A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has varying roles during the recording process, they may gather musical ideas for the project, collaborate with the artists to select cover tunes or original songs by the artist/group, work with artists and help them to improve their songs, lyrics or arrangements. A producer may also: Select session musicians to play rhythm section accompaniment parts or solos Co-write Propose changes to the song arrangements Coach the singers and musicians in the studioThe producer supervises the entire process from preproduction, through to the sound recording and mixing stages, and, in some cases, all the way to the audio mastering stage; the producer may perform these roles themselves, or help select the engineer, provide suggestions to the engineer. The producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record label's budget.
A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording and production of a band or performer's music. A producer has many roles that may include, but are not limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music for the project, selecting songs or session musicians, proposing changes to the song arrangements, coaching the artist and musicians in the studio, controlling the recording sessions, supervising the entire process through audio mixing and, in some cases, to the audio mastering stage. Producers often take on a wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, schedules and negotiations. Writer Chris Deville explains it, "Sometimes a producer functions like a creative consultant — someone who helps a band achieve a certain aesthetic, or who comes up with the perfect violin part to complement the vocal melody, or who insists that a chorus should be a bridge. Other times a producer will build a complete piece of music from the ground up and present the finished product to a vocalist, like Metro Boomin supplying Future with readymade beats or Jack Antonoff letting Taylor Swift add lyrics and melody to an otherwise-finished “Out Of The Woods.”The artist of an album may not be a record producer or music producer for his/her album.
While both contribute creatively, the official credit of "record producer" may depend on the record contract. Christina Aguilera, for example, did not receive record producer credits until many albums into her career. In the 2010s, the producer role is sometimes divided among up to three different individuals: executive producer, vocal producer and music producer. An executive producer oversees project finances, a vocal producers oversees the vocal production, a music producer oversees the creative process of recording and mixings; the music producer is often a competent arranger, musician or songwriter who can bring fresh ideas to a project. As well as making any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the producer selects and/or collaborates with the mixing engineer, who takes the raw recorded tracks and edits and modifies them with hardware and software tools to create a stereo or surround sound "mix" of all the individual voices sounds and instruments, in turn given further adjustment by a mastering engineer for the various distribution media.
The producer oversees the recording engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording. Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as "the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record", like a director would a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation is music director; the music producer's job is to create and mold a piece of music. The scope of responsibility may be one or two songs or an artist's entire album – in which case the producer will develop an overall vision for the album and how the various songs may interrelate. At the beginning of record industry, the producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live; the immediate predecessors to record producers were the artists and repertoire executives of the late 1920s and 1930s who oversaw the "pop" product and led session orchestras. That was the case of Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records and Bob Haring at Brunswick Records.
By the end of the 1930s, the first professional recording studios not owned by the major companies were established separating the roles of A&R man and producer, although it wouldn't be until the late 1940s when the term "producer" became used in the industry. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1960s due to technology; the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously. All of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio where the performance was recorded. With multitrack recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts such as the bassline and rhythm guitar could be recorded first, the vocals and solos could be added using as many "takes" as necessary, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. A pop band could record their backing tracks one week, a horn section could be brought in a week to add horn shots and punches, a string section could be brought in a week after that.
Multitrack recording had another pro
CrazySexyCool is the second studio album by American girl group TLC, released on November 15, 1994 by LaFace Records. Following the group's record deal, they released their debut album Ooooooohhh... On the TLC Tip, met with positive reviews and commercial success; the following year, the group began working on the follow-up album. The album's recording lasted until September 1994, with Lopes being forced to have less input due to being in rehab; the album saw the group reunite with producers Dallas Austin, Kenneth "Babyface" Edmonds and Jermaine Dupri as well as new collaborators Organized Noize and Chucky Thompson, featured contributions from Sean "Puffy" Combs who helped with the notable hip hop soul sound. CrazySexyCool featured hip hop beats, deep grooves, propulsive rhythms and smooth production; the album's lyrical content was seen as a departure from the group's debut and was seen as a coming-of-age project which explored themes such as sexuality, romanticism and youthful optimism. CrazySexyCool was met with critical acclaim and commercial success, peaking at number three on the Billboard 200, where it spent over two years.
