Northern State Parkway
The Northern State Parkway is a 28.88-mile-long limited-access state parkway on Long Island in the U. S. state of New York. The western terminus is at the Queens–Nassau County line, where the parkway continues westward into New York City as the Grand Central Parkway; the eastern terminus is at New York State Route NY 454 in Hauppauge. The parkway is designated an unsigned reference route; as its name implies, the parkway services communities along the northern half of the island. In western Nassau County the parkway sports six lanes, three eastbound and three westbound, narrowing to four lanes total in central Nassau at the Wantagh Parkway and through its twelve miles or so in western Suffolk County, where it ends, it was constructed in stages throughout the 1930s and again post-World War II in the late 1940s/early 1950s until it reached its current terminus in Hauppauge in 1965. The Northern State Parkway is an eastern extension of the Grand Central Parkway, it was part of master planner Robert Moses' extensive road-building campaign and was built as a sister road to the Southern State Parkway.
In recent years its design has become dated due to an increase in commuter traffic using the roadway, numerous improvements have been made or are still on paper. Like its siblings in the State Parkway system on Long Island, the Hudson Valley, in New York City, commercial truck traffic is banned from the parkway due to low overpasses; the Long Island Expressway was built on by Moses to handle truck traffic traveling between New York City and Long Island's famed East End. The LIE runs directly alongside the Northern State in some parts of Nassau County; the Northern State Parkway begins at the Queens–Nassau county line in front of the Towers Country Club in Little Neck. After crossing the county line, the Northern State proceeds east through Lake Success as a six lane parkway, passing the northern end of the campus of Long Island Jewish Medical Center. A short distance east of the medical center, the parkway crosses under Lakeville Road and enters exit 25, which connects to Lakeville Road via Marcus Avenue.
The parkway proceeds northeast through Lake Success, entering exit 26 which serves New Hyde Park Road. At this junction, the parkway remains in close distance of the Long Island Expressway; the parkway winds northeast through North Hills, approaching the eastbound lanes of the Long Island Expressway, but entering exit 27, which connects to Shelter Rock Road. The Northern State and the Long Island Expressway begin paralleling each other in both directions, passing north of Searingtown. Just east of exit 36 on the expressway, the Northern State breaks away to the east for a short distance through Albertson, entering exit 28, which connects to Willis Avenue; the six-lane parkway continues eastward through Albertson, crossing under a railroad line and entering exit 29, which connects to Roslyn Road. The Northern State enters Old Westbury, passing a large set of baseball fields. Now paralleling Glen Cove Road, the Northern State proceeds south into exit 30, I. U. Willets Road. A short distance to the south, the parkway into Carle Place.
Through Carle Place, the Northern State enters exit 31, which connects to NY 25, crossing under NY 25B. Bending east, the parkway crosses over NY 25, entering exit 31A, which serves the northern terminus of the Meadowbrook State Parkway in Westbury. After the interchange, the parkway proceeds northeast, passing under Carle Road in Westbury, entering The Hedges section, where exit 32, serving Post Road, interchanges; the Northern State crosses through Birchwood Knolls and West Jericho as a six-lane parkway, where it enters exit 33, the northern terminus of the Wantagh State Parkway. After crossing under the southbound lane access ramp, the Northern State crosses under a flyover from the Wantagh northbound entering exit 34 in the town of Oyster Bay, which serves Brush Hollow Road. Continuing east through Jericho Gardens, the Northern State Parkway proceeds northeast as a four-lane roadway, passing north of Cantiauge Park as it enters West Birchwood. In West Birchwood, the Northern State bends northeast, beginning a new parallel with the Long Island Expressway.
Like at exit 27, approaching the expressway, the Northern State enters interchange 35, which serves the concurrency of NY 106 and NY 107. After the cloverleaf interchange, the parkway enters East Birchwood on a parallel of the Long Island Expressway, which connects to the Northern State via exit 42. Like the previous parallel, the Northern State forks east away from the expressway, crossing over a one-track railroad line through Birchwood. A short distance after, the parkway enters exit 36, a cloverleaf interchange with South Oyster Bay Road before entering Woodbury. In Woodbury, the Northern State Parkway continues east, crossing under Woodbury Road before entering a partial cloverleaf interchange with NY 135. After NY 135, the parkway bends northeast. A short distance after, the parkway enters another interchange with the Long Island Expressway and an interchange with Sunnyside Boulevard. Here, the route enters Trail View State Park before becoming a divided four-lane parkway through dense woods.
