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Grampian Mountains

The Grampian Mountains are one of the three major mountain ranges in Scotland, occupying a considerable portion of the Scottish Highlands in northern Scotland. The other major mountain ranges in Scotland are the Southern Uplands; the Grampian range extends southwest to northeast between the Highland Boundary Fault and the Great Glen, occupying half of the land area of Scotland and including the Cairngorms and the Lochaber hills. The range includes many of the highest mountains in the British Isles, including Ben Nevis and Ben Macdui. A number of rivers and streams rise in the Grampians, including the Tay, Cowie Water, Burn of Muchalls, Burn of Pheppie, Burn of Elsick, Cairnie Burn, Don and Esk; the area is sparsely populated. There is some ambiguity about the extent of the range, until the 19th century, they were considered to be more than one range, which all formed part of the wider Scottish Highlands; this view is still held by many today, they have no single name in the Scottish Gaelic language or the Doric dialect of Lowland Scots.

In both languages, a number of names are used. The name "Grampian" has been used in the titles of organisations covering the area, including the former local government area of Grampian Region and Grampian Television; the Roman historian Cornelius Tacitus recorded Mons Graupius as the site of the defeat of the native Caledonians by Gnaeus Julius Agricola circa 83 AD. The actual location of Mons Graupius, literally'Mount Graupius', is a matter of dispute among historians, though most favour a location within the Grampian massif at Raedykes, Megray Hill or Kempstone Hill; the spelling Graupius comes from the Codex Aesinas, a mediaeval copy of Tacitus's Germania believed to be from the mid-9th century. "Graupius" was incorrectly rendered "Grampius" only in the 1476 printed edition of Tacitus's biography of Agricola. The name Grampians is believed to have first been applied to the mountain range in 1520 by the Scottish historian Hector Boece, an adaptation of the incorrect Mons Grampius, thus the range owes its name to this day to a typesetter's mistake.

In the Middle Ages, this locale was known as the Mounths, a name still held by a number of geographical features. There is some ambiguity about the extent of the range. Fenton Wyness, writing about Deeside, puts the northern edge of the Grampians at the River Dee in the introduction to his 1968 book Royal Valley: The Story Of The Aberdeenshire Dee:... until comparatively recent times, Deeside was an isolated and little frequented region and the reason for this is the extensive mountain barrier of the Grampians which begins in a low range on the seacoast south of Aberdeen and rise through various intervening heights such as Cairn-mon-earn, Mount Battoch, Mount Keen, Beinn a' Ghlo, to Beinn Dearg This introduction appears to suggest that Wyness defines the Grampians as being the range of mountains running from south of Aberdeen westward to Beinn Dearg in the Forest of Atholl. Adam Watson, when defining the extent of the Cairngorms excluded the range south of the River Dee, writing: The other main hill group is the long chain running from Drumochter in the west to the sea just south of Aberdeen.

Many maps and books have given its name as ‘the Grampians’ but although children have to learn this at school, they do not learn it at home and nowhere is it used in local speech. Some map-makers have confused the issue by printing ‘Grampians’ over the Cairngorms and Strath Don hills as well! Both Wyness and Watson appear to exclude the Cairngorms from the Grampians, regarding them as a separate range. In effect, Wyness' and Watson's definition of the Grampians is as a synonym for the Mounth; however Robert Gordon, writing in the 1650s, used the term Grampians to refer to hills on either side of the River Dee, thus explicitly included the Cairngorms within the range. The mountains are composed of granite, marble and quartzite; the following ranges of hills and mountains fall within the recognised definition of the Grampians, i.e lying between the Highland and Great Glen fault lines: Cairngorms Monadh Liath Mounth Grey Corries Mamores Ben Alder Forest The mountains of Glen Coe and Glen Etive Black Mount Breadalbane Hills Trossachs Arrochar Alps Cowal The Isle of Arran Chisholm, Hugh, ed..