It was certified eleven-times platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America, making TLC the first girl group in history to be awarded diamond status. CrazySexyCool has since sold over 14 million copies worldwide, becoming the best-selling album by an American girl group; the album has since been featured on Rolling Stone magazine's list of The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time, included in the book 1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die and was listed as a "New Classic" by Entertainment Weekly in 2008. The album was ranked as the seventh best diamond-certified album of all time by Billboard. On February 28, 1991, Tionne Watkins and Lisa Lopes signed production and publishing deals with Pebbitone, with Perri Reid becoming their general manager; the two-member TLC-Skee made its first recorded appearance on a track for LaFace act Damian Dame's self-titled 1991 LP. Pebbles found the third member in one of Damian Dame's part-time backup dancers. Thomas was signed to the act in April 1991, at about which time the group's name was shortened to TLC.
To maintain TLC's name as an acronym for the girls' names, Watkins became "T-Boz," Lopes became "Left-Eye," and Thomas became "Chilli." The girls were signed to LaFace in May through the production deal with Pebbitone. TLC was set up to go into the studio with Reid and Edmonds, Dallas Austin, Jermaine Dupri, Marley Marl producing their first album, Ooooooohhh... On the TLC Tip; the new trio debuted as backing vocalists on "Rebel", a track on Jermaine Jackson's sole album for LaFace, You Said. Production on Ooooooohhh... On the TLC Tip wrapped up in December 1991; the album became a commercial success, peaking at number 14 on the US Billboard 200 and reached the third spot on the R&B Albums chart. According to Nielsen SoundScan it has sold 2.5 million copies in the US. It was certified four-times platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America for shipping four million copies in the US. Lopes was vocal about her personal life and difficult past, she admitted that she had come from an abusive, alcoholic background and struggled with alcohol problems herself.
These problems became headline news in 1994, when she set fire to Andre Rison's tennis shoes in a bathtub, which spread to the mansion they shared, destroying it. Lopes claimed that Rison had beaten her after a night out, she set fire to his shoes to get back at him. However, she said. Lopes revealed that she did not have a lot of freedom within the relationship and was abused mentally and physically, having released all her frustrations on the night of the fire. Lopes, sentenced to five years probation and therapy at a halfway house, was never able to shake the incident from her reputation, her relationship with Rison continued to make headlines, with rumors of an imminent wedding debunked by People magazine. The album's recording began in late 1993 and continued through till September 1994; the album was recorded at numerous studios, including Doppler Studios, Bosstown Recording Studios, KrossWire Studio and GADaddy's. A. R. P. Studios in Atlanta Georgia,. During the album's recording, Left Eye was forced to have less of an input.
The rehab facility only released her for a couple of recording sessions, during which time she cut just a handful of album-worthy rap verses. For the album's production and writing, the group worked with producers including Babyface, Dallas Austin, Jermaine Dupri and more. Chilli stated that they had used these producers because they always worked with them stating that they worked with Dallas and Jermaine on the first album "the only thing we had new was Organized Noize." Phife Dawg from A Tribe Called Quest did the interludes, however during the album's recording the band members weren't always in the studio together. Rozonda "Chilli" Thomas and Tionne "T-Boz" Watkins perform the song with Lopes, who provides a rap; the background vo
Jarle Bernhoft, known professionally as Bernhoft, is a Norwegian singer, multi-instrumentalist and lyricist. Bernhoft is from Nittedal in Norway, he has since moved back to Oslo. His best known songs are "Streetlights", "Shout", "Choices", "C'mon Talk" and "Stay With Me", he has been in a number of bands, notably Explicit Lyrics and Span. In June 2014 he appeared for the first time at the Glastonbury Festival and was featured by BBC One in a special performance of his song "Wind You Up."In December 2014, it was announced that his album Islander was nominated for a Grammy Award for Best R&B Album for the 2015 Grammy Awards ceremony, held on 8 February 2015. His nomination is remarkable, as he was the first non-American artist to have been nominated in the 20 year-history of this US-dominated category. In a response to his nomination, Bernhoft stated. I make R&B music." In Explicit LyricsHailing from Nittedal, Bernhoft attended Rud Upper Secondary School in Bærum where he joined the musical scene.