The parkway makes a gradual bend to the east southeast, crossing the county line into Suffolk County just west of exit 39. Now i
Port Washington Branch
The Port Washington Branch is an electrified two-track rail line and service owned and operated by the Long Island Rail Road in the U. S. state of New York. It branches north from the Main Line at Winfield Junction, just east of the Woodside station in the New York City borough of Queens, runs parallel to Northern Boulevard past Mets-Willets Point, Murray Hill, Auburndale, Douglaston, Little Neck, crosses into Nassau County for stops in Great Neck and Plandome before terminating at Port Washington; the Port Washington Branch is the only LIRR branch to not serve Jamaica, a major LIRR transportation hub, as it branches off the Main Line several miles northwest of that station. The line has two tracks from Woodside to Great Neck and one track from east of Great Neck past Manhasset and Plandome stations to Port Washington; this causes slight delays during two-way rush hour operations. A second track cannot be added through Manhasset and Plandome due to the proximity of businesses to the narrow right-of-way in Manhasset, the fact that the trestle between Great Neck and Manhasset has only one track.
To reduce delays on the used line, most peak-hour east-bound trains are either local from Penn Station to Great Neck or express from Penn Station to Port Washington. A mix of local and express peak-hour trains go west on weekday mornings. Extra service is offered during the U. S. Open tennis tournament and for New York Mets home games, both of which are held in Flushing Meadows–Corona Park; these trains stop at a special Mets–Willets Point station between Woodside and Flushing Main Street. The route runs along a high train trestle over the marshes at the southern end of Manhasset Bay; the bridge stands 181 feet tall and runs 678 feet across the bay, offering a view of the Manhasset Bay. Scenes from the silent film serial "The Perils of Pauline" are said to have been shot on the trestle. There is only Little Neck Parkway at Little Neck Station; the Port Washington Branch was built by the Flushing Railroad, in 1854 from Hunters Point in Long Island City to Flushing, before the LIRR opened its line to Long Island City.
It was the first non-LIRR line on Long Island. The company was reorganized in 1859 as the New York and Flushing Railroad, established a subsidiary known as the North Shore Railroad to extend the line from Flushing to Great Neck in 1866. Intending to run further east to Roslyn, Oyster Bay, Huntington, the NY&F's plans were thwarted by the LIRR who reached those destination first, as well as poor service and competition with the 1868-established Flushing and North Side Railroad. In 1869, the New York State Legislature authorized the Flushing and North Side to buy the New York and Flushing east of the LIRR crossing at Winfield Station, while the segment between Hunters Point and Winfield was acquired by the South Side Railroad of Long Island until it was abandoned for passenger service east of what was to become the former Laurel Hill Station in 1875. Part of the right-of-way ran through. By 1874, all branches of the Flushing and North Side Railroad, including the Main Line to Great Neck were incorporated into the Flushing, North Shore and Central Railroad, which included the Central Railroad of Long Island.
Two years it would become part of the Long Island Rail Road, which closed the line east of Flushing in 1881 and reopened it a year as subsidiary known as the Long Island City and Flushing Railroad. The LIC&F was merged with the LIRR on April 2, 1889. Despite a failed attempt to extend the line from Great Neck to Roslyn in 1882, wealthy Port Washington residents persuaded the LIRR to bring the terminus to their hometown in 1895; this required the construction of the Manhasset Viaduct over the marshes at the southern end of Manhasset Bay, authorized by an LIRR subsidiary called the Great Neck and Port Washington Railroad. According to Manhasset's website, "in 1897, a contract was given to the Carnegie Steel Company and a subsidiary, the King Iron Company, undertook the job of constructing the bridge." The trestle bridge cost about $60,000, the first train to cross it was on June 23, 1898. The GN&PW was disestablished as a subsidiary in 1902, that segment became part of the Port Washington Branch.
