The Grand Army of the Republic was a fraternal organization composed of veterans of the Union Army, Union Navy and the U. S. Revenue Cutter Service who served in the American Civil War, it was founded in 1866 in Springfield and grew to include hundreds of "posts" across the nation. It was dissolved in 1956 at the death of Albert Woolson of Duluth, Minnesota. Linking men through their experience of the war, the G. A. R. became among the first organized advocacy groups in American politics, supporting voting rights for black veterans, promoting patriotic education, helping to make Memorial Day a national holiday, lobbying the United States Congress to establish regular veterans' pensions, supporting Republican political candidates. Its peak membership, at 410,000, was in 1890, a high point of various Civil War commemorative and monument dedication ceremonies, it was succeeded by the Sons of Union Veterans of the Civil War, composed of male descendants of Union Army and Union Navy veterans. After the end of American Civil War, various state and local organizations were formed for veterans to network and maintain connections with each other.
Many of the veterans used their shared experiences as a basis for fellowship. Groups of men began joining together, first for camaraderie and for political power. Emerging as most influential among the various organizations during the first post-war years was the Grand Army of the Republic, founded on April 6, 1866, on the principles of "Fraternity and Loyalty," in Springfield, Illinois, by Dr. Benjamin F. Stephenson and the first GAR Post was established in Decatur, Illinois; the GAR grew and prospered as a de facto political arm of the Republican Party during the heated political contests of the Reconstruction Era. The commemoration of Union Army and Navy veterans and white became entwined with partisan politics; the GAR promoted voting rights for Negro veterans, as many white veterans recognized their demonstrated patriotism and sacrifices, providing one of the first racially integrated social/fraternal organizations in America. Black veterans, who enthusiastically embraced the message of equality, shunned black veterans' organizations in preference for racially inclusive and integrated groups.
But when the Republican Party's commitment to reform in the South decreased, the GAR's mission became ill-defined and the organization floundered. The GAR disappeared in the early 1870s, many state-centered divisions, named "departments", local posts ceased to exist. In his General Order No. 11, dated May 5, 1868, first GAR Commander-in-Chief, General John A. Logan declared May 30 to be Memorial Day, calling upon the GAR membership to make the May 30 observance an annual occurrence. Although not the first time war graves had been decorated, Logan's order established "Memorial Day" as the day upon which Americans now pay tribute to all their war casualties, missing-in-action, deceased veterans; as decades passed inspired commemorations spread across the South as "Confederate Memorial Day" or "Confederate Decoration Day" in April, led by organizations of Southern soldiers in the parallel United Confederate Veterans. In the 1880s, the Union veterans' organization revived under new leadership that provided a platform for renewed growth, by advocating Federal pensions for veterans.
As the organization revived, black veterans joined in organized local posts. The national organization, failed to press the case for similar pensions for black soldiers. Most black troops never received any pension or remuneration for wounds incurred during their Civil War service; the GAR was organized into "Departments" at the state level and "Posts" at the community level, military-style uniforms were worn by its members. There were posts in every state in the U. S. and several posts overseas. The pattern of establishing departments and local posts was used by other American military veterans' organizations, such as the Veterans of Foreign Wars and the American Legion; the G. A. R.'s political power grew during the latter part of the 19th century, it helped elect several United States presidents, beginning with the 18th, Ulysses S. Grant, ending with the 25th, William McKinley. Five Civil War veterans and members were elected President of the United States. For a time, candidates could not get Republican presidential or congressional nominations without the endorsement of the GAR veterans voting bloc.
With membership limited to "veterans of the late unpleasantness," the GAR encouraged the formation of Allied Orders to aid them in various works. Numerous male organizations jousted for the backing of the GAR, the political battles became quite severe until the GAR endorsed the Sons of Union Veterans of the Civil War as its heir. Although an overwhelmingly male organization, the GAR is known to have had at least two women who were members; the first female known to be admitted to the GAR was Kady Brownell, who served in the Union Army with her husband Robert, a private in the 1st Rhode Island Infantry at the First Battle of Bull Run in Virginia and with the 5t
Liebe und Eifersucht is a Singspiel, an opera with spoken dialogue, in three acts by the German composer and author E. T. A. Hoffmann, composed in 1807 on his own libretto based on the translation by August Wilhelm Schlegel of a play by Calderón; the opera was first published by Schott in 1999, premiered at the 2008 Ludwigsburger Schlossfestspiele. The author Ernst Theodor Amadeus Hoffmann was interested in music, wanted to become a musician, added Amadeus to his names in honour of Mozart, he composed one successful opera in 1816, which became a major influence on the development of German Romantic opera. He wrote his own libretto for the earlier work Liebe und Eifersucht, based on August Wilhelm Schlegel's translation of a play by Pedro Calderón de la Barca, La banda y la flor. Hoffmann composed the opera in 1807; the opera was not performed in Hoffmann's lifetime. It was first published by Schott in 1999. and premiered at the Ludwigsburger Schlossfestspiele on 27 July 2008, at the Forum am Schlosspark in Ludwigsburg, in a coproduction with the Staatstheater am Gärtnerplatz in Munich, where it was first performed on 27 September that year.
Michael Hofstetter, who staged a series of revivals of played operas, conducted the Ludwigsburg Festival orchestra and singers from the Gärtnerplatztheater in performances and a recording. The first production in Switzerland was mounted in Zurich in 2016 by the Free Opera Company, with dialogues in more modern German and a reduced orchestra, conducted by Emmanuel Siffert; the action takes place in Florence. The plot is marked by confusions in relationships, caused by disguise and by misunderstanding of signs and tokens of love; the music was described as inspired by Mozart, "everywhere marked by understanding and craftsmanship – and nowhere distinguished by genius." E. T. A. Hoffmann – Liebe Und Eifersucht Discogs E. T. A. Hoffmann: Liebe Und Eifersucht / Hofstetter, Gerstberger, Specht, Martin ArkivMusic
Hrvoje Sep is a Croatian professional boxer. He was boxing for BK Leonardo under Leonardo Pjetraj. Sep was 6 times champion of two times runner-up, he was WSB Season I Champion and two times as member of Astana Arlans team, with a 22-8 record. He competed in the light heavyweight event at the 2016 Summer Olympics, defeating Abdelrahman Salah in 1st round while losing to hometown Michel Borges in 2nd. At the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro, boxing as a Light Heavyweight: Round 1/32 - Defeated Abdelrahman Salah 2-1 Round 1/16 - Lost to Michel Borges 0-3 At the 2009 AIBA World Boxing Championships in Milan, boxing as a Light Heavyweight: Round 1/64 - Defeated Siarhei Karneyeu 16-0 Round 1/32 - Lost to Jeysson Monroy Varela 8-16At the 2011 AIBA World Boxing Championships in Baku, boxing as a Light Heavyweight: 1st round bye Round 1/32 - Lost to Džemal Bošnjak 8-17At the 2013 AIBA World Boxing Championships in Almaty, boxing as a Light Heavyweight: 1st round bye Round 1/32 - Lost to Ali Ghoussoun 1-2At the 2015 AIBA World Boxing Championships in Doha, boxing as a Light Heavyweight: Round 1/32 - Defeated Juan Carlos Carrillo 3-0 Round 1/16 - Defeated Aaron Spagnolo 3-0 Quarterfinals - Lost to Julio César la Cruz 0-3 Hrvoje Sep at AIBA Hrvoje Sep at the International Olympic Committee Hrvoje Sep at the Olympic Channel Hrvoje Sep at Olympics at Sports-Reference.com Professional boxing record for Hrvoje Sep from BoxRec