Jarle Bernhoft, alongside Fridtjof "Joff" Nilsen, were members of Explicit Lyrics. Within a span of three years, the band released three albums, Fleshpulse and Lipshave. Span After the breakup of Explicit Lyrics, Bernhoft, a vocalist and songwriter, guitarist Nilsen joined drummer Fredrik Wallumrød and bassist Vemund Stavnes to form the band Span. After two EPs, Baby's Come Back and Found, SPAN had two successful albums, Mass Distraction and Vs. Time; the band broke up in 2005. Other collaborationsBernhoft has contributed on a number of recordings and concerts with Norwegian artists, such as Hanne Hukkelberg, Dadafon and The Køhn/Johansen Sextet, he played in the band Green Granadas using the stage name Rod Hot. He released his first solo album Ceramik City Chronicles on 1 September 2008. In January 2010 Bernhoft released a double live album called 1:Man 2:Band, where one half is a recording from his solo show at a jazz café in Oslo, the other half is a recording from his concerts in Rockefeller and Molde Jazz Festival with a full band.
His second solo album, Solidarity Breaks, was released the next year in January 2011. It topped the VG-lista; the Norwegian Albums Chart for a total of seven weeks. The album was credited to Bern/hoft rather than his full name Jarle Bernhoft, he was credited as Bern/hoft in his 2014 follow-up album Islanders that topped the VG-lista chart in May 2014. In September 2011, Bernhoft appeared on The Ellen DeGeneres Show after producers of the show found his video on YouTube. While on the show he played his song "C'mon Talk". In July 2013, again in June 2014, he was featured as a musical guest on "Conan" on TBS. With Explicit Lyrics 1996: Fleshpulse 1997: Flow 1998: LipshaveWith Span 2004: Mass Distraction 2005: Vs. TimeWith Børre Dalhaug's Bigbandblast 2004: Bigbandblast! Solo Solo With Span2001: "Missing in Stereo" 2002: "Oh My Way Down" 2003: "Papa" 2004: "Don't Think the Way They Do" 2005: "Cut Like Diamonds"Solo2008: "Streetlights" 2008: "Sunday" 2009: "Fly Away" 2011: "C'mon Talk" 2011: "Choices" 2012: "Stay with Me" 2012: "Shout" 2014: "Come Around" 2016: "We Have a Dream" Official website Bernhoft biography in The Guardian Interview with Uberrock - October 2010 Bernhoft on Ronnie Scott's radio
Gladys Maria Knight, known as the "Empress of Soul", is an American singer, actress and author. A seven-time Grammy Award-winner, Knight is known for the hits she recorded during the 1960s, 1970s, 1980s with her group Gladys Knight & the Pips, which included her brother Merald "Bubba" Knight and cousins Edward Patten and William Guest. Knight has recorded two number-one Billboard Hot 100 singles, eleven number-one R&B singles, six number-one R&B albums, she has won seven Grammy Awards and is an inductee into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame along with The Pips. She recorded the theme song for the 1989 James Bond film Licence to Kill. Knight is listed as one of Rolling Stone magazine's 100 Greatest Singers of All Time. Knight was born in Atlanta, the daughter of Merald Woodlow Knight Sr. a postal worker, Sarah Elizabeth. She has a sister, one living brother, Merald Jr. and one deceased brother, David. She first achieved minor fame by winning Ted Mack's The Original Amateur Hour TV show contest at the age of seven in 1952.
That same year, her brother Merald, sister Brenda, cousins William and Elenor Guest formed a musical group called the Pips. By the end of the decade, the act had begun to tour, had replaced Brenda Knight and Eleanor Guest with Gladys Knight's cousin Edward Patten and friend Langston George. In 1961, Knight and her group recorded the single, "Every Beat of My Heart", written for Knight by R&B producer Johnny Otis, it was released on the tiny Atlanta Huntom label, picked up by Vee Jay Records. At the same time, they were signed with Bobby Robinson's label, Fury Records. Both labels issued different versions of the song, with the Vee Jay/Huntom version becoming a hit and outselling the Fury remake. After the success of their follow-up, "Letter Full of Tears", Fury released their first full-length album, they stayed with Fury through 1962 until signing with Larry Maxwell's Maxx label in 1964, releasing several modest hits produced by Van McCoy, including the original version of "Giving Up" and "Lovers Always Forgive".
