tried to assess the crops of the Dulaim clans, the Dulaimis came into contact with Ottoman troops. In many cases, the Ottoman troops were defeated by the tribesmen. During World War I, the Ottoman Army occupied al-Ramadi and much of the Dulaim tribal area; as a result, the Dulaim assisted the Ottomans in their operations against the British.

This changed when the British forced the Ottomans out of the Dulaim’s tribal lands in September 1917, at which time Shaikh Ali Sulaiman made "submission" to the British. Despite this, many clans of the Dulaim whose lands were still occupied by Ottoman forces continued to assist the Ottomans until their lands were occupied by the British. Following World War I, most Dulaim clans went their own way and fought the British – the Al-Bu Nimr, the Al-Bu Qartan, the Al-Bu Alwan and the Al-Bu Mahal, along with the Zoba' tribe; the Abu Nimr, Albu Mahal, Al-Bu Ubaid, Al-Bu Risha and the Al-Mahamda joined with the Jaghaifa and the Aqaidat to fight the British during the insurrection of 1920. The Dulaimis had a big role in founding the modern Iraqi state, they contributed to the stability in political and economic situation and the emergence of institutions of the modern state from army and police and other services during the monarchy period and during the rule of president Abdul Salam Arif Al-Jumaili.

During the Saddam era the Dulaimis formed 10% to 20% of the Iraqi army. Dulaim is the lar

Risk management

Risk management is the identification and prioritization of risks followed by coordinated and economical application of resources to minimize and control the probability or impact of unfortunate events or to maximize the realization of opportunities. Risks can come from various sources including uncertainty in financial markets, threats from project failures, legal liabilities, credit risk, natural causes and disasters, deliberate attack from an adversary, or events of uncertain or unpredictable root-cause. There are two types of events i.e. negative events can be classified as risks while positive events are classified as opportunities. Risk management standards have been developed by various institutions, including the Project Management Institute, the National Institute of Standards and Technology, actuarial societies, ISO standards. Methods and goals vary according to whether the risk management method is in the context of project management, engineering, industrial processes, financial portfolios, actuarial assessments, or public health and safety.

Strategies to manage threats include avoiding the threat, reducing the negative effect or probability of the threat, transferring all or part of the threat to another party, retaining some or all of the potential or actual consequences of a particular threat, the opposites for opportunities. Certain risk management standards have been criticized for having no measurable improvement on risk, whereas the confidence in estimates and decisions seems to increase. For example, one study found. A used vocabulary for risk management is defined by ISO Guide 73:2009, "Risk management. Vocabulary."In ideal risk management, a prioritization process is followed whereby the risks with the greatest loss and the greatest probability of occurring are handled first, risks with lower probability of occurrence and lower loss are handled in descending order. In practice the process of assessing overall risk can be difficult, balancing resources used to mitigate between risks with a high probability of occurrence but lower loss versus a risk with high loss but lower probability of occurrence can be mishandled.

Intangible risk management identifies a new type of a risk that has a 100% probability of occurring but is ignored by the organization due to a lack of identification ability. For example, when deficient knowledge is applied to a situation, a knowledge risk materializes. Relationship risk appears. Process-engagement risk may be an issue; these risks directly reduce the productivity of knowledge workers, decrease cost-effectiveness, service, reputation, brand value, earnings quality. Intangible risk management allows risk management to create immediate value from the identification and reduction of risks that reduce productivity. Opportunity cost represents a unique challenge for risk managers, it can be difficult to determine when to put resources toward risk management and when to use those resources elsewhere. Again, ideal risk management minimizes spending and minimizes the negative effects of risks. Risk is defined as the possibility that an event will occur that adversely affects the achievement of an objective.