Two other early 20th-century stations built on the Port Washington Branch were in Auburndale and Plandome. The branch was electrified from the main line to Winfield Junction by June 23, 1910, to Whitestone Junction onto the Whitestone Branch to Whitestone Landing Station by October 22, 1912, to its terminus in Port Washington by October 21, 1913. In 1910, the Public Service Commission approved the LIRR's application to eliminate grade crossings along the line; these projects were prerequisites for the extension of the line's second track to Great Neck and Whitestone and the electrification of the line. Grade crossing elimination projects took place during the 1910s and 1920s in Queens and Nassau County; these grade elimination projects included unique station reconstruction in places such as Murray Hill which had a station house built over the tracks and Great Neck which had an elaborate plaza built around it. In 1929, the station at Winfield Junction was eliminated, making Woodside Station the transfer point between Main Line and Port Washington Branch trains.
Despite the elimination of the Whitestone Branch in 1932, as well as Flushing Bridge Street station, Flushing station kept the name "Flushin
Long Island Sound
Long Island Sound is a tidal estuary of the Atlantic Ocean, lying between the eastern shores of The Bronx, New York City, southern Westchester County, Connecticut to the north, the North Shore of Long Island, to the south. From west to east, the sound stretches 110 miles from the East River in New York City, along the North Shore of Long Island, to Block Island Sound. A mix of freshwater from tributaries and saltwater from the ocean, Long Island Sound is 21 miles at its widest point and varies in depth from 65 to 230 feet. Several major cities are situated along Long Island Sound and more than 8 million people live within its watershed. Major Connecticut cities on the Sound include Bridgeport, New London, Stamford and New Haven. Cities on the New York side of the Sound include Rye, Glen Cove, New Rochelle, portions of Queens and the Bronx in New York City. Mansions and wealthy neighborhoods characterize a good portion of the coast of the sound from Port Jefferson and east on Long Island. Property values in Westchester County, Long Island, southwestern Connecticut are among the highest in the nation, due to the proximity to New York City and their location on "The Sound".
About 18,000 years ago, Long Island Sound, much of Long Island were covered by a thick sheet of ice, part of the Late Wisconsin Glacier. About 3,300 feet thick in its interior and about 1,300 to 1,600 feet thick along its southern edge, it was the most recent of a series of glaciations that covered the area during the past 10 million years. Sea level at that time was about 330 feet lower than today; the continental ice sheet scraped off an average of 65 feet of surface material from the New England landscape deposited the material from the Connecticut coast into the Sound, creating what is now Long Island. When the ice sheet stopped advancing 18,000 years ago, a large amount of drift was deposited, known as the Ronkonkoma Moraine, which stretches along much of southern Long Island. Another period of equilibrium resulted in the Harbor Hill Moraine along most of northern Long Island; the next moraines to the north were created just off the Connecticut coast. These moraines, created by much smaller deposits are discontinuous and much smaller than those to the south.
The Connecticut coast moraines are in two groups: the Norwalk area and the Madison-Old Saybrook area. Sandy plains and beaches resulted from the erosion of moraines and redeposition in these areas, to the east of each, where the drift cover is thinnest, exposed bedrock creates rocky headlands with marshlands behind them; the Captain Islands off Greenwich, along with the Norwalk Islands and Falkner Island off Guilford, Connecticut are parts of a recessional moraine. Other islands, including the Thimble Islands, are for the most part exposed bedrock with a thin amount of drift not continuous. Other shoals and islands off the Connecticut coast are a mixture of these two extremes; the glacier created several sandy outwash deltas off the coast, including one off Bridgeport and another off New Haven, Connecticut. Fishers Island, New York appears to be related to the Harbor Hill Moraine. To the east of the Thimble Islands, inland moraines along the Connecticut coast include the broken Madison Moraine and the Old Saybrook Moraine.