Gladys Knight & the Pips joined the Motown Records roster in 1966, although regarded as a second-string act, scored several major hit singles, including "I Heard It Through the Grapevine", "Take Me in Your Arms and Love Me", "Friendship Train", "If I Were Your Woman", "I Don't Want To Do Wrong", the Grammy Award-winning "Neither One of Us", "Daddy Could Swear". In their early Motown career, Gladys Knight and the Pips toured as the opening act for Diana Ross and The Supremes. Gladys Knight stated in her memoirs that Ross kicked her off the tour because the audience's reception to Knight's soulful performance overshadowed her. Berry Gordy told Knight that she was giving his act a hard time; the act left Motown for a better deal with Buddah Records in 1973, achieved full-fledged success that year with hits such as the Grammy-winning "Midnight Train to Georgia", "I've Got to Use My Imagination," "The Way We Were/Try To Remember" and "Best Thing That Ever Happened to Me". In the summer of 1974, Knight and the Pips recorded the soundtrack to the successful film Claudine with producer Curtis Mayfield.
The act was successful in Europe, the United Kingdom. However, a number of the Buddah singles became hits in the UK long after their success in the US. For example, "Midnight Train to Georgia" hit the UK pop charts Top 5 in the summer of 1976, a full three years after its success in the U. S. During this period of greater recognition, Knight made her motion picture acting debut in the film, Pipe Dreams, a romantic drama set in Alaska; the film failed at the box-office, but Knight did receive a Golden Globe Best New Actress nomination. Knight and the Pips continued to have hits until the late 1970s, when they were forced to record separately due to legal issues, resulting in Knight's first solo LP recordings—Miss Gladys Knight on Buddah and Gladys Knight on Columbia Records. Having divorced James Newman II in 1973, Knight married Barry Hankerson Detroit mayor Coleman Young's executive aide. Knight and Hankerson remained married for four years, during which time they had Shanga Ali. Upon their divorce and Knight were embroiled in a heated custody battle over Shanga Ali.
In the early 1980s, Johnny Mathis invited Knight to record two duets—"When A Child Is Born" and "The Lord's Prayer". Signing with Columbia Records in 1980 and restored to its familiar quartet form, Gladys Knight & the Pips began releasing new material; the act enlisted former Motown producers Nickolas Ashford and Valerie Simpson for their first two albums: About Love and Touch. During this period, Knight kicked a gambling addiction to the game baccarat. In 1983 Gladys Knight and the Pips scored again with the hit "Save The Overtime For Me"; the song, under the artistic direction of Leon Sylvers III, was done in a soulful boogie style. The single was released from their LP "Visions" and reached number sixty-six on the Hot 100, but was more successful on the R&B where it hit number one for a single week in mid 1983; the single was the first time the group hit number one on the R&B chart since 1974. In 1987 Knight decided to pursue a solo career and
Luther Ronzoni Vandross Jr. was an American singer and record producer. Throughout his career, Vandross was an in-demand background vocalist for several different artists including Todd Rundgren, Judy Collins, Chaka Khan, Bette Midler, Diana Ross, David Bowie, Barbra Streisand, Ben E. King, Donna Summer, he became a lead singer of the group Change, which released its gold-certified debut album, The Glow of Love, in 1980 on Warner Bros. Records. After Vandross left the group, he was signed to Epic Records as a solo artist and released his debut solo album, Never Too Much, in 1981, his hit songs include "Never Too Much", "Here and Now", "Any Love", "Power of Love/Love Power", "I Can Make It Better" and "For You to Love". Many of his songs were covers of original music by other artists such as "If This World Were Mine", "Since I Lost My Baby", "Superstar" and "Always and Forever". Duets such as "The Closer I Get to You" with Beyoncé, "Endless Love" with Mariah Carey and "The Best Things in Life Are Free" with Janet Jackson were all hit songs in his career.
