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Grammy Award for Best Contemporary R&B Album

The Grammy Award for Best Contemporary R&B Album was an honor presented at the Grammy Awards, a ceremony, established in 1958 and called the Gramophone Awards, to recording artists for quality works on albums in the contemporary R&B music genre. Honors in several categories are presented at the ceremony annually by the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences of the United States to "honor artistic achievement, technical proficiency and overall excellence in the recording industry, without regard to album sales or chart position"; the award for Best Contemporary R&B Album, which recognizes R&B albums with more contemporary musical stylings, was first presented to Ashanti at the 45th Grammy Awards in 2003 for her self-titled debut album. Prior to the creation of this category, contemporary R&B albums were eligible for the more general category Best R&B Album. According to the category description guide for the 52nd Grammy Awards, the award is reserved for albums "containing at least 51% playing time of newly recorded contemporary R&B vocal tracks" which may "incorporate production elements found in rap music".

Award recipients included the producers, and/or mixers associated with the nominated work in addition to the recording artists. Beyoncé holds the record for the most wins, with three. Usher is the only other artist to receive the award more than once; the award has been presented to artists from the United States each year to date. Beyoncé and Ne-Yo share the record for the most nominations, with three each. In addition, Beyoncé earned a nomination as a member of the group Destiny's Child for the album Destiny Fulfilled. Brandy, Chris Brown, Janet Jackson and R. Kelly share the record for the most nominations without a win, with two each. From 2012, this category was discontinued as part of a major overhaul of the Grammy Award categories. Recordings in this category were shifted to the Best R&B Album category. ^ Each year is linked to the article about the Grammy Awards held that year. List of Grammy Award categories List of R&B musicians Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums Official site of the Grammy Awards

List of tunnels in the Alps

There are a large number of tunnels in the Alps of Central Europe. They have the advantage of provide shorter routes and faster journey times by avoiding narrow, winding routes over mountain passes which may well be affected by winter conditions; this list is intended to give an overview of the main Alpine tunnels. As the list is "country" oriented, cross-border tunnels are listed twice See separate article for a list of the longest tunnels in the world. Füssen Border Tunnel Mont Cenis Tunnel and Fréjus road tunnel Mont Blanc Tunnel Tenda Tunnels Col de Tende Road Tunnel Buco di Viso Fréjus Road Tunnel and the much older Fréjus Railway Tunnel Mont Cenis Tunnel and Fréjus road tunnel Great St Bernard Tunnel Mont Blanc Tunnel Simplon Tunnel Tenda Tunnels Col de Tende Road Tunnel Buco di Viso Fréjus Road Tunnel and the much older Fréjus Railway Tunnel Achrain Tunnel Amberg Tunnel Arlberg Road Tunnel Arlberg Tunnel Erzberg Tunnel Langen Tunnel Letze Tunnel Pfänder Tunnel Arlberg Road Tunnel Arlberg Railway Tunnel Brandberg Tunnel Felbertauern Tunnel Inntal Tunnel Harpfnerwand Tunnel Landecker Tunnel Lermoos Tunnel Perjen Tunnel Pianner/Quadratscher Tunnel Roppener Tunnel Strenger Tunnel Tschirgant Tunnel Felbertauern Tunnel Ofenauer Tunnel Hiefler Tunnel Katschberg Tunnel Schmitten Tunnel Schönberg Tunnel Tauern Road Tunnel Tauern Railway Tunnel Ehrentalerberg Gräbern Tunnel Karawanken Tunnel Karawanken Tunnel Koralm Tunnel Katschberg Tunnel Oswaldiberg Tunnel Bartl Kreuz Tunnel Bosruck Tunnel Geißwand Tunnel Klaus Tunnel Lainberg Tunnel Pfaffenboden Tunnel Spering Tunnel Unterweitersdorfer Berg Tunnel Semmering Scheitel Tunnel Wienerwald Tunnel Bosruck Tunnel Falkenberg Tunnel Ganzstein Semmering Tunnel Ganzstein Tunnel Gleinalm Tunnel Gratkorn Tunnel Nord and Süd Herzogberg Tunnel Koralm Tunnel Plabutsch Tunnel Pretallerkogel Tunnel Schartnerkogel Tunnel Selzthal Tunnel Spital Tunnel Tanzenberg Tunnel Bruck Tunnel Rottenmann Tunnel Wald Tunnel Lainzer Tunnel Wienerwald Tunnel See also: List of tunnels in Switzerland Gotthard Base Tunnel Lötschberg Base Tunnel Simplon Tunnel Vereina Tunnel Gotthard Road Tunnel Ceneri Base Tunnel Furka Base Tunnel Gotthard Railway Tunnel Lötschberg Tunnel Zimmerberg Base Tunnel Seelisberg Tunnel Ricken Tunnel San Bernardino Tunnel Great St Bernard Tunnel Albula Tunnel Furka Summit Tunnel Munt la Schera Tunnel Karawanken Tunnel Karawanken Tunnel Tunnel List of tunnels in Switzerland List of tunnels in Austria List of longest tunnels Uwe A. Oster, Wege über die Alpen.

