The Grand Banks of Newfoundland are a series of underwater plateaus south-east of the island of Newfoundland on the North American continental shelf. The Grand Banks are one of the world's richest fishing grounds, supporting Atlantic cod, swordfish and capelin, as well as shellfish and sea mammals; the Grand Banks of Newfoundland are a group of underwater plateaus south-east of Newfoundland on the North American continental shelf. These areas are shallow, ranging from 15 to 91 metres in depth; the cold Labrador Current mixes with the warm waters of the Gulf Stream here causing extreme foggy conditions. The mixing of these waters and the shape of the ocean bottom lifts nutrients to the surface; these conditions helped to create one of the richest fishing grounds in the world. Fish species include Atlantic cod, swordfish and capelin; the area supports large colonies of seabirds such as northern gannets, shear waters and sea ducks and various sea mammals such as seals and whales. Overfishing in the late 20th century caused the collapse of several species cod, leading to the closure of the Canadian Grand Banks fishery in 1992.
Extensive glaciation took place in the area of the Grand Banks during the last glacial maximum. By 13,000 years ago the majority of the ice had melted, leaving the Grand Banks exposed as several islands extending for hundreds of kilometres, it is believed. While no archaeological evidence for a European presence near the Grand Banks survives from the period between the short-lived Greenland Norse settlement at L'Anse aux Meadows in CE 1000 and John Cabot's transatlantic crossing in 1497, some evidence suggests that voyagers from Portugal, the Basque Region and England and others preceded Cabot. In the 15th century some texts refer to a land called Bacalao, the land of the codfish, Newfoundland. Within a few years of Cabot's voyage the existence of fishing grounds on the Grand Banks became known in Europe. Ships from France and Portugal pioneered fishing there, followed by vessels from Spain, while ships from England were scarce in the early years; this soon changed after Bernard Drake's Newfoundland Expedition in 1585, which wiped out the Spanish and Portuguese fishing-industries in this area.
The fish stocks became important for the early European-settler economies of eastern Canada and New England. On 18 November 1929, a major earthquake on the southwestern part of the Grand Banks bordering the Laurentian Channel caused an underwater landslide which resulted in extensive damage to transatlantic cables and generated a rare Atlantic tsunami that struck the south coast of Newfoundland, claiming 29 lives on the Burin Peninsula. Technological advances in fishing, as well as geopolitical disputes over territorial sea and exclusive economic zone boundaries, led to overfishing and a serious decline in the fish stocks of the Grand Banks from around 1990; the Canadian Grand Banks fishery was closed in 1993. Canada's EEZ covers the majority of the Grand Banks except for the lucrative "nose" and "tail" of the fishing bank; the 1783 Treaty of Paris gave the United States shared rights to fish in these waters, but that section of the Treaty is no longer in force. The exclusive economic zone of the French territory Saint Pierre and Miquelon occupies a pin-shaped section at the west edge of the Grand Banks, with the 22 kilometres radius head of the pin surrounding the islands and the needle heading south for 348 km.
Canada is performing the hydrographic and geological surveys necessary for claiming the entire continental shelf off eastern Canada, under the auspices of the latest United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. Once this aspect of UNCLOS is ratified, Canada will control these remaining parts of Grand Banks which are outside of its EEZ jurisdiction. Petroleum reserves have been discovered and a number of oil fields are under development in this region, most notably the Hibernia, Terra Nova, White Rose projects. Semi-fictional depictions of fishermen working on the Grand Banks can be found in Rudyard Kipling's novel Captains Courageous and in Sebastian Junger's non-fiction book The Perfect Storm; the Grand Banks are portrayed in the 1990 film The Hunt for Red October. Herman Melville described passing through the Banks as a young sailor on his first voyage in his autobiographical novel ‘’Redburn: His First Voyage’’, where he saw whales and a haunting shipwreck with weeks-dead sailors still on board.
