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Grammy Award for Best New Artist

The Grammy Award for Best New Artist has been awarded since 1959. Years reflect the year in which the Grammy Awards were handed out, for records released in the previous year; the award was not presented in 1967. The official guidelines are as follows: "For a new artist who releases, during the Eligibility Year, the first recording which establishes the public identity of that artist." Note that this is not the first album released by an artist. It is sometimes asserted, with varying degrees of sincerity, that winning the award is a curse, as several award winners were never able to duplicate the success they experienced in their debut year; this viewpoint was expressed by former Starland Vocal Band member Taffy Danoff in a 2002 interview for VH1's 100 Greatest One Hit Wonders: "We got two of the five Grammys – one was Best New Artist. So, the kiss of death and I feel sorry for everyone who's gotten it since."The category is notable for being the only one of its kind in which a Grammy Award was vacated.

This occurred in 1990 after it was revealed winners Milli Vanilli did not contribute their own vocals on their debut album. The award was not handed out to another artist. Of the 54 awards presented in the category since its inception, the honor has been presented to 26 solo female artists, 18 duos or groups, 11 solo male artists. Between 1997 and 2003, all the winners were solo female artists. From 1993 to 2005, no winner was a solo male artist. In 2006, John Legend broke this trend, which started with Marc Cohn in 1992. Only five artists have won both Best New Artist and Album of the Year in the same year: Bob Newhart in 1961, Christopher Cross in 1981, Lauryn Hill in 1999, Norah Jones in 2003, of these, Cross and Eilish had songs winning Record of the Year and Song of the Year for the same year, with Cross as sole songwriter, Eilish as co-writer, Jones lacking songwriting credit. Only two artists have lost Best New Artist yet won Album of the Year in the same year: Vaughn Meader in 1963 and Alanis Morissette in 1996.

Of all the winners, only one has been a jazz artist and only three have been country artists. In 1997, LeAnn Rimes became the first country artist to win the award, she was followed by Carrie Underwood in 2007 and Zac Brown Band in 2010. Additionally, 2017 marked the first time that two country artists were nominated in this category in the same year, in which Maren Morris and Kelsea Ballerini were both nominated. In 2020, Rosalía became the first all Spanish-language artist to be nominated. 1984 marked the first time. Members of the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences nominate their choices for best new artist. A list of the top twenty artists is given to the Nominations Review Committee, a specially selected group of anonymous members, who select the top five artists to gain a nomination in the category in a special ballot; the rest of the members vote a winner from the five nominees. In 2018, it was announced. Over the years, the eligibility rules for this category have changed several times.

In 2010, Lady Gaga's exclusion from the Best New Artist category caused the Recording Academy to change eligibility requirements for the next ceremony. She was ineligible for the nomination because her hit "Just Dance" had been nominated in 2008; the new rule stated that an artist can be nominated as long as that artist has not released an entire album and has subsequently not won a Grammy. In June 2016, the Grammy organization amended the Best New Artist rules once again, to remove the album barrier “given current trends in how new music and developing artists are released and promoted”. To be eligible in the category of Best New Artist, the artist, duo, or group: Must have released a minimum of five singles/tracks or one album, but no more than 30 singles/tracks or three albums. May not have entered into this category more than three times, including as a performing member of an established group. Must have achieved a breakthrough into the public consciousness and impacted the musical landscape during the eligibility period.

These new rules were put on effect starting with the 59th Annual Grammy Awards. The category was expanded to include eight nominees in 2019. ^ Each year is linked to the article about the Grammy Awards held that year.^ Award for Best New Artist was not presented during the 9th Grammy Awards.^ Milli Vanilli were presented with the award, but were stripped of it after it was discovered that they did not perform their own vocals on their debut album. The award was revoked, but was not handed out to another artist, therefore rendering the 1990 recipient vacant. List of Grammy Award categories Official website

Pat Hutchins

Patricia Evelyn Hutchins was an English illustrator, writer of children's books and broadcaster. She won the 1974 Kate Greenaway Medal from the Library Association, recognising the year's best children's book illustration by a British subject; the work was The Wind Blew, a picture book in rhyme which she wrote. It shows. On screen she was best known as the owner of the'Ragdall boat' in the long-running children's series Rosie and Jim. Hutchins was married to illustrator Laurence Hutchins, with two children, she wrote books for early readers. Hutchins was born 18 June 1942 in the sixth of seven children, she won a scholarship to Darlington School of Art in 1958 and continued studying illustration at Leeds College of Art in 1960, graduated in 1962. She worked for advertising agency in London to 1966 when she married Laurence Hutchins and moved to New York City for two years. There she worked on writing and illustrating her first picture book, Rosie's Walk, published in 1968 by The Bodley Head and Macmillan US.