Von der Frühzeit bis heute, Darmstadt, 2006, ISBN 3-89678-269-X. Www. AlpenTunnel.de Historic railway crossings through the Alps

1691 papal conclave

The papal conclave of 1691 was convened on the death of Pope Alexander VIII and ended with the election of Antonio Pignatelli as Pope Innocent XII. It lasted for five months, from 12 February to 12 July 1691; the conclave became deadlocked after Catholic monarchs opposed the election of Gregorio Barbarigo, who some members of the College of Cardinals viewed as too strict. The conclave only ended in the July when cardinals started to become ill from the heat, after French cardinals agreed to vote for Pignatelli despite him coming from Spanish-controlled Naples. Issues of Gallicanism were prominent in the 1689 conclave that had elected Alexander VIII. Alexander's predecessor, Innocent XI, had refused to confirm new French bishops to the point where thirty-five dioceses lacked a bishop confirmed by Rome in 1688. Alexander's election had been secured by promising that he would confirm the unconfirmed French bishops. Despite this, Alexander's last act as pope before he died was to condemn the Declaration of the Clergy of France on 1 February 1691.

Alexander was noted for his nepotism, due to his advanced age and belief that his family would have little time to profit from his reign. This was in contrast to his predecessor Innocent XI, known for being austere and had not caused any scandals through nepotism; the conclave began on 12 February 1691, membership in the College of Cardinals was at its statutory maximum of 70 cardinals. Despite this, at the beginning of the conclave only 38 electors were present; the number rose to 44 electors present by 19 February 1691, by the time of the election of Innocent XII in July, 61 electors were present. The curial cardinals entered the conclave seeking to elect Gregorio Barbarigo as pope. Leopold I, the Holy Roman Emperor, considered him to be an unacceptable choice because he was a Venetian. While Leopold did not formally exclude Barbarigo, he did not wish. In addition to Leopold, the Spanish ambassador in Rome worked against Barbarigo's election, Louis XIV of France opposed it because of the wishes of his allies.

Leandro Colloredo, the leader of the zelanti faction within the college suggested Barbarigo for the pontificate. Colloredo and his faction had the backing of Flavio Chigi, the cardinal nephew of Alexander VII, in the conclave. Barbarigo was seen as an individual with a firm moral system, it was thought that he might abolish nepotism if elected. Despite Leopold not formally excluding Barbarigo, a rumour spread that he had been excluded, despite the protests of the zelanti faction of cardinals, enough members of the College of Cardinals recognized the Emperor's ability to exclude a candidate that it prevented his election. Leopold had sent an envoy with two letters for his cardinals: the first public letter declared that he did not wish to see Barbarigo excluded, while the second letter, private, expressed his desire that Barbarigo not be elected, but that he did not want to take the blame for the exclusion, but rather wished for the Spanish to be the ones to do so. Additionally, some of the more materialistic cardinals feared that Barbarigo would be strict as Pope Innocent XI, this factored into his failure to win election.

It was clear to the cardinals that Barbarigo would not be elected pope by the end of April, the conclave entered a period where it had no clear direction. The daily scrutinies would return no successful candidates, the afternoon scrutinies would simply repeat the deadlock that had occurred in the morning. Votes went to non-cardinals for the first time in a conclave since 1503. There was no clear lead as to who might be elected pope, at one point several cardinals started a fire in the living quarters by accidentally knocking over a lamp while playing cards. While this caused some of the cells housing the cardinals to be unlivable, three cardinals had died by that point so there was room available to relocate the cardinals, put out of their previous housing. Federico Altieri began seeking to secure election to the papacy for himself, he had sought to both have a public persona favourable to Leopold I, while working to curry the favour of Louis XIV. The zelanti faction and Flavio Chigi opposed him, enough to stop his victory.

Altieri had positioned himself with his campaign as a credible faction leader within the conclave, began working to elect his friend Antonio Pignatelli pope. Altieri worked to convince the French cardinals that Pignatelli would not work for the Spanish as pope though he was from Naples. Pignatelli fell short of the majority required for election. At the end of June, the heat was increasing and some cardinals became ill; this allowed his candidacy to gain traction, he was elected pope on 12 July 1691, over the objections of the zelanti faction, took the name Innocent XII. The conclave was the longest papal election since 1305, having met for more than five months