During his career, Vandross sold over 35 million records worldwide, received eight Grammy Awards including Best Male R&B Vocal Performance four different times. He won a total of four Grammy Awards in 2004 including the Grammy Award for Song of the Year for a song recorded not long before his death, "Dance with My Father". Luther Ronzoni Vandross, Jr. was born on April 20, 1951, at Bellevue Hospital, in the Kips Bay neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City. He was the fourth child and second son of Sr.. His father was an upholsterer and singer, his mother was a nurse. Vandross was raised in Manhattan's Lower East Side in the NYCHA Alfred E. Smith Houses public housing development. At the age of three, having his own phonograph, Vandross taught himself to play the piano by ear. Vandross's father died of diabetes. In 2003, Vandross dedicated it to him, his family moved to the Bronx. His sisters, Patricia "Pat" and Ann began taking Vandross to the Apollo Theater and to a theater in Brooklyn to see Dionne Warwick and Aretha Franklin.
Patricia sang with the vocal group The Crests and was featured on the songs "My Juanita" and "Sweetest One". Vandross graduated from William Howard Taft High School in the Bronx in 1969, attended Western Michigan University for a year before dropping out to continue pursuing a career in music. While in high school, Vandross founded the first Patti LaBelle fan club, he performed in a group, Shades of Jade, that once played at the Apollo Theater. During his early years in show business he appeared several times at the Apollo's famous amateur night. While a member of a theater workshop, Listen My Brother, he was involved in the singles "Only Love Can Make a Better World" and "Listen My Brother", he appeared with the group in several episodes of the first season of Sesame Street during 1969–1970. Vandross added backing vocals to Roberta Flack & Donny Hathaway in 1972, worked on Delores Hall's Hall-Mark album, he sang with her on the song "Who's Gonna Make It Easier for Me", which he wrote, he contributed another song, "In This Lonely Hour".
Having co-written "Fascination" for David Bowie's Young Americans, he went on to tour with him as a back-up vocalist in September 1974. Vandross wrote "Everybody Rejoice" for the 1975 Broadway musical The Wiz. Vandross sang backing vocals for artists including Roberta Flack, Chaka Khan, Ben E. King, Bette Midler, Diana Ross, Carly Simon, Barbra Streisand, Donna Summer, for the bands Chic and Todd Rundgren's Utopia. Before his solo breakthrough, Vandross was part of a singing quintet in the late 1970s named Luther, consisting of former Shades of Jade members Anthony Hinton and Diane Sumler, as well as Theresa V. Reed, Christine Wiltshire, signed to Cotillion Records. Although the singles "It's Good for the Soul", "Funky Music", "The Second Time Around" were successful, their two albums, the self-titled Luther and This Close to You, which Vandross produced, did not sell enough to make the charts. Vandross bought back the rights to those albums after Cotillion dropped the group, preventing them from being re-released.
Vandross wrote and sang commercial jingles from 1977 until the early 1980s, for companies including NBC, Mountain Dew, Kentucky Fried Chicken, Burger King, Juicy Fruit. He continued his successful career as a popular session singer during the late 1970s, he played Jamison in the 1993 film The Meteor Man. In 1978, Vandross sang lead vocals for Greg Diamond's disco band, Bionic Boogie, on the song titled "Hot Butterfly". In 1978, he appeared on Quincy Jones's Sounds...and Stuff Like That!!, most notably on the song "I'm Gonna Miss You in the Morning" along with Patti Austin. Vandross sang with the band Soirée and was the lead vocalist on the track "You Are the Sunshine of My Life". Additionally, he sang the lead vocals on the group Mascara's LP title song "See You in L. A." released in 1979. Vandross appeared on the group Charme's 1979 album Let It In. Vandross made his career breakthrough as a featured singer with the vaunted pop-dance act Change, a studio concept created by French-Italian businessman Jacques Fred Petrus.
Their 1980 hits, "The Glow of Love" and "Searching", featured Vandross as the lead singer. In a 200
Audio mixing (recorded music)
In sound recording and reproduction, audio mixing is the process of combining multitrack recordings into a final mono, stereo or surround sound product. In the process of combining the separate tracks, their relative levels are adjusted and balanced and various processes such as equalization and compression are applied to individual tracks, groups of tracks, the overall mix. In stereo and surround sound mixing, the placement of the tracks within the stereo field are adjusted and balanced. Audio mixing techniques and approaches vary and have a significant influence on the final product. Audio mixing techniques depend on music genres and the quality of sound recordings involved; the process is carried out by a mixing engineer, though sometimes the record producer or recording artist may assist. After mixing, a mastering engineer prepares the final product for production. Audio mixing may be performed on digital audio workstation. In the late 19th century, Thomas Edison and Emile Berliner developed the first recording machines.