In the United States, it was a runner-up for the Boston Globe–Horn Book Award and the librarians named it a 1968 ALA Notable Book. It remains her work most catalogued by WorldCat participating libraries. Titch and its sequels were noted for drawing on Hutchins' family life for its depiction of a sibling relationship. Pat Hutchins wrote novels for early readers, some illustrated by husband Laurence, more than two dozen picture books. Beside winning the 1974 Greenaway Medal, she was a commended runner up for One-Eyed Jack, another book she wrote and illustrated. In 1995, Hutchins took over from John Cunliffe as the presenter of the British children's television series and Jim, she played the role of an artistic narrowboat owner and illustrator, referred to as Loopy Lobes by the two puppet characters on account of the large and elaborate earrings she wore during her tenure. Hutchins appeared in 45 episodes over two series and subsequently illustrated books for the franchise, she died from cancer on 8 November 2017 at the age of 75.

Hutchins has both illustrated about fifty books. These five books were all written by Pat Hutchins, illustrated by Laurence Hutchins, published by The Bodley Head; the House that Sailed Away Follow That Bus! The Mona Lisa Mystery The Curse of the Egyptian Mummy Rats! "Pat Hutchins in the Classroom, Author Study", reprint from Carol Hurst's Children's Literature Newsletter, July 1996

Giacomo Nacchiante

Giacomo Nacchiante, O. P. was an Italian Dominican theologian. Giacomo Nacchiante was born in Italy, he was placed by his father under the protection of the superintendent of the Ospedale degli Innocenti, Florence's foundling hospital, in 1509. Nacchiante joined the Dominican Order in Florence, he studied at Bologna. In 1541 Nacchiante was appointed professor of philosophy and theology at the Roman studium of the Dominican Order at Santa Maria sopra Minerva, which had developed out of the studium provinciale at Santa Sabina, which would develop into the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, Angelicum. Pope Paul III, struck with his talents, made him Bishop of Chioggia. At the Council of Trent he made a vigorous protest against the words of the decree of the IV Session, which asserts that the traditions of the Church are to be received with the same reverence and piety as the Scriptures. Further serious suspicions of his orthodoxy seem afterwards to have arisen, the papal secretary at the Council of Trent, Angelo Massarelli, undertook an Inquisition.

The records of the parallel Venetian Inquisition of Nacchiante's orthodoxy can be found in the Venetian state archives. As Pallavicini remarks, Pope Pius IV assigned to him grave affairs of trust, he returned to the second and third sessions of the Council of Trent as a full participant in the Council's debates, his works were published by Pietro Fratino at Venice in 1567. Among them are: "Enarrationes... in ep. D. Pauli ad Ephesios". Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Giacomo Nacchiante". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton. Helmut Feld. "Nacchianti, Jacopo". In Bautz, Traugott. Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon. 6. Herzberg: Bautz. Cols. 426–428. ISBN 3-88309-044-1. Cheney, David M. "Diocese of Chioggia". Retrieved June 16, 2018. Chow, Gabriel. "Diocese of Chioggia". Retrieved June 16, 2018


Saint Chrodegang was the Frankish Bishop of Metz from 742 or 748 until his death. He served as chancellor for Charles Martel. Chrodegang is claimed to be a progenitor of the Frankish dynasty of the Robertians, he was born in the early eighth century at Hesbaye of a noble Frankish family the son of Sigramnus, Count of Hesbaye, Landrada, daughter of Lambert II, Count of Hesbaye. Landrada was the sister of Rotrude of Charles Martel's first wife, he was educated first at the Benedictine monastery of Saint-Trond, one of the oldest and most powerful abbeys in the Low Countries, at the cathedral school of Metz. At the court of Charles Martel, became his referendary chancellor, in 737 prime minister. Sometime after 742, he was appointed to succeed Sigibald as Bishop of Metz, while still retaining his civil office. In 753 he met and escorted Pope Stephen II when the pontiff visited France to seek help against Lombard incursions; as apostolic delegate to the Frankish kingdom, he was directly involved in the coronation of Pepin in 754 and the subsequent defeat of the Longbard king Aistulf.