The Long Island Sound basin existed. It had been formed by stream flows. A thick cover of sand and gravel was left in the basin from glacial meltwater streams. On the west, a ridge rising to about 65 feet below the present sea level is called the Mattatuck Sill, its lowest point is about 80 feet below sea level. Glacial meltwater formed "Lake Connecticut", a freshwater lake in the basin, until about 8,000 years ago, when the sea level rose to about 80 feet below today's level. Seawater overflowed into the basin, transforming it from a nontidal, freshwater lake to a tidal, saline arm of the sea. Numerous rivers empty into the Sound, including: Connecticut Connecticut River - Old Saybrook Housatonic River - Stratford & Milford Mianus River - Greenwich Mill River - New Haven Mill River - Fairfield Norwalk River - Norwalk Pequonnock River - Bridgeport Quinnipiac River - New Haven Rooster River/Ash Creek - Bridgeport & Fairfield Rippowam River - Stamford Saugatuck River - Westport Thames River - Groton & New London West River - West HavenNew York Byram River - Port Chester Hutchinson River-The Bronx Mamaroneck River - Mamaroneck Nissequogue River - Nissequogue & Ft SalongaRhode Island Pawcatuck River The whole watershed population is about 8.93 million as of the 2010 Census.
Due to the large chunk of New England being under the watershed, due to the Connecticut River, many riverside cities/towns are covered in the watershed, here is a list of some of the large towns and cities in the watershed from south to north, west to east: Huntington Oyster Bay Smithtown Parts of these New York City boroughs: The Bronx Queens Brooklyn Port Chester Stamford Bridgeport New Haven New London Danbury Waterbury Norwich Willimantic Torrington Hartford Westerly Springfield Worcester Pittsfield Brattleboro White River Jct. Keene West Lebanon Seaweeds in the Sound occur in greatest abundance in rocky areas between high tide and low tide as well as on rocks on the sea floor. Green seaweed populations fluctuate with the seasons. Monostroma
A parkway is a broad, landscaped highway thoroughfare. The term is used for a roadway in a park or connecting to a park from which trucks and other heavy vehicles are excluded. Many parkways intended for scenic, recreational driving have evolved into major urban and commuter routes; the term parkway is sometimes applied more to a variety of limited-access roads. In Russia, long and beautified thoroughfares are referred to as prospekts. Over the years, many different types of roads have been labeled parkways; the first parkways in the United States were developed during the late 19th century by landscape architects Frederick Law Olmsted and Beatrix Farrand as roads segregated for pedestrians, bicyclists and horse carriages, such as the Eastern Parkway, credited as the world's first parkway, Ocean Parkway in the New York City borough of Brooklyn. The terminology "parkway" to define this type of road was coined by Calvert Vaux and Frederick Law Olmsted in their proposal to link city and suburban parks with "pleasure roads".
Newer roads such as Bidwell in Buffalo, New York and Park Presidio Boulevard in San Francisco, California were designed for automobiles and are broad and divided by large landscaped central medians. During the early 20th century, the meaning of the word was expanded to include limited-access highways designed for recreational driving of automobiles, with landscaping; these parkways provided scenic routes without slow or commercial vehicles, at grade intersections, or pedestrian traffic. Examples are the Vanderbilt Motor Parkway in New York, but their success led to more development, expanding a city's boundaries limiting the parkway's recreational driving use. The Arroyo Seco Parkway between Downtown Los Angeles and Pasadena, California is an example of lost pastoral aesthetics, it and others have become major commuting routes, while retaining the name "parkway". In New York City, construction on the Long Island Motor Parkway began in 1906 and planning for the Bronx River Parkway in 1907. In the 1920s, the New York City Metropolitan Area's parkway system grew under the direction of Robert Moses, the president of the New York State Council of Parks and Long Island State Park Commission, who used parkways to create and access state parks for city dwellers.
As Commissioner of New York City Parks under Mayor LaGuardia, he extended the parkways to the heart of the city and linking its parks to the greater metropolitan systems. Most of the New York metropolitan parkways were designed by Gilmore Clark; the famed "Gateway to New England" Merritt Parkway in Connecticut was designed in the 1930s as a pleasurable alternative for affluent locals to the congested Boston Post Road, running through forest with each bridge designed uniquely to enhance the scenery. Another example is the Sprain Brook Parkway from The Bronx to become the Taconic State Parkway to Chatham, New York. Landscape architect George Kessler designed extensive parkway systems for Missouri. In the 1930s, as part of the New Deal the U. S. federal government constructed National Parkways designed for recreational driving and to commemorate historic trails and routes. These divided four-lane parkways have lower speed limits and are maintained by the National Park Service. An example is the Civilian Conservation Corps built Blue Ridge Parkway in the Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina and Virginia.