The recording and reproduction process itself was mechanical with little or no electrical parts. Edison's phonograph cylinder system utilized a small horn terminated in a stretched, flexible diaphragm attached to a stylus which cut a groove of varying depth into the malleable tin foil of the cylinder. Emile Berliner's gramophone system recorded music by inscribing spiraling lateral cuts onto a vinyl disc. Electronic recording became more used during the 1920s, it was based on the principles of electromagnetic transduction. The possibility for a microphone to be connected remotely to a recording machine meant that microphones could be positioned in more suitable places; the process was improved when outputs of the microphones could be mixed before being fed to the disc cutter, allowing greater flexibility in the balance. Before the introduction of multitrack recording, all sounds and effects that were to be part of a record were mixed at one time during a live performance. If the recorded mix wasn't satisfactory, or if one musician made a mistake, the selection had to be performed over until the desired balance and performance was obtained.
With the introduction of multi-track recording, the production of a modern recording changed into one that involves three stages: recording and mixing. Modern mixing emerged with the introduction of commercial multi-track tape machines, most notably when 8-track recorders were introduced during the 1960s; the ability to record sounds into separate channels meant that combining and treating these sounds could be postponed to the mixing stage. In the 1980s, home recording and mixing became more efficient; the 4-track Portastudio was introduced in 1979. Bruce Springsteen released the album Nebraska in 1982 using one; the Eurythmics topped the charts in 1983 with the song "Sweet Dreams", recorded by band member Dave Stewart on a makeshift 8-track recorder. In the mid-to-late 1990s, computers replaced tape-based recording for most home studios, with the Power Macintosh proving popular. At the same time, digital audio workstations, first used in the mid-1980s, began to replace tape in many professional recording studios.
A mixer is the operational heart of the mixing process. Mixers offer a multitude of inputs, each fed by a track from a multitrack recorder. Mixers have 2 main outputs or 8. Mixers offer three main functionalities. Summing signals together, done by a dedicated summing amplifier or, in the case of a digital mixer, by a simple algorithm. Routing of source signals to external processing units and effects. On-board processors with equalizers and compressors. Mixing consoles can be intimidating due to the exceptional number of controls. However, because many of these controls are duplicated, much of the console can be learned by studying one small part of it; the controls on a mixing console will fall into one of two categories: processing and configuration. Processing controls are used to manipulate the sound; these can vary in complexity, from simple level controls, to sophisticated outboard reverberation units. Configuration controls deal with the signal routing from the input to the output of the console through the various processes.
Digital audio workstations can perform many mixing features in addition to other processing. An audio control surface gives a DAW the same user interface as a mixing console; the distinction between a large console and a DAW equipped with a control surface is that a digital console will consist of dedicated digital signal processors for each channel. DAWs can dynamically assign resources like digital audio signal processing power, but may run out if too many signal processes are in simultaneous use; this overload can be solved by increasing the capacity of the DAW. Outboard gear and software plugins can be inserted into the signal path to extend processing possibilities. Outboard gear and plugins fall into two main categories: Processors – these devices are connected in series to the signal path, so the input signal is replaced with the processed signal. Examples include dynamic processing. However, some processors are used in parallel, as is the case in techniques such as parallel compression/limiting and sidechain equalization.
Effects – these can be considered as any unit that has an effect upon the signal, the term is used to describe units that are connected in parallel to the sig
Christopher Maurice Brown is an American singer, songwriter and actor. Born in Tappahannock, Virginia, he was involved in his church choir and several local talent shows from a young age. Having signed with Jive Records in 2004, Brown released his self-titled debut studio album the following year, it peaked at number two on the US Billboard 200 and was certified double platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America, selling an overall three million copies worldwide. With his first single "Run It!" Peaking atop the US Billboard Hot 100, Brown became the first male artist as a lead since Diddy in 1997 to have his debut single top the chart. His second album Exclusive spawned his second Hot 100 number one "Kiss Kiss", in addition to "With You" and "Forever"; the album was certified double platinum by the RIAA. In addition to his solo commercial success, Brown has been featured on several singles such as "No Air", a duet with singer Jordin Sparks, "Shortie Like Mine" with the rapper Bow Wow and "Shawty Get Loose" alongside Lil Mama and T-Pain.