"Grampians, The". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press

Paulo José Gumane

Paulo José Gumane was a Mozambican union activist and guerrilla leader active during the Mozambican War of Independence. A founder member of the independence movement FRELIMO, he broke with it and was involved with a number of opposition organisations, notably the Zambia-based COREMO. Along with Uria Simango and a number of other FRELIMO dissidents, Gumane is thought to have been executed sometime during the period 1977-81. Gumane is stated to have been born in 1918, he was the son of Samuel João Gumane, a farmer and Methodist deacon who converted to Catholicism, Mahigo Chicafo Marrengula. Following primary education he attended a teacher training college in Manhiça and taught in government and mission schools from 1936-42, he left Mozambique to find work, became exposed to nationalist and left-wing political thinking among the Mozambican expatriate community in South Africa and Rhodesia. In South Africa he joined the African National Congress and the Pan-Africanist Congress, became Cape Town branch secretary of the Laundry and Dry Cleaner Workers' Union.

In 1952 he was a prominent organiser in the Defiance Campaign, which demonstrated against apartheid laws. Returning to Mozambique, Gumane attempted to set up a farmers' trade union: the Portuguese colonial authorities issued a warrant for his arrest, but after being alerted by a friend within the government he evaded capture and escaped by stowing away on a ship to Cape Town. Gumane was one of the founder members of the pro-independence National Democratic Union of Mozambique in 1960, subsequently helped found its successor FRELIMO in 1962, becoming its Deputy Secretary-General. However, he was expelled from the organisation after a series of disagreements over the American links of FRELIMO president Eduardo Mondlane. After a brief reconstitution of UDENAMO in Cairo, in 1965 Gumane and other dissidents founded a'radicalist' splinter group, COREMO. COREMO under the leadership of Adelino Gwambe, was principally sponsored by China, was based in Zambia, from where it conducted small-scale guerrilla actions across the border.

While China provided training and other materiel were channeled to COREMO through the Zambian government and the Pan-Africanist Congress. On May 12-16 1966 Gumane called an emergency party conference and deposed Gwambe for "gross financial and administrative malfeasance". Gumane assumed the presidency of the COREMO and steered it in a new, populist political direction: to contrast the group with FRELIMO he specified no special treatment for its leaders' children, no white membership, maintained only a few low-profile offices in Cairo and Dar es Salaam, he adopted a strategy based on setting small-scale goals, issuing realistic communiques and on leading the organisation from within Mozambique's borders, all of which drew praise from external observers and supporters. Journalists were impressed by Gumane, fluent in French, English and Spanish in addition to a number of African languages, he was well liked amongst expatriate political activists: Andreas Shipanga recalled that he was affectionately known as "Uncle Gumane".

However after some initial military successes within Tete Province, COREMO began to lose impetus and was disrupted by internal disputes: Gumane retained the backing of the Zambian president Kenneth Kaunda, who held him in high personal regard. COREMO continued to be involved in periodic clashes with both Portuguese troops and FRELIMO, gained wider public attention in January 1971 when its guerrillas abducted six Portuguese agricultural experts believed to have been executed, five Mozambicans from Mussangadzi agricultural station. From 1971 the Chinese government began to focus on supporting FRELIMO and COREMO and other smaller opposition groups began to disappear from the public eye. Kaunda authorised a secret military operation across the Mozambican border to eliminate the last COREMO guerrillas. While the majority of its senior figures were captured, Gumane escaped and made his way to Swaziland, where he continued organising opposition to FRELIMO. After the 1974 Portuguese coup rendered Mozambican independence inevitable, Gumane along with other opposition leaders was one of the founders of the National Coalition Party, which called for free elections following the transfer of power.

However, the Lusaka Accords of September 1974 handed power directly to FRELIMO and allowed it to proceed with eliminating internal opposition. Gumane and other PCN leaders were called to Blantyre in Malawi on the pretext of an urgent cabinet meeting, were arrested at the border before being handed over to FRELIMO troops. Gumane was held in custody for several years. In 1975 he was shown in public at Nachingwea, Tanzania along with Uria Simango and a number of other former FRELIMO dissidents: both men presented lengthy'confessions' of traitorous activities, following which they were sent to're-education' camps; the prisoners subsequently disappeared and are presumed to have been executed during the period 1977-81, although the Mozambican government has to date refused to confirm their fate. After his disappearance, Gumane's wife Priscilla was involved with the opposition group RENAMO


