Gran Colombia

Gran Colombia is the name historians use to refer to the state that encompassed much of northern South America and part of southern Central America from 1819 to 1831. The state included the territories of present-day Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela, parts of northern Peru, western Guyana and northwestern Brazil; the term Gran Colombia is used historiographically to distinguish it from the current Republic of Colombia, the official name of the former state. At the time of its creation, Gran Colombia was the most prestigious country in Spanish America. John Quincy Adams Secretary of State and future president of the United States, claimed it to be one of the most powerful nations on the planet; this prestige, added to the figure of Simón Bolívar, attracted to the nation unionist ideas of independence movements in Cuba, the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico, which sought to form an associated state with the republic. But international recognition of the legitimacy of the Gran Colombian state ran afoul of European opposition to the independence of states in the Americas.

Austria and Russia only recognized independence in the Americas if the new states accepted monarchs from European dynasties. In addition and the international powers disagreed over the extension of the Colombian territory and its boundaries. Gran Colombia was proclaimed through the Fundamental Law of the Republic of Colombia, issued during the Congress of Angostura, but did not come into being until the Congress of Cúcuta promulgated the Constitution of Cúcuta. Gran Colombia was constituted as a unitary centralist state, its existence was marked by a struggle between those who supported a centralized government with a strong presidency and those who supported a decentralized, federal form of government. At the same time, another political division emerged between those who supported the Constitution of Cúcuta and two groups who sought to do away with the Constitution, either in favor of breaking up the country into smaller republics or maintaining the union but creating an stronger presidency.

The faction that favored constitutional rule coalesced around Vice-President Francisco de Paula Santander, while those who supported the creation of a stronger presidency were led by President Simón Bolívar. The two of them had been allies in the war against Spanish rule, but by 1825, their differences had become public and were an important part of the political instability from that year onward. Gran Colombia was dissolved in 1831 due to the political differences that existed between supporters of federalism and centralism, as well as regional tensions among the peoples that made up the republic, it broke into the successor states of Colombia and Venezuela. Since Gran Colombia's territory corresponded more or less to the original jurisdiction of the former Viceroyalty of New Granada, it claimed the Caribbean coast of Nicaragua, the Mosquito Coast; the official name of the country at the time was the Republic of Colombia. Historians have adopted the term "Gran Colombia" to distinguish this republic from the present-day Republic of Colombia, which began using the name in 1863, although many use Colombia where confusion would not arise.

The name "Colombia" comes from the Spanish version of the eighteenth-century New Latin word "Columbia", itself based on the name of Christopher Columbus. It was the term preferred by the Venezuelan revolutionary Francisco de Miranda as a reference to the New World to all American territories and colonies under Spanish rule, he used an improvised, quasi-Greek adjectival version of the name, "Colombeia", to mean papers and things "relating to Colombia", as the title of his archive of his revolutionary activities. Simon Bolívar and other Spanish American revolutionaries used the word "Colombia" in the continental sense; the establishment in 1819 of a country with the name "Colombia" by the Congress of Angostura gave the term a specific geographic and political reference. The Republic of Colombia comprised more or less the former territories of the Viceroyalty of New Granada, which it claimed under the legal principle of uti possidetis, it united the territories of the former Third Republic of Venezuela, the United Provinces of New Granada, the former Royal Audiencia of Panama and the Presidency of Quito.

Before a new constitution could be written by the Congress of Cúcuta, the Congress of Angostura appointed Bolívar and Santander president and vice president, respectively. Under the Constitution of Cúcuta, the country was divided into twelve departments each governed by an intendant. Departments were further divided into thirty-six provinces, each headed by a governor, who had overlapping powers with the intendant. Military affairs at the department level were overseen by a commandant general, who could be the intendant. All three offices were appointed by the central government; the central government, which temporarily was to reside in Bogotá, consisted of a presidency, a bicameral congress and a high court. The president was the head of the executive branch of both the local governments; the president could be granted extraordinary powers in military fronts, such as the area that became Ecuador. The vice-president assumed the presidency in case of the absence, demotion, or illness of the president.

Since President Bolívar was absent from Gran Colombia for the early years of its existence, executive power was wielded by the vice president, Santander. The vote was given to persons who owned 100 pesos in landed property or had an equivalent income from a profession. Elections were indirect. Since the

Wendy Arons

Wendy Arons is an American dramaturg, drama professor, critic who specializes in ecodrama and German translation. She is a Professor of Dramatic Literature in the College of Fine Arts at Carnegie Mellon University, she has written and edited many pieces for journals and is the author of the book "Performance and Femininity in Eighteenth-Century German Women's Writing: The Impossible Act". Arons has increased artistic access in the theater world to German works: for example, she has translated Brecht's "Good Person of Szechwan" from German into English for an adaptation by Tony Kushner, she has worked with Anne Bogart, one of the most influential artists of the 20th century. Wendy Arons was born in Michigan, she attended Yale for her undergraduate degree. She attended UC San Diego, where she earned her MFA in Dramaturgy, MA in German Literature, PhD in Literature. Upon graduation, she worked with Anne Bogart from 1988-1989 and again in 1991, she worked with Robert Falls on a production of "The Misanthrope".