Uncertainty, therefore, is a key aspect of risk. Systems like the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Tradeway Commission Enterprise Risk Management, can assist managers in mitigating risk factors; each company may have different internal control components. For example, the framework for ERM components includes Internal Environment, Objective Setting, Event Identification, Risk Assessment, Risk Response, Control Activities and Communication, Monitoring. For the most part, these methods consist of the following elements, more or less, in the following order. Identify the threats Assess the vulnerability of critical assets to specific threats Determine the risk Identify ways to reduce those risks Prioritize risk reduction measures The International Organization for Standardization identifies the following principles of risk management:Risk management should: Create value – resources expended to mitigate risk should be less than the consequence of inaction Be an integral part of organizational processes Be part of decision making process Explicitly address uncertainty and assumptions Be a systematic and structured process Be based on the best available information Be tailorable Take human factors into account Be transparent and inclusive Be dynamic and responsive to change Be capable of continual improvement and enhancement Be continually or periodically re-assessed According to the standard ISO 31000 "Risk management – Principles and guidelines on implementation," the process of risk management consists of several steps as follows: This involves: observing the context the social scope of risk management the identity and objectives of stakeholders the basis upon which risks will be evaluated, constraints.

Defining a framework for the activity and an agenda for identification developing an analysis of risks involved in the process mitigation or solution of risks using available technological and organizational resource

Paul McCarthy

Paul McCarthy is a contemporary artist who lives and works in Los Angeles, California. McCarthy was born in Salt Lake City, Utah in 1945, he studied art at Weber State University in Ogden and continued to study at the University of Utah until 1969. He went on to study at the San Francisco Art Institute receiving a BFA in painting. In 1972 he studied film and art at the University of Southern California receiving an MFA. From 1982 to 2002 he taught performance, video and performance art history at the University of California, Los Angeles. McCarthy works in video and sculpture. Formally trained as a painter, McCarthy's main interest lies in everyday activities and the mess created by them. Much of his work in the late 1960s, such as Mountain Bowling and Hold an Apple in Your Armpit, are similar to the work of Happenings founder Allan Kaprow, with whom McCarthy had a professional relationship. McCarthy's works include performance, film and "painting as action", his points of reference are rooted, on the one hand, in things American, such as Disneyland, B-Movies, Soap Operas and Comics – he is a critical analyst of the mass media and consumer-driven American society and its hypocrisy, double standards and repression.

On the other hand, it is European avant-garde art that has had the most influence on his artistic form language. Such influences include the Lost Art Movement, Joseph Beuys, Sigmund Freud, Samuel Beckett, the Viennese Actionism. I started making videotapes in the early 1970s; the first ones were around illusion. The camera was upside down, but I started making pieces that were performances in the sense that I would be in front of the camera. I would work in the studio by myself with the camera. There was not much in the room. I would record them, they were repetitious and intuitive. Ma Bell was one of the first actions that I did which involved liquids, in motor oil. I had not planned to make the piece, it was spontaneous. It was the first tape. Although by his own statement the happenings of the Viennese Actionists were known to him in the 1970s, he sees a clear difference between the actions of the Viennese and his own performances: Vienna is not Los Angeles. My work came out of kids' television in Los Angeles.

I didn't go through Catholicism and World War II as a teenager, I didn't live in a European environment. People make references to Viennese art without questioning the fact that there is a big difference between ketchup and blood. I never thought of my work as shamanistic. My work is more about being a clown than a shaman. In his early works, McCarthy sought to break the limitations of painting by using the body as a paintbrush or canvas. In a 1974 video, Sauce, he painted with his head and face, "smearing his body with paint and with ketchup, mayonnaise or raw meat and, in one case, feces." This resembled the work of Vienna actionist Günter Brus. His work evolved from painting to transgressive performance art, psychosexual events intended to fly in the face of social convention, testing the emotional limits of both artist and viewer. An example of this is his 1976 piece Class Fool, where McCarthy threw himself around a ketchup-spattered classroom at the University of California, San Diego until dazed and self-injured.

