"Case" is a linguistics term regarding a manner of categorizing nouns, adjectives and numerals according to their traditionally corresponding grammatical functions within a given phrase, clause, or sentence. In some languages, pronouns, determiners, prepositions, numerals and their modifiers take different inflected forms, depending on their case; as a language evolves, cases can merge, a phenomenon formally called syncretism. English has lost its inflected case system although personal pronouns still have three cases, which are simplified forms of the nominative and genitive cases, they are used with personal pronouns: objective case and possessive case. Forms such as I, he and we are used for the subject, forms such as me, him and us are used for the object. Languages such as Ancient Greek, Assamese, most Balto-Slavic languages, most Caucasian languages, Icelandic, Korean, Sanskrit, Tibetan, the Turkic languages and the Uralic languages have extensive case systems, with nouns, pronouns and determiners all inflecting to indicate their case.
The number of cases differs between languages: Persian and Esperanto have two. Encountered cases include nominative, accusative and genitive. A role that one of those languages marks by case is marked in English with a preposition. For example, the English prepositional phrase with foot might be rendered in Russian using a single noun in the instrumental case or in Ancient Greek as τῷ ποδί with both words changing to dative form. More formally, case has been defined as "a system of marking dependent nouns for the type of relationship they bear to their heads". Cases should be distinguished from thematic roles such as patient, they are closely related, in languages such as Latin, several thematic roles have an associated case, but cases are a morphological notion, thematic roles a semantic one. Languages having cases exhibit free word order, as thematic roles are not required to be marked by position in the sentence, it is accepted that the Ancient Greeks had a certain idea of the forms of a name in their own language.
A fragment of Anacreon seems to prove this. It cannot be inferred that the Ancient Greeks knew what grammatical cases were. Grammatical cases were first recognized by the Stoics and from some philosophers of the Peripatetic school; the advancements of those philosophers were employed by the philologists of the Alexandrian school. The English word case used in this sense comes from the Latin casus, derived from the verb cadere, "to fall", from the Proto-Indo-European root *ḱad-; the Latin word is a calque of the Greek πτῶσις, ptôsis, lit. "falling, fall". The sense is; this imagery is reflected in the word declension, from Latin declinere, "to lean", from the PIE root *ḱley-. The equivalent to "case" in several other European languages derives from casus, including cas in French, caso in Italian, caso in Spanish and Kasus in German; the Russian word паде́ж is a calque from Greek and contains a root meaning "fall", the German Fall and Czech pád mean "fall", are used for both the concept of grammatical case and to refer to physical falls.
The Finnish equivalent is sija, whose main meaning is "position" or "place". Although not prominent in modern English, cases featured much more saliently in Old English and other ancient Indo-European languages, such as Latin, Old Persian, Ancient Greek, Sanskrit; the Indo-European languages had eight morphological cases, though modern languages have fewer, using prepositions and word order to convey information, conveyed using distinct noun forms. Among modern languages, cases still feature prominently in most of the Balto-Slavic languages, with most having six to eight cases, as well as Icelandic and Modern Greek, which have four. In German, cases are marked on articles and adjectives, less so on nouns. In Icelandic, adjectives, personal names and nouns are all marked for case, making it, among other things, the living Germanic language that could be said to most resemble Proto-Germanic; the eight historical Indo-European cases are as follows, with examples either of the English case or of the English syntactic alternative to case: All of the above are just rough descriptions.
Case is based fundamentally on changes to the noun to indicate the noun's role in the sentence – one of the defining features of so-called fusional languages. Old English was a fusional language. Modern English has
Behnaam Aazhang is the J. S. Abercrombie Professor in Electrical and Computer Engineering at Rice University, Houston, TX. Aazhang received B. S. M. S. and Ph. D. degrees in 1981, 1983, 1986 from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign with degrees in Electrical and Computer Engineering. Aazhang was a research assistant in the Coordinated Science Laboratory at the University of Illinois from 1981 to 1985. In 1985, he became a faculty of Rice University in Houston, TX, he is the J. S. Abercrombie Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering. From 2004 to 2014, Aazhang was the Department Chair of Computer Engineering, he holds a Finland Distinguished Visiting Professorship appointment at the University of Oulu, Finland. He was a visiting professor for various places such as the IBM Federal Systems Company in Houston and the Laboratory for Communication Technology at Swiss Federal Institute of Technology located in Zurich, the Telecommunications Laboratory in the University of Oulu, Finland, the U.
