A granary is a storehouse or room in a barn for threshed grain or animal feed. Ancient or primitive granaries are most made out of pottery. Granaries are built above the ground to keep the stored food away from mice and other animals. From ancient times grain has been stored in bulk; the oldest granaries yet found date back to 9500 BC and are located in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic A settlements in the Jordan Valley. The first were located in places between other buildings; however beginning around 8500 BC, they were moved inside houses, by 7500 BC storage occurred in special rooms. The first granaries measured 3 x 3 m on the outside and had suspended floors that protected the grain from rodents and insects and provided air circulation; these granaries are followed by those in Mehrgarh in the Indus Valley from 6000 BC. The ancient Egyptians made a practice of preserving grain in years of plenty against years of scarcity; the climate of Egypt being dry, grain could be stored in pits for a long time without discernible loss of quality.

A silo was a pit for storing grain. It is distinct from a granary, an above-ground structure. Simple storage granaries raised up on four or more posts appeared in the Yangshao culture in China and after the onset of intensive agriculture in the Korean peninsula during the Mumun pottery period as well as in the Japanese archipelago during the Final Jōmon/Early Yayoi periods. In the archaeological vernacular of Northeast Asia, these features are lumped with those that may have functioned as residences and together are called'raised floor buildings'. In vernacular architecture of Indonesian archipelago granaries are made of wood and bamboo materials and most of them are built raised up on four or more posts to avoid rodents and insects. Examples of Indonesian granary styles are the Sundanese Minang rangkiang. In Great Britain small granaries were built on mushroom-shaped stumps called staddle stones, they were built of timber frame construction and had slate roofs. Larger ones were similar to linhays, but with the upper floor enclosed.

Access to the first floor was via stone staircase on the outside wall. Towards the close of the 19th century, warehouses specially intended for holding grain began to multiply in Great Britain. There are climatic difficulties in the way of storing grain in Great Britain on a large scale, but these difficulties have been overcome. Modern grain farming operations use manufactured steel granaries to store grain on-site until it can be trucked to major storage facilities in anticipation of shipping; the large mechanized facilities seen in Russia and North America are known as grain elevators. Grain must be kept away from moisture for as long as possible to preserve it in good condition and prevent mold growth. Newly harvested grain brought into a granary tends to contain excess moisture, which encourages mold growth leading to fermentation and heating, both of which are undesirable and affect quality. Fermentation spoils grain and may cause chemical changes that create poisonous mycotoxins. One traditional remedy is to spread the grain in thin layers on a floor, where it is turned to aerate it thoroughly.

Once the grain is sufficiently dry it can be transferred to a granary for storage. Today, this can be done by means of a mechanical grain auger to move grain from one granary to another. In modern silos, grain is force-aerated in situ or circulated through external grain drying equipment. Hórreo Raccard Storage silo Corn crib Groote Schuur, the stately South African home was a granary. Rice barn Treppenspeicher Ghorfa Parish granary


Humanos is the name of a musical band from Portugal formed in 2004. The idea behind it was to bring to light some unreleased songs by an iconic Portuguese artist, a singer-songwriter from the 1980s, António Variações. David Fonseca, Manuela Azevedo, Camané, Sérgio Nascimento, Hélder Gonçalves, Nuno Rafael and João Cardoso are the seven members of a group responsible for what became an unmatched success at that point in the Portuguese music scene; the homonymous album Humanos scored quintuple platinum status, staying for weeks in #1. "Muda de Vida", "Maria Albertina" and "Rugas" are just some of the group hits. All this culminated in three sold out concerts, two of them in Coliseu dos Recreios and the other in Porto. There was another memorable performance, in front of a crowd of 40,000 people, at the Festival do Sudoeste Portuguese summer music festival, in 2005. Humanos however was a short-lived project. Thus, the release, in November 2006, of a CD and a DVD recorded at the Coliseu concerts, marked the end of the Humanos project.