The songs have peaked at number three, number nine, number ten and eight on the US Billboard Hot 100 respectively. His third album Graffiti was released that year, included the top-twenty single "I Can Transform Ya". Brown's fourth album F. A. M. E. Became his first to top the Billboard 200. F. A. M. E. Earned Brown his first Grammy Award for Best R&B Album at the 54th Grammy Awards, his fifth album Fortune was released in 2012, with X, Royalty and Heartbreak on a Full Moon being released the following years, all peaking in the top 5 on the Billboard 200 charts. Alongside his work in the music industry, Brown has pursued an acting career. In 2007, he made his on-screen feature film debut in Stomp the Yard, appeared as a guest on the television series The O. C.. Other films Brown has appeared in include This Christmas, Think Like a Man, Battle of the Year. In 2009, Brown received significant media attention after pleading guilty to felony assault of his girlfriend, singer Rihanna. Brown has sold over 100 million records worldwide, making him one of the world's best-selling music artists.
Throughout his career, Brown has won several awards, including a Grammy Award, 15 BET Awards, 4 Billboard Music Awards, 6 Soul Train Music Awards. According to Billboard, Brown has the seventh most Hot 100 entries on the chart with 90. Christopher Maurice Brown was born on May 5, 1989, in the small town of Tappahannock, Virginia, to Joyce Hawkins, a former day care center director, Clinton Brown, a corrections officer at a local prison, he has Lytrell Bundy, who works in a bank. Music was always present in Brown's life beginning in his childhood, he would listen to soul albums that his parents owned, began to show interest in the hip-hop scene. Brown taught himself to sing and dance at a young age and cites Michael Jackson as his inspiration, he began to perform in several local talent shows. When he mimicked an Usher performance of "My Way", his mother recognized his vocal talent, they began to look for the opportunity of a record deal. At the same time, Brown was going through personal issues.
His parents had divorced, his mother's boyfriend terrified him by subjecting her to domestic violence. At age 13, Brown was discovered by Hitmission Records, a local production team that visited his father's gas station while searching for new talent. Hitmission's Lamont Fleming provided voice coaching for Brown, the team helped to arrange a demo package and approached contacts in New York to seek a record deal. Tina Davis, senior A&R executive at Def Jam Recordings, was impressed when Brown auditioned in her New York office, she took him to meet the former president of the Island Def Jam Music Group, Antonio "L. A." Reid, who offered to sign him that day. "I knew that Chris had real talent," says Davis. "I just knew I wanted to be part of it."The negotiations with Def Jam continued for two months, Davis lost her job due to a corporate merger. Brown asked her to be his manager, once Davis accepted, she promoted the singer to labels such as Jive Records, J-Records and Warner Bros. Records. According to Mark Pitts in an interview with HitQuarters, Davis presented Brown with a video recording, Pitts' reaction was: "I saw the potential...
I didn't love all the records. It wasn't a problem because I knew that he could sing, I knew how to make records." Brown chose Jive due to its successful work with then-young acts such as Britney Spears and Justin Timberlake. Brown stated, "I picked Jive because they had the best success with younger artists in the pop market, I knew I was going to capture my African American audience, but Jive had a lot of strength in the pop area as well as longevity in careers." Brown attended Essex High School in Virginia until early 2005, when he moved to New York to pursue his music career. After being signed to Jive Records in 2004, Brown began recording his self-titled debut studio album in February 2005. By May, there were 50 songs recorded, 14 of which were picked to the final track listing; the singer worked with several producers and songwriters—Scott Storch, Cool & Dre and Jazze Pha among them—commenting that they "really believed in ". Brown made some input on the album, receiving co-writing credits of five tracks.
"I write about the things that 16 year olds go through every day," says Brown. "Like you just got in trouble for sneaking your girl into the house, or you can't drive, so you steal a car or som