S. Air Force Phillips Laboratory, New Mexico, the Nokia Mobile Phones in Irving, Texas. Aazhang is the director of the Center for Neuroengineering within the Gulf Coast Consortium in Houston, served as the founding director of Rice's Center for Multimedia Communications from 1998–2006, he is an Associate Editor of IEEE Transactions on Molecular and Multi-Scale Communications. Aazhang has received an award from the 2004 IEEE Communication Society's Stephen O. Rice Best Paper Award for a paper with A. Sendonaris and E. Erkip, he received the 2013 IEEE Communication Society Award for Advances in Communication for the same work. He received an award from the Alcoa Foundation Award 1993, the NSF Research Initiation Award 1987–1989, he has been listed in the Thomson-Reuters Highly Cited Researchers. In 2017, Aazhang received an honorary doctorate from the University of Oulu. Behnaam Aazhang was born in Iran, he attended Sharif University of Technology in Tehran, Iran from 1975 till 1978. He moved from Iran to the United States in 1979.
He continues to live in Houston, Texas with his wife and four children, Ryan and Erin
December 20 - Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar - December 22 All fixed commemorations below celebrated on January 3 by Orthodox Churches on the Old Calendar. For December 21st, Orthodox Churches on the Old Calendar commemorate the Saints listed on December 8. Forefeast of the Nativity of Christ. Martyr Theomistocles of Myra in Lycia Virgin- martyr Juliana of Nicomedia, with her 500 men by the sword, 130 women by beheading. Venerable Macarius the Faster, Abbot of Khakhuli Monastery Saint Honoratus of Toulouse, born in Spain, he succeeded St Saturninus as Bishop of Toulouse in France Saint Severinus of Trier, Bishop of Trier in Germany Martyrs John and Festus, martyrs honoured in Tuscany in Italy. Saint Baudacarius, A monk at Bobbio Abbey in the north of Italy Saint Beornwald of Bampton, a righteous priest in Bampton in Oxfordshire in England Saint John Vincent, born in Ravenna, he became a monk at St. Michael in Chiusa a hermit on Monte Caprario he became Bishop nearby Saint Peter of Kiev, Metropolitan of Kiev and Moscow, Wonderworker of All Russia Saint Juliana, Princess of Vyazma Blessed Procopius of Vyatka, Fool-for-Christ Saint Philaret, Metropolitan of Kiev New Hieromartyr Michael Kiselev, Priest, at Perm New Hieromartyr Sergius, Deacon New Hieromartyr Nicetas, Bishop of Belev New Hieromartyr Leontius, Deacon Repose of Blessed Peter “the Nose,” of Kama Repose of Schemamonk Michael of Harbin Finding of the relics of New Monk-martyr Ephraim of Nea Makri Repose of Mother Stavritsa the Missionary, missionary in Kenya December 21/January 3.
Orthodox Calendar. January 3 / December 21. HOLY TRINITY RUSSIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH. December 21. OCA - The Lives of the Saints; the Autonomous Orthodox Metropolia of Western Europe and the Americas. St. Hilarion Calendar of Saints for the year of our Lord 2004. St. Hilarion Press. P. 1. December 21. Latin Saints of the Orthodox Patriarchate of Rome; the Roman Martyrology. Transl. by the Archbishop of Baltimore. Last Edition, According to the Copy Printed at Rome in 1914. Revised Edition, with the Imprimatur of His Eminence Cardinal Gibbons. Baltimore: John Murphy Company, 1916. Greek Sources Great Synaxaristes: 21 ΔΕΚΕΜΒΡΙΟΥ. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ. Συναξαριστής. 21 Δεκεμβρίου. ECCLESIA. GR.. Russian Sources 3 января. Православная Энциклопедия под редакцией Патриарха Московского и всея Руси Кирилла.. 21 декабря 3 января 2013. Русская Православная Церковь Отдел внешних церковных связей