In 1999 she joined the faculty of the University of Notre Dame as an Assistant Professor of Theater. While at Notre Dame, Arons published her book "Performance and Femininity in Eighteenth-Century German Women's Writing: The Impossible Act". After eight years of teaching, she joined the faculty of Carnegie Mellon University in 2007 as an Associate Professor of Dramatic Literature. From 2008-11, she served as the secretary of the American Society for Theatre Research. Notably, in 2012, Arons became the first person in the CMU School of Drama to win a National Endowment for the Humanities Grant, she will become the first person to translate G. E. Lessing's "Hamburg Dramaturgy" from German to English. Today, Arons runs The Pittsburgh Tatler, a theater criticism blog, as well as working as the Professor of Dramatic Literature and Option Coordinator for the Dramaturgy program at Carnegie Mellon University

Ring of Fear (A Dangerous Assignment)

Ring of Fear is the second episode of the TV series Police Squad!. It was directed by Joe Dante, written by Tino Insana and Robert Wuhl and produced by Robert K. Weiss. "Tonight's Special Guest Star', shown in the opening credits is Georg Stanford Brown, dressed in the uniform of a police officer, cautiously walking a city street with his gun drawn. He is promptly killed off, Police Squad! style, by a falling safe. The story begins during a boxing match, won by boxer Mike Schultz. However, the fight was "fixed" and Schultz was supposed to deliberately lose the match, but he won anyway, much to the annoyance of crime boss Montague Martin who lost money betting on the outcome of the fight. In retaliation, Martin sends his goon Luca Burnett to kill Schultz. Investigators rule the death a suicide, but Captain Ed Hocken isn't convinced that a boxer would kill himself right after the biggest win of his career. Believing that they are dealing with murder and corruption, Ed decides to send Frank Drebin undercover.

The plan is to straighten him up to draw the interest of Martin. At the local gym Frank meets Buddy Briggs, a talented up-and-coming boxer whose rise to prominence has been thwarted by Martin's fixing of fights in the city. Frank needs Buddy's management contract for that. Frank seeks out Buddy's corrupt manager Saul Cooper, acting in league with Martin and was Schultz's manager. Cooper is playing his cronies in a private poker game in the back of Jim's Gym. Frank introduces himself as Bob Kelly with a lot of "long green", i.e. money to gamble with, misinterpreted as Lorne Greene. When Frank corrects them by saying, "No, I mean I've got cash," the group assumes that he manages Johnny Cash, they allow him to join the game and the stakes begin to climb, with the pot growing to include cash, gems, Monopoly playing pieces—and Buddy Briggs' contract. Frank wins, gets Buddy's contract. However, Cooper warns that though he's got Buddy's contract, he'll never get another fight in the city again. Arriving at the Police Squad crime lab, scientist Ted Olsen shows Frank and Ed the facial hair recovered from the Schultz' crime scene through a microscope.

The hair belongs to Luca Burnett, the man who killed Mike Schultz, a known associate of Martin. Frank's next step is to train Buddy Briggs. At Buddy's apartment, the audience meets Mary. Buddy and Mary's relationship is contentious. Mary has been drinking and calls Buddy a bum who could have been a contender She claims that Martin and Cooper "own him" and storms out of the apartment, returning to get her St. Bernard named "Muffin". Buddy loves Mary and wants to give her everything she has always wanted, including her own synagogue. Frank promises to help Buddy fight fair and win, claiming that he and Mary have been living in the sewers too long; when Frank leaves their apartment, the front door is a manhole in the street. Buddy and Frank decide to meet at Morey's Bar in the evening, to arrange a fight with "The Champ", managed by Cooper and Martin. Once there, Cooper introduces "Bob Kelly" to Martin as the "guy who manages Lorne Greene and Johnny Cash". Frank tries to get Martin to agree to a fight between Buddy and The Champ, but Martin promises he will never get a fight in this city because "I own this town!"

Frank tries to offend The Champ directly by shouting that he is dishonest and only wins because of guys "lying down or dying", but this does not work. Despite a torrent of insults from Frank, The Champ composed. Dejected and believing that a fight will never happen, Buddy says "forget it" and prepares to leave. Upon hearing this innocent remark, The Champ becomes enraged, shouting that "No one says'forget it' to me!" The Champ tries to hit Buddy, but Buddy blocks his punch and hits back, knocking down The Champ. With that, a boxing match between Buddy and The Champ is on; the evening of the fight, Martin walks into Buddy's dressing room and tells him that he has kidnapped Mary. He threatens her safety, he shows him Mary's toaster to prove. Buddy is upset because he trained to win the fight. Frank promises Buddy that he should still beat The Champ. Frank needs to find Mary before the fight is over and needs answers fast so he goes to see Johnny the Snitch. Johnny tells Frank; when Frank arrives, Mary has untied the ropes binding her, tries to escape.

Luca takes her into the steam room at gunpoint. A shootout between Frank and Luca begins, obscured due to the steam. However, we hear Frank shoot Luca, Frank and Mary drive back to the boxing match, where Buddy is about to lose. During the boxing match in a continuation of the gag where Martin shows Buddy things belonging to Mary to prove he has her, Martin holds up Mary's washing machine. Buddy is knocked down by The Champ. On the canvas, he begins drooling uncontrollably and hallucinating about Mary, with The Champ promising that Buddy will "always be a bum". However, Mary enters the arena and shouts "Buddy!" On seeing that Mary is safe, a reinvigorated Buddy jumps up and knocks out The Champ with a single punch. At the end of the match, B