Hnojník is a village in Frýdek-Místek District, Moravian-Silesian Region, Czech Republic, on the Stonávka River. It has a population of 1,446; the village was first mentioned in a Latin document of Diocese of Wrocław called Liber fundationis episcopatus Vratislaviensis from around 1305 as item in Gnoynik. It meant; the creation of the village was a part of a larger settlement campaign taking place in the late 13th century on the territory of what will be known as Upper Silesia. Politically the village belonged to the Duchy of Teschen, formed in 1290 in the process of feudal fragmentation of Poland and was ruled by a local branch of Piast dynasty. In 1327 the duchy became a fee of the Kingdom of Bohemia, which after 1526 became part of the Habsburg Monarchy; the village became a seat of a Catholic parish prior to the 16th century. After the 1540s Protestant Reformation prevailed in the Duchy of Teschen and a local Catholic church was taken over by Lutherans, it was taken from them in the region by a special commission and given back to the Roman Catholic Church on 23 March 1654.

Since the 15th century, it was owned by several noble families. In 1736, the village was bought by Karl Beess; the Beess family was the last feudal owner of the Hnojník manor. The local population worked as peasants on the properties of the Beess family. Several mills operated in the village; the Beess family established distillery and a brickworks. In 1917, Teschen-based Jewish businessman Ignaz Schmelz established a steam-powered sawmill. After Revolutions of 1848 in the Austrian Empire a modern municipal division was introduced in the re-established Austrian Silesia; the village as a municipality was subscribed to the legal district of Cieszyn. According to the censuses conducted in 1880, 1890, 1900 and 1910 the population of the municipality dropped from 599 in 1880 to 569 in 1910 with a dwindling majority being native Polish-speakers accompanied by a German-speaking people and Czech-speaking. In terms of religion in 1910 majority were Protestants, followed by Jews; the village was traditionally inhabited by Cieszyn Vlachs, speaking Cieszyn Silesian dialect.

After World War I, fall of Austria-Hungary, Polish–Czechoslovak War and the division of Cieszyn Silesia in 1920, it became a part of Czechoslovakia as Hnojník. T the beginning of July 1930, the village was visited by Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, President of Czechoslovakia who travelled across the Czechoslovak part of Cieszyn Silesia. Following the Munich Agreement, in October 1938 together with the Zaolzie region it was annexed by Poland, administratively adjoined to Cieszyn County of Silesian Voivodeship, it was annexed by Nazi Germany at the beginning of World War II. After the war it was restored to Czechoslovakia; the Beess family property was confiscated in November 1945. In 1946, Baron Georg Beess, the last nobleman from the Beess family to own properties in Hnojník, was expelled from the country and was deprived of his property according to the Beneš decrees affecting the Germans in Czechoslovakia; the mayor of Hnojník refused to sign the decree to expel Georg Beess he was expelled to Germany where he died in 1955.

The most prominent landmark in Hnojník is a baroque château built in 1736 in the central part of the village by order of Karl Beess. It was rebuilt in an empire style in the first half of the 19th century according to the plans of Viennese architect Joseph Kornhäusel. After World War II, the château was confiscated by the state administration. Part of the furniture and paintings was relocated to the château in Šternberk. However, a significant part of it was stolen by unknown persons; the library was relocated to Potštát. The château became a property since 1966 of the collective farm. Since the 1970s, the château dilapidated. After the fall of communism in 1989, it became a property of a private owner who didn't renovate it and the landmark continued to dilapidate; the state administration sold the landmark in 2008 to a new private owner, after the old one lost his property rights when he was imprisoned. The château in Hnojník remains one of the most endangered cultural landmarks in the country.

Another important landmark is the Roman Catholic Ascension of the Virgin Mary Church. It is not clear when it was built, but the initial wooden church was torn down and a new brick empire style one built in its place in 1808–1812. There is a Catholic cemetery adjacent to the church, it is bordered by a 19th-century stone wall. The Beess family tomb is located there; this rectangular building was built in the second half of the 19th century in an empire style. The first school was built in the 17th century; the language of instruction was Polish and also German. The second school in the village began operating in 1853, it was a private Protestant school. Since 1874, it was a public school, therefore Catholic children could attend it; the language of instruction was Polish. Both schools were joined in 1923 to one Polish school. In June 2008, it was named after the most known personality linked to Hnojník. Kubisz was an educator and writer, author of the poem Płyniesz Olzo po dolinie which became an unofficial anthem of the Zaolzie region, especial