He vomited several times and inserted a Barbie doll into his rectum. The piece ended. Concerned that the University's custodians would have to clean up the mess, graduate students Virginia Maksymowicz and Blaise Tobia, along with art historian Moira Roth, spent several hours cleaning up the ketchup and vomit. Maksymowicz can be seen in the rear left of a documentary photo of the event. McCarthy's work in the 1990s, such as Painter seeks to undermine the idea of "the myth of artistic greatness" and attacks the perception of the heroic male artist. McCarthy's transfixion with Johanna Spyri's novel Heidi led to his 1992 video and installation Heidi: Midlife Crisis Trauma Center and Negative Media-Engram Abreaction Release Zone, on which he collaborated with Mike Kelley. Caribbean Pirates, alludes to the Johnny Depp film franchise and to the Disneyland attraction. During the summer of 2008, Paul McCarthy's inflatable Complex Shit, installed on the grounds of the Paul Klee Centre in Bern, took off in a wind, bringing down a power line, breaking a greenhouse window and a window at a children's home.

This incident was reported internationally via news outlets in several languages with headlines like "Huge turd catastrophe for museum" and "Up in the sky: is it a turd or a plane?"McCarthy has created several Christmas-themed works. Through them, he combined the real meaning of Christmas. In 2001, he created Santa Claus for the city of Rotterdam in the Netherlands, it was intended to be placed next to the concert hall at the locally famous "Schouwburgplein" square, but it never was. This was due to controversies around the statue: The work is seen by many citizens as having sexual connotations, therefore it is colloquially called "Butt Plug Gnome", its original location was rejected by citizens and retailers, as well as several other proposed locations. On November 28, 2008, it did, receive a permanent destination on the Eendrachtsplein square, within a walkway-of-statues project. In November 2009, an exhibition called "White Snow" was held at Hauser & Wirth New York, featuring McCarthy's mixed-media works, centered on t

2008 Minnesota Golden Gophers football team

The 2008 Minnesota Golden Gophers football team was the second under head coach Tim Brewster. They began play on August 30, 2008 at home against Northern Illinois from the Mid-American Conference, finished the regular season against Iowa, on November 22, it was the Golden Gophers' final season in the Metrodome, as they moved into TCF Bank Stadium in 2009. The Gophers accepted a bid to the Insight Bowl and played Kansas on December 31 at Sun Devil Stadium in Tempe, Arizona. On February 21, 2008, it was announced that Ted Roof, the previous head coach of Duke, would replace Everett Withers as the Gophers new defensive coordinator. Withers had announced that he was taking the defensive coordinator job at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; the Golden Gophers opened the 2008 season hosting a Saturday night game against Northern Illinois. After receiving the opening kickoff, Minnesota compiled a 16-play, 90-yard drive that chewed 8:50 off the clock and ended with an 8-yard TD pass from Adam Weber to Eric Decker.

Northern Illinois responded early in the 2nd quarter with a 2-yard TD run from Justin Anderson, a pair of field goals knotted the halftime score at 10–10. Two big plays by the Golden Gophers set the tone through the 3rd quarter – a 53-yard TD catch by Jack Simmons and 61-yard TD run by Duane Bennett that staked Minnesota to a 24–13 lead; the Huskies answered with two long TD bombs of 91 and 52 yards from Chandler Harnish to Nathan Palmer. As Minnesota began their final drive of the game on their own 26-yard line with 5:25 on the clock, they trailed NIU 27–24. Weber led a methodical drive down the field, completing all 5 of his pass attempts until the Gopher offense stalled in the red zone, bringing up 4th and 1 from the NIU 3. Rather than electing to kick the field goal and send the game into overtime, coach Brewster put the offense back out on the field, they rewarded his aggressiveness. Bennett converted the 1st down on a short run, the Gophers ran the same play for a 1-yd TD. After putting the ensuing kickoff out of bounds and giving the Huskies the ball on their own 40, the Minnesota defense batted away a Hail Mary pass into the endzone as time expired to preserve the 31–27 victory.