Banks dory Collapse of the Atlantic northwest cod fishery Oil spill Turbot War West Greenland Current The Grand Banks and the Flemish Cap Government response to the standing committee on fisheries and oceans' tenth report Watch Cries from the Deep—a Jacques Cousteau documentary on the Grand Banks
Padmadurg known as Kasa fort, is one of five historical sea forts built by Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaj and located in Raigad District Maharashtra, India. It was built by Marathas to challenge another seaport Janjira, controlled by Siddis. Padmadurg is one of the sea forts built by Maratha King Shivaji Maharaj in 1676 in order to control the activities in Arabian sea, it is located in the northwest direction of the Janjira fort at a distance of about 4 km. During cleanup activities in 2012, ASI authorities found around 250 cannonballs of historical value; the sea fort of Padmadurg is not as big as Janjira but still the fort can be visited and enjoyed. Visiting the fort requires taking permission from the Customs/Navy; the fort was not only a part of Sindhudurg's defenses but was Shivaji Maharaj's main ship construction yard. This fort can be viewed from Janjira. There was a belt of land from Dandi seashore to Padmadurga but it got blown away under the water in 2004; this fort can be accessed by boats.
Boats are available from Murud-Koliwada. The fort is included in the protected monuments list of Archaeological Survey of India, but as on 2011, the fort and the area is in neglected state and ASI is unable take restoration work for want of resources. During cleanup activities in 2012, ASI authorities found around 250 cannonballs of historical value; when Shivaji Maharaj decided to take on the Siddis of Janjira, his admiral, Daulat Khan, built this fort on an island next to Janjira. The rock, on which the fort was built, was called the fort was named Padmadurg; the fort has six bastions. The fort lay between the Sindhudurga and the coast, featured a dry dock - a narrow tongue of water between two rock walls, it is said that there was an underground way to sindhudurga fort. There are no direct boat fares to the fort as a result of which the visitors have to hire a personal boat. Maharaj had said about it that,"By constructing Padmadurga he set up another Rajpuri to overshadow the Rajpuri of the Siddis."
John Newsome Crossley is a British-Australian mathematician and logician who writes in the field of logic in computer science, history of mathematics and medieval history. He is involved in the field of mathematical logic in South East Asia; as of 2010, Crossley is Emeritus Professor of Logic at Monash University, Australia where he has been connected since 1968. Crossley studied at Oxford University where he received his DPhil and MA in 1963, his early career was spent at Oxford where he was the first university lecturer in mathematical logic and was a Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford. He is still a Quondam Fellow there, he was offered a Readership position and following a lecturing visit to Monash University in 1968, he was elected to a Chair in Pure Mathematics. He accepted this position and as of 2010, Crossley continues to be active at Monash University where he serves through its Faculty of Information Technology. Crossley has written books in logic and computer science, he is known as the lead author of the book.
Co-written by some of his students, the book popularized the subject to the interested layman. Many of Crossley's doctoral students have gone on to be professors themselves and have written books in the field of mathematics or computing, including Peter Aczel, Wilfrid Hodges, John Lane Bell and Rod Downey. Crossley is an avid photographer. In 1974 he first exhibited his photographs in Melbourne and again 2005 he exhibited Composition and Context, a collection of photographs shot by Crossley around the world that illustrates the title and theme of the exhibition. A number of these photographs since have appeared in publications in Australia and the Philippines. Constructive Order Types John N. Crossley North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1969 What is Mathematical Logic John N. Crossley et al. Oxford University Press, 1972 Combinatorial Functors John N. Crossley and Anil Nerode, Ergebnisse der Mathematik und ihrer Grenzgebiete, Berlin, 1974 The emergence of number John Newsome Crossley, World Scientific, Singapore, 1987 Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art -- Companion & Commentary, Shen Kangshen, John N. Crossley and Anthony W.-C.