He accompanied the pope to Ponthieu. After the death of Saint Boniface, Pope Stephen conferred the pallium on Saint Chrodegang, thus making him an archbishop, but not elevating the See of Metz. In 762, during a dangerous illness, he introduced among his priests a confraternity of prayer known as the League of Attigny. Saint Chrodegang was well versed in the native early Old High German, he was buried in Gorze Abbey, the site of his principal shrine. According to M. A. Claussen, "Chrodegang's work lay at the foundation of the Carolingian spiritual revival of eighth and ninth centuries." In 748 he founded Gorze Abbey. He established St. Peter's Abbey on the Moselle, did much for the abbeys of Gengenbach and Lorsch. For the latter he is said to have obtained the relics of Saint Nazarius, for Gorze those of Saint Gorgonius. In his diocese he introduced the Roman Liturgy and chant, community life for the canons of his cathedral. Around 755, he wrote a special rule for them, the Regula Canonicorum known as'Rule of Chrodegang'.

The rule, containing thirty-four chapters, which he gave his clergy was based on the Rule of St. Benedict and on the Rule of St. Augustine; the purpose of the rule was principally pastoral. Chrodegang adapted the Benedictine rule in regards to the hospitality characteristic of monasteries, the care of the sick as there were neither guest houses nor hospices at cathedrals; the rule was circulated and gave an important impulse to the spread of community life among the secular clergy. In 816, it was incorporated in part into the Institutio canonicorum Aquisgranensis established by the Council of Aachen. By the eleventh and twelfth centuries, the Rule of Chrodegang was supplanted by more popular rules based on Augustine, it seems probable that the Rule of Chrodegang was brought by Irish monks to their native land from the monasteries of north-eastern Gaul, that Irish anchorites unfettered by the rules of the cloister bound themselves by it. The Rule of Céli Dé, preserved in the Leabhar Breac, has been attributed to Máel Ruain, was written in the 9th century by one of his community.

The Rule " more a canonical than a monastic rule, analogous to Chrodegang of Metz's Regula Canonicorum."In the course of the 9th century mention is made of nine places in Ireland where communities of these Culdees were established as a kind of annex to the regular monastic institutions. They seem to have had the care of the poor and the sick, were interested in the musical part of worship. Benedict of Aniane Máel Ruain -his rules for the Culdees Wulfred -on reforming the canons at Canterbury Cathedral This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "St. Chrodegang". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton. D'Achéry, Spicilegium, I, 656 Claussen, M. A; the Reform of the Frankish Church: Chrodegang of Metz and the Regula Canonicorum in the Eighth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-521-83931-9. Medieval Lands Project, Family of Enguerrand, Comte de Paris Catholic Encyclopedia - St. Chrodegang

Sir Thomas Baring, 2nd Baronet

Sir Thomas Baring, 2nd Baronet, was a British banker and Member of Parliament. Baring was born on 12 June 1772. A member of the Baring family, he was the eldest son of Harriet Baring and Sir Francis Baring, 1st Baronet, founder of Barings Bank, his grandfather, John Baring, had established the family in England. His maternal grandfather was merchant William Herring of Croydon and among his mother's family was her cousin, Thomas Herring, Archbishop of Canterbury. From 1790 and 1801, he worked with the Honourable East India Company. Thomas became a partner in Baring Brothers & Co. in 1804, remaining until 1809. Upon his father's death in, 1810, he succeeded Sir Francis Baring, 1st Baronet. After his early career with the bank, Sir Thomas was elected a British Member of Parliament for the constituencies of High Wycombe and Hampshire until 1831. From 1832 to 1833 he was the chairman of the South Western Railway, he was Director of the British Institution. In June 1841, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society.