Bowling Green hosted a Big Ten opponent for the first time as Minnesota traveled to Doyt L. Perry Stadium for a Saturday night game. Bowling Green was confident after coming off a 27–17 upset at No. 25 Pittsburgh the previous week. Despite being road underdogs, Minnesota showed no sign of nerves as they once again scored a TD on their first drive and never relinquished the lead, cruising to an easy 42–17 victory over the home Falcons; the story of this game was turnovers. After a uneventful first half that ended with a Gophers lead of 14–10, Bowling Green's Roger Williams fumbled the opening kickoff of the second half. Starting the drive at the BGSU 23, Minnesota promptly marched in for the score. After a Falcon touchdown made it 21–17, BGSU turned the ball over on each of their next three possessions, each turnover resulting in a touchdown for the Golden Gophers; the 28 points off turnovers proved to be the difference, as Minnesota won consecutive games for the first time since November 2006.

This was the first road victory for the Gophers under coach Tim Brewster. Montana State traveled to Minneapolis to take on the Gophers for each team's 3rd game of the season. Despite being favored over an FCS opponent, Minnesota played in a lackluster fashion from the get-go, trailed 6–0 at the end of the first quarter; the Golden Gophers' offense woke up in the 2nd quarter, put 14 points on the board on consecutive drives. Just when it appeared that Minnesota may have begun to put the game out of reach, Montana State's Demetrius Crawford returned a kickoff 100 yards for a TD. Minnesota was able to answer with another touchdown to make. In the second half, the Gophers returned to their power running game of old, their offense consisted of true freshman DeLeon Eskridge toting the rock, adding two more scores to his one from the first half, he finished the game with 114 yards and three touchdowns, proving himself a capable replacement for previous starter Duane Bennett, lost for the remainder of the season after suffering a knee injury during the Bowling Green game.

Despite their less-than-spectacular performance, the Gophers managed to hold on for a 35–23 victory, began a season 3–0 for the first time since 2005. The Gophers hosted the Owls for a Saturday morning game in Minneapolis. Minnesota looked to be the better team from the beginning, finished with a 37–3 rout of Florida Atlantic; the defense continued to show its vast improvement over the 2007 version, holding FAU to a mere 3 points, the lowest total by a Minnesota opponent since a 62–0 rout of Temple in 2006. The Golden Gophers forced 4 interceptions by Owl QB Rusty Smith considered to be a potential pro prospect; the offense was gaining a season-high 441 total yards. QB Adam Weber continued his solid, steady play, but did tally his first interception of the season on an ill-advised throw into triple coverage in an attempt to force the ball to WR Eric Decker in the end zone; the Gophers entered Big Ten play with a 4–0 record for the first time since 2005. Minnesota traveled to Columbus, Ohio for a Saturday morning showdown with the No. 13 Ohio State Buckeyes.

The Gophers had not defeated OSU since a 29–17 upset victory in 2000, this contest would end no differently. Preseason Heisman hopeful Chris Wells and freshman phenom Terrelle Pryor started in the backfield for the first time as Wells returned from a foot injury; the two combined for 203 yards rushing, Ohio State led wire-to-wire for a 34–21

Breich railway station

Breich railway station is a rural railway station serving the village of Breich in West Lothian, Scotland. It is located on the Shotts Line, 21 miles west of Edinburgh Waverley towards Glasgow Central, it was the sixth-least-used station in the UK until 2018-19 and was the second-least-used in Scotland, after Barry Links. The station was opened by the Caledonian Railway on their Cleland and Midcalder Line on 9 July 1869. Breich is named after the nearby Breich Water; the station pre-dates the present-day village of Breich and OS maps show that it has never possessed freight facilities such as loading docks and sidings, etc. The surrounding area, although now rural, was once industrialised with several collieries, lime works, iron workings, etc. nearby, together with the Levenseat Branch of the North British Railway and the 4ft 6in Scotch gauge Wilsontown and Coltness line with its old terminus station of Longridge opened in 1845 and closed in 1848. A ticket office and waiting room was still present in 1962 as shown by the photograph of that date, together with a linesman's brick hut building, both on the Glasgow bound platform.