Others are: Skyline Drive in Virginia. The George Washington Memorial Parkway and the Clara Barton Parkway, running along the Potomac River near Washington, D. C. and Alexandria, were constructed during this era. In Kentucky the term "parkway" designates a controlled-access highway in the Kentucky Parkway system, with nine built in the 1960s and 1970s, they were toll roads until the construction bonds were repaid, are now freeways since 2006. The Arroyo Seco Parkway from Pasadena to Los Angeles, built in 1940, was the first segment of the vast Southern California freeway system, it was renamed the Pasadena Freeway. A 2010 restoration of the freeway brought the Arroyo Seco Parkway designation back. In the New York metropolitan area, contemporary parkways are predominantly controlled-access highways restricted to non-commercial traffic, excluding trucks and tractor-trailers; some have low overpasses that exclude buses. The Vanderbilt Parkway, an exception in western Suffolk County, is a surviving remnant of the Long Island Motor Parkway that became a surface street, no longer with controlled-access or non-commercial vehicle restrictions.
The Palisades Interstate Parkway is a post-war parkway that starts at the George Washington Bridge, heads north through New Jersey, continuing through Rockland and Orange counties in New York. The Palisades Parkway was built to allow for a direct route from New York City to Harriman State Park. In New Jersey, the Garden State Parkway, connecting the urban Northeast U. S. with the Jersey Shore and Atlantic City, is restricted to buses and non-commercial traffic north of the Route 18 interchange but is one of the busiest toll roads in the country. In the Pittsburgh region, two of the major Interstates are referred to informally as parkways; the Parkway East connects Downtown Pittsburgh to Pennsylvania. The Parkway West runs through the Fort Pitt Tunnel and links Downtown to Pittsburgh International Airport, southbound I-79, Pennsylvania
Queens is the easternmost of the five boroughs of New York City. It is the largest borough geographically and is adjacent to the borough of Brooklyn at the southwestern end of Long Island. To its east is Nassau County. Queens shares water borders with the boroughs of Manhattan and the Bronx. Coterminous with Queens County since 1899, the borough of Queens is the second largest in population, with an estimated 2,358,582 residents in 2017 48% of them foreign-born. Queens County is the second most populous county in the U. S. state of New York, behind Brooklyn, coterminous with Kings County. Queens is the fourth most densely populated county among New York City's boroughs, as well as in the United States. If each of New York City's boroughs were an independent city, Queens would be the nation's fourth most populous, after Los Angeles and Brooklyn. Queens is the most ethnically diverse urban area in the world. Queens was established in 1683 as one of the original 12 counties of New York; the settlement was named for the English queen Catherine of Braganza.
Queens became a borough during the consolidation of New York City in 1898, from 1683 until 1899, the County of Queens included what is now Nassau County. Queens has the most diversified economy of the five boroughs of New York City, it is home to John F. Kennedy International Airport and LaGuardia Airport, both among the world's busiest, which in turn makes the airspace above Queens among the busiest in the United States. Landmarks in Queens include Flushing Meadows–Corona Park; the borough has diverse housing, ranging from high-rise apartment buildings in the urban areas of western and central Queens, such as Jackson Heights, Flushing and Long Island City, to somewhat more suburban neighborhoods in the eastern part of the borough, including Douglaston–Little Neck and Bayside. European colonization brought English settlers, as a part of the New Netherland colony. First settlements occurred in 1635 followed by early colonizations at Maspeth in 1642, Vlissingen in 1643. Other early settlements included Jamaica.
However, these towns were inhabited by English settlers from New England via eastern Long Island subject to Dutch law. After the capture of the colony by the English and its renaming as New York in 1664, the area became known as Yorkshire; the Flushing Remonstrance signed by colonists in 1657 is considered a precursor to the United States Constitution's provision on freedom of religion in the Bill of Rights. The signers protested the Dutch colonial authorities' persecution of Quakers in what is today the borough of Queens. Queens County included the adjacent area now comprising Nassau County, it was an original county of New York State, one of twelve created on November 1, 1683. The county is assumed to have been named after Catherine of Braganza, since