Ill Mind of Hopsin 5

"Ill Mind of Hopsin 5" is a song by American hip hop recording artist Hopsin. It is the fifth installment in the "Ill Mind" series and was released on July 18, 2012 by Funk Volume. In the self-produced song, Hopsin raps about his frustration with jaded youth and disenchantment towards other unrelatable rappers, a departure from the previous, more comedic "Ill Mind" songs; the song peaked at # 17 on R&B / Hip-Hop Digital Songs chart. The song was certified Gold by RIAA on June 5th 2015. Hopsin explained that he was writing a song different than the final result, reminiscent of the "wild", comedic "Ill Mind of Hopsin 4". However, Hopsin had begun building a relationship with God and felt that he could not create another "obnoxious" song, but rather something with a message: He went to the studio and wrote a majority of the song and, although not sure whether his fanbase would react positively to his change, recorded the song and shot the music video a few days later. Hopsin said the people assisting at the video shoot weren't reacting to the song in his presence, making him skeptical of his choice – however, his girlfriend told him while he was away, "everybody felt bad'cause of the song made them feel weird, all these parts were talking to them."

The video went viral on the day of release. It garnered over two million views over five million in ten days; the song managed to chart at No. 17 on two Billboard charts: the Social 50, based on weekly additions to online fans and followers, artist page views and song plays, the R&B/Hip-Hop Digital Songs chart, with 20 thousand downloads sold in the first day, according to Nielsen SoundScan. To date, it remains Hopsin's most viewed video, it received positive reviews. Eric Diep of Complex wrote: "Whatever opinions you have on Hopsin, shows that he’s got serious skills with his piercing delivery." Lyrics of this song at Genius

The Lariat

The Lariat is a 1927 short novel by the poet and anthropologist Jaime de Angulo, set in Spanish California. It is reprinted in ed. A Jaime de Anglo Reader; the Lariat is a story told through myriad voices with shifting verb tenses dissolving into a patchwork collection of scenes and impressions. Sometimes, we hear the voice of an unknown historian/narrator attempting to piece together the life of protagonist Fray Luis through family records and Luis's own diary entries. At other times the story is told in the present tense. Through these voices emerges the story of Fray Luis, a Spanish Franciscan friar with a wild secular past, who comes to Mission Carmel in Northern California with the goal of converting the local Native Americans to Christianity; the reader learns. Fray Luis, however, is able to convert a single Esselen girl who voluntarily comes to the Mission, from her he learns the Esselen language, she was the wife of a medicine man, whom she left after their son died. Ruiz, a Mestizo vaquero associated with the Mission, begins a covert relationship with the Esselen girl, sneaking her out of the nunnery at night.

Ruiz makes plans with Mission leader Fray Bernardo to marry the girl, but Fray Luis, who envies Ruiz, does not want this to happen. It is ambiguous whether this is because she is Luis's convert and he claims her spiritually, or whether his sense of spiritual ownership has developed into a sexual desire for her. Fray Luis goes to Hualala's funeral, where he is involuntarily involved in a ceremony to relieve the Esselen community of the burdon of the death. A mouse takes pity of Fray Luis and attempts to help him. Fray Luis ends up living for a few weeks at the house of Ruiz's Spanish father. Ruiz decides that he wants to kill the bear, eating their cattle, asks the Mission Indian Saturnino to make him a lariat. Saturnino, who hates Ruiz, uses a piece of Fray Luis's monk's cord to weave a lariat; the lariat looks and feels perfect but its integrity is compromised by the addition of the cord, so it does not work properly when the time comes. Ruiz hunts down the bear with Pawi; when Ruiz throws his lariat around the bear, the lariat becomes entangled in the saddle, while Pawi's arrows bounce off the bear, the bear kills Ruiz.

Fray Luis attempts to leave Mission Carmel on his donkey, but it transforms into a beetle and carries him down a ladder into a ceremonial hut, where a medicine man seems to transform into a bear. As Fray Luis flees back up the ladder that goes out the hole in the center of the hut, he puts his head through the loop of a waiting lariat, is hung, it is ambiguous whether he has committed suicide. The narrative is open to interpretation; the chapter titles provide clues, though sometimes they do not seem directly connected to their context. By using information provided in the first chapter to decipher the titles' meanings, the reader can more grasp what is taking place in the confusing final chapters of this text. There is a lot of "mixing" of opposites in this story, a direct result of the physical and cultural setting: Catholic and Animist practice, Native American and European reminiscent of Estela Portillo Trambley’s "The Burning" which juxtaposes Europe versus the New World and peasantry, light and dark and evil.