The final section of the platforms running towards Edinburgh was higher, had larger edging stones and were of a different construction suggesting that they were built at a different date than the rest of the platforms. The station gardens had an unusual diversity of planted trees; the station was rebuilt on the same site in 2018 and it has lost the old pedestrian overbridge and wooden shelter. It has new platforms, two modern style passenger shelters, additional outside seating and electronic travel information displays. Access from platform 1 to 2 is via the rebuilt road overbridge; the car parking area is unchanged and the access is ill defined due to the presence of a crossroads and traffic lights. Mondays to Saturdays saw one train to Edinburgh and two towards Glasgow Central with no Sunday service. Monday to Saturdays the station was served by one eastbound towards Edinburgh and one westbound train towards Glasgow Central per day. There was no Sunday service. From May 2019, an hourly service has been introduced Monday - Saturday and a 2 hourly service on Sundays.

In 2014 -- 15, Breich was the tenth least-used station in Britain, with entries. West Lothian Council's Route Utilisation Strategy suggests that if there was an increase in service frequency on the Shotts Line more services could stop at Breich; this could help future developments in the Longridge areas. On 21 June 2017, Network Rail announced that they had begun consultation on the proposed closure of the station due to low patronage and if retained will avoid heavy expenditure to update the station prior to electrification of the line, it would have been the first station in Scotland to close in over 30 years. The overwhelming response to the consultation was in favour of keeping Breich station open. Many respondents wished to see more services calling at Breich Station to increase patronage, it has been confirmed that the station will remain open and plans are being developed to improve services. The station was closed temporarily from 23 June 2018 for 12 weeks during redevelopment as part of a £2.4 million project to make it suitable for new electric trains.

The redevelopment include worked to the platforms in order to make them compliant in both height and length for the new services as well as ensuring ramped access to both platforms and to station facilities such as waiting shelters, CCTV, etc... The footbridge was removed at this time with access gained from the upgraded road overbridge. Brailsford, Martyn, ed.. Railway Track Diagrams 1: Scotland & Isle of Man. Frome: Trackmaps. ISBN 978-0-9549866-9-8. Butt, R. V. J.. The Directory of Railway Stations: details every public and private passenger station, halt and stopping place and present. Sparkford: Patrick Stephens Ltd. ISBN 978-1-85260-508-7. OCLC 60251199. Jowett, Alan. Jowett's Railway Atlas of Great Britain and Ireland: From Pre-Grouping to the Present Day. Sparkford: Patrick Stephens Ltd. ISBN 978-1-85260-086-0. OCLC 22311137. Jowett, Alan. Jowett's Nationalised Railway Atlas. Penryn, Cornwall: Atlantic Transport Publishers. ISBN 978-0-906899-99-1. OCLC 228266687. Yonge, John. Gerald Jacobs. British Rail Track Diagams - Book 1: ScotRail.

Exeter: Quail Map Company. ISBN 0-9006-0948-6. Yonge, John. Gerald Jacobs. Railway Track Diagams - Book 1: Scotland and the Isle of Man. Exeter: Quail Map Company. ISBN 0-9006-0995-8. Yonge, John. Gerald Jacobs. Railway Track Diagams - Book 1: Scotland and the Isle of Man. Exeter: Quail Map Company. ISBN 1-8983-1919-7. Yonge, John. Gerald Jacobs. Railway Track Diagams - Book 1: Scotland & Isle of Man. Bradford on Avon: Trackmaps. ISBN 978-0-9549866-3-6. OCLC 79435248. Commentary and video on Breich and Longridge Railway Stations