Lun. Oxford University Press, 1999 Adapting proofs-as-programs: The Curry-Howard Protocol, Iman Hafiz Poernomo, John Newsome Crossley and Martin Wirsing, Springer Monographs in Computer Science, New York, 2005 Growing ideas of number John N. Crossley Australian Council for Educational Research, Camberwell, 2007 Ars musice Constant J. Mews, John N. Crossley, Catherine Jeffreys, Leigh McKinnon, Carol Williams, Johannes de Grocheio. Consortium on the Teaching of the Middle Ages, Kalamazoo, MI. 2011 John Gough's Article Monash Library Search: Publications 1990–2009 Homepage of John N. Crossley
Borris is a townland comprising a little over 1,327 acres in the civil parish of Twomileborris in County Tipperary. At the time of the 1891 census, it had a population of 212; the village of Two-Mile Borris is located in the centre-west of the townland. The townland illustrates how Borrisleigh civil parish is an interesting complex of enclaves and exclaves, it is bounded on the north by two of the four exclaves that belong to the neighbouring townland of Noard while another forms an enclave within Borris, lying just to the south of the historic core of the village of Two-mile Borris. The current Ordnance Survey map of the area shows that the ancient perimeter of this small enclave is still present on the ground, as the boundary of a field which lies just to the west of the modern housing area called Fanning Park and to the east of the site of an old graveyard and the ruins of the castle. Borris townland has two small, exclaves of its own, they are surrounded by Garraun townland. The larger exclave has an area of just 1 acre 2 roods and 16 perches, while the smaller is only 3 roods and 26 perches in size.
In the early 19th-century, the boundaries of these two exclaves were still completely reflected in the field boundaries of the time. By the late 19th century much less of the boundaries were still reflected as field boundaries. By the early 21st century, what little remained of the boundaries of these two exclaves formed part of the boundary of a field lying just to the north-east of the new housing area called Dún na Rí; the western edge of this field contained what remained of the eastern boundary of the larger exclave. The north-eastern corner of this field marked the north-eastern corner of the smaller exclave and short stretches of the edges meeting at this corner reflected the northern and eastern boundaries of the exclave
Long Run is a retired National Hunt racehorse owned by Robert Waley-Cohen and trained during his racing career by Nicky Henderson in Great Britain and by his owner. In January 2011, ridden by amateur jockey Sam Waley-Cohen, the son of owner Robert Waley-Cohen, Long Run won the weather-delayed 2010 King George VI Chase at Kempton Park ahead of stablemate Riverside Theatre in second and Kauto Star, aiming to win the race for a record fifth time, in third, it was found out that the champion was not at his best and had burst a blood vessel. In March 2011, Long Run provided jockey Waley-Cohen and trainer Henderson with their first Cheltenham Gold Cup winner when he finished clear of previous winners Imperial Commander and Kauto Star. Returning in the 2011/12 National Hunt season, Long Run finished second to Kauto Star in both the Betfair Chase and the King George VI Chase, with Kauto Star winning the latter for the fifth time. Long Run had another clash with Kauto Star in the 2012 Cheltenham Gold Cup.
He went with Kauto Star recovering from injury. However, both horses were upstaged by JP McManus' horse Synchronised, who won the race by 2 and a quarter lengths from The Giant Bolster, with Long Run finishing in third. On Boxing Day 2012, Long Run, the favourite at 15/8, won the King George VI Chase at Kempton. In what was described as "the most gripping finish of recent times," he beat Captain Chris by a neck on the line. Long Run participated in the 2014 Grand National at Aintree, but fell at the Valentine's Brook on the first circuit, he followed up with a ninth-placed finish in the Grand Steeple-Chase de Paris in May 2014 but was off the course until March 2016 when he reappeared in a hunter chase at Carlisle. Long Run finished five of his retirement was announced after the race. Upton Estate Long Run – profile at the Racing Post website Sky Sports Profile Career 1-2-3 Colour Chart – Long Run
Abermule with Llandyssil is a community in Montgomeryshire, Wales, including the villages of Abermule and Llandyssil, had a population of 1527 as of the 2011 UK Census. It includes settlements of Llanmerewig and Green Lane; the community, located near the border with England, is English-speaking. In the 1986 Review, Abermule with Llandyssil was formed from the former Llandyssil community, with the inclusion of parts of the former Bettws and Newtown communities, Abermule and Llandyssil; as at 2005, the community was divided for electoral purposes into two wards: Abermule in the west and Llandyssil in the east. By 2017, there were seven council seats for Abermule, which had expanded in population, four for Llandyssil, although in both wards fewer councillors than that were nominated; the railway now known as the Cambrian Line runs through the Community, following the river Severn. The former Abermule railway station is now closed