The reata is functionally compromised when two elements are intertwined: Fray Luis’s monk’s cord and the leather from Saturnino’s reata. The elements are metaphorically Catholicism and Animism – suggesting that the two cannot function together. 3.1 Fray Luis: A Franciscan friar from "Old Spain" who ends up at Mission Carmel in California. His job is to help save the "pagan" Indians' souls, he speaks Sextapay, among other languages. The Mission Indians think. 3.2 Ruiz-Kinikilali Berenda: This handsome young son of Esteban Berenda is a half-Spanish, half-esselen vaquero. He is skilled at throwing the reata, or lariat, he is killed by a bear. 3.3 Saturnino: El mayordomo, "a combination of sacristan and Indian chief". He says he is a Rumsen Indian, but is most a runaway Esselen, he is in charge of the nunnery. He is a reata-maker who weaves the lariat intended to snare the bear that kills Ruiz. 3.4 Fray Bernardo: Superior of the Mission San Carlos Borromeo de Carmelo. He is proud "of the good order, of the prosperousness, of the apparent contentment of the Indians" in his Mission.

He speaks Rumsen. 3.5 Esselen Girl: Wife of Hualala and the first Esselen that Fray Luis converts. Luis and Ruiz appear to be in competition for this girl. 4.1 Pawi-maliay-hapa: "Many Arrows," cousin and best friend of Ruiz. 4.2 Esteban Berenda: "One of the leather-jacketed soldiers who had come with Captain Portola on his first voyage of discovery." He is a Spanish settler. He has one son, Ruiz. 4.3 Amomuths: The most powerful local "doctor" or medicine man. He is Ruiz's great-uncle on his mother's side, he is conducting ceremonies in the ceremonial house, where he tells ancient tales. Amomoths comforts Esteban Berenda after Ruiz dies. In the final scenes of Fray Luis's death, Amomuths is the mysterious figure seated before him in the ceremonial house: "Then it began again, the bear sitting there against the north wall Amomuths the bear..."4.4 Hualala: He is an Indian medicine man and husband of the Esselen girl. 5.1 Nature of the Native Ameri

John Benson (artisan)

John Everett Benson, known as Fud, is an American calligrapher and typeface designer who has created inscriptions for monuments including the John F. Kennedy memorial at Arlington National Cemetery, the National Gallery of Art, the Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial, the Vietnam Memorial in Washington, DC. John Everett Benson was born in Rhode Island, he began working for John Howard Benson, at the age of fifteen at The John Stevens Shop. He studied sculpture at Rhode Island School of Design. In 1964, Benson and John Hegnauer were commissioned to design and carve the inscriptions on the John F. Kennedy memorial at Arlington National Cemetery. In Rhode Island, Benson carved a number of inscriptions at the University of Rhode Island's Robert L. Carothers Library and Learning Commons, he has designed and carved gravestones for Tennessee Williams, Lillian Hellman, George Balanchine. He has created monumental architectural inscriptions for famous buildings such as the Prudential Center in Boston, the National Gallery of Art, the Dallas Museum of Art, Rockefeller Center, Chicago Mercantile Exchange Center, the Armand Hammer Museum of Art in Los Angeles.

He lettered the date stones of the Vietnam Memorial in Washington, DC, the Civil Rights Memorial in Montgomery, the Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial in Washington, DC and the Federal Courthouse in Boston. He designed the National Geographic Society headquarters lintel, West Point's MacArthur Monument, the reverse of a medal for the National Gallery of Art, he has drawn various photo-typefaces for architectural applications and a titling typeface, called Aardvark, for The Font Bureau in Boston, Alexa and Caliban. In 1993, he left the direction of The John Stevens Shop to his son, Nicholas "Nick" Benson and returned to sculpting full-time. Benson is doing portrait and figurative work in clay and bronze at his studio in Newport, Rhode Island. Final Marks, The Art of the Carved Letter, by Frank Muhly, Jr. Peter O'Neill The John Stevens Shop