On 3 September 1794, he married Mary Ursula Sealy in India. Mary was the daughter of Charles Sealy. Together, they were the parents of four sons and five daughters, including: Francis Baring, who married Jane Grey, fifth daughter of Hon. Sir George Grey, 1st Baronet. After her death, he married Lady Arabella Howard, second daughter of Kenneth Howard, 1st Earl of Effingham. Thomas Baring, a banker and MP for Great Yarmouth and Huntingdon. John Baring, who married Charlotte Amelia Porcher, daughter of Reverend George Porcher. Mary Ursula Baring, who died in childhood. Charlotte Baring, who married Reverend William Maxwell du Pré, brother of Caledon Du Pré, MP. Charles Baring, who became the Bishop of Durham. Lydia Dorothy Baring, who died young. Frances Baring, who married Henry Labouchere, 1st Baron Taunton. On 3 April 1848, aged 75, he died at East Stratton, Hampshire, he was succeeded in the baronetcy by his eldest son, raised to the peerage in 1866 as Baron Northbrook. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Sir Thomas Baring Sir Thomas Baring, 2nd Baronet at Find a Grave

Parameterized post-Newtonian formalism

Post-Newtonian formalism is a calculational tool that expresses Einstein's equations of gravity in terms of the lowest-order deviations from Newton's law of universal gravitation. This allows approximations to Einstein's equations to be made in the case of weak fields. Higher-order terms can be added to increase accuracy, but for strong fields, sometimes it is preferable to solve the complete equations numerically; some of these post-Newtonian approximations are expansions in a small parameter, the ratio of the velocity of the matter forming the gravitational field to the speed of light, which in this case is better called the speed of gravity. In the limit, when the fundamental speed of gravity becomes infinite, the post-Newtonian expansion reduces to Newton's law of gravity; the parameterized post-Newtonian formalism or PPN formalism, is a version of this formulation that explicitly details the parameters in which a general theory of gravity can differ from Newtonian gravity. It is used as a tool to compare Newtonian and Einsteinian gravity in the limit in which the gravitational field is weak and generated by objects moving compared to the speed of light.

In general, PPN formalism can be applied to all metric theories of gravitation in which all bodies satisfy the Einstein equivalence principle. The speed of light remains constant in PPN formalism and it assumes that the metric tensor is always symmetric; the earliest parameterizations of the post-Newtonian approximation were performed by Sir Arthur Stanley Eddington in 1922. However, they dealt with the vacuum gravitational field outside an isolated spherical body. Dr. Ken Nordtvedt expanded this to include seven parameters. Clifford Martin Will introduced a stressed, continuous matter description of celestial bodies; the versions described here are based on Wei-Tou Ni, Will and Nordtvedt, Charles W. Misner et al. and Will and have ten parameters. Ten post-Newtonian parameters characterize the weak-field behavior of the theory; the formalism has been a valuable tool in tests of general relativity. In the notation of Will, Ni and Misner et al. they have the following values: g μ ν is the 4 by 4 symmetric metric tensor with indexes μ and ν going from 0 to 3.

Below, an index of 0 will indicate the time direction and indices i and j will indicate spatial directions. In Einstein's theory, the values of these parameters are chosen to fit Newton's Law of gravity in the limit of velocities and mass approaching zero, to ensure conservation of energy, mass and angular momentum, to make the equations independent of the reference frame. In this notation, general relativity has PPN parameters γ = β = β 1 = β 2 = β 3 = β 4 = Δ 1 = Δ 2 = 1 and ζ = η = 0 In the more recent notation of Will & Nordtvedt and Will a different set of ten PPN parameters is used. Γ = γ β = β α 1 = 7 Δ 1 + Δ 2 − 4 γ − 4 α 2 = Δ 2 + ζ − 1 α 3 = 4 β 1 − 2 γ − 2 − ζ ζ 1 = ζ ζ 2 = 2 β + 2 β 2 − 3 γ − 1 ζ 3 = β 3 − 1 ζ 4 = β 4 − γ ξ is calculated from 3 η = 12 β − 3 γ − 9 + 10 ξ − 3 α 1 + 2 α 2 − 2 ζ 1 − ζ 2 The meaning of these is that α 1, α 2 and α 3 measure the extent of preferred frame effects. Ζ 1, ζ 2, ζ 3, ζ 4 and α 3 {\displaystyle \alpha