All songs by Humanos were written by António Variações who recorded them as demos only and kept them in a shoe box, found after his death. Debut album released in 2004. Lyrcs and music is by António Variações A Teia Quero É Viver Muda De Vida Na Lama A Culpa É Da Vontade Maria Albertina Rugas Gelado De Verão Amor De Conserva Já Não Sou Quem Era Não Me Consumas Adeus Que Me Vou Embora Live album released in 2006. Lyrcs and music is by António Variações CDNa Lama A Culpa É Da Vontade A Teia Estou Além Maria Albertina Já Não Sou Quem Era Adeus Que Me Vou Embora Anjinho da Guarda Amor De Conserva O Corpo é que Paga Gelado De Verão Hardcore Rugas Eu Estava a Pensar Agora Em Ti Não Me Consumas Quero É Viver Muda De VidaDVD 12005: Concerto at the Coliseu dos RecreiosIt contains a documentary Humanos - A Vida de Variações and videos "Muda De Vida", "Maria Albertina", "Quero Viver" DVD 22005: Humanos in Festival Sudoeste Both studio album and live album as well as DVDs credited to: Camané - vocals David Fonseca - vocals and guitar Manuela Azevedo - vocals Hélder Gonçalves - bass and guitar Nuno Rafael - guitar João Cardoso - piano and keyboards Sérgio Nascimento - drums and percussion Maria Alejandra Ordoñez Ocampo - Vocals, Official Website Facebook page


Chitterne is a village and civil parish in the county of Wiltshire, in the south west of England. The village lies in the middle of Salisbury Plain, about 7 miles east of the town of Warminster; the Chitterne Brook, a small tributary of the River Wylye, flows southwest through the village. A large settlement of 60 households, held by Edward of Salisbury, was recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086. Chitterne was one of many Wiltshire estates owned in the 12th century by Ela, 3rd Countess of Salisbury. There were Chitterne St Mary to the west and Chitterne All Saints to the east, their villages were adjacent and each had a small parish church. In the 19th century they became two civil parishes in 1907 they were combined to form Chitterne civil parish. A village school was built near the village green in 1840 and was attended by children of all ages until 1937, when it became a junior school; the school closed in 1967, by which time the number of pupils had fallen below 20. Chitterne has a village hall.

Opposite the hall is a large sports field, on which cricket and football are played, according to the season. The village has a public house called the King's Head. There are several notable houses, including Chitterne House, the Manor, the Grange, Manor Farm, all Grade II listed for their architectural merit. Large parts of Chitterne parish are Ministry of Defence land within the Salisbury Plain Training Area; the latter has an uninhabited "German Village" used by the British Army for training in street warfare. This was built in the mid-1980s, before the Berlin Wall was demolished, is based on a typical village of Saxony in Germany. A few miles to the north, across Salisbury Plain in the "Danger Area", now part of Heytesbury parish, lies the remains of the ancient village of Imber; the first records of churches in the parishes are from 1270 for All 1319 for St Mary's. From 1848 the two churches were served by one vicar, by that time the churches were in need of repair and too small to serve the growing population, so a new church was built in the centre of the village and opened in 1863.

The new church was built in flint and stone in the Perpendicular style, to designs of T. H. Wyatt; the 12th-century font was brought from St Mary's, as were two bells. The church was designated as Grade II* listed in 1968 and is now part of the Salisbury Plain benefice. At first the chancels of both earlier churches were retained, to serve as chapels for their graveyards. All Saints was demolished in 1877 but St Mary's chancel still stands and is Grade II* listed. A Wesleyan Methodist chapel was built sometime before 1846, was taken over by Baptists. After a fire in 1903, a rebuilt chapel opened on the same site in 1904; the chapel is now a private house. Most local government services are provided by Wiltshire Council, which has its offices in Trowbridge, 15 miles to the north. Chitterne has its own elected parish council of seven members, five representing the ancient parish of Chitterne All Saints and two representing the former Chitterne St Mary; the village is represented in Parliament by the MP for Andrew Murrison.

In Dennis Wheatley's 1934 novel The Devil Rides Out, characters drive through the parishes of Chitterne St. Mary and Chitterne All Saints. A Satanic'Grand Sabbat' takes place somewhere between Chitterne All Saints and Tilshead. Sir Arthur Gooch, 14th Baronet Sir Richard Johns, Royal Air Force officer Ferdinand Mount and journalist, grew up in Chitterne General Sir Nick Parker, soldier General John Strawson, soldier Danny Sullivan, US technologist, lived in Chitterne John Wallis Titt, was born in Chitterne. Media related to Chitterne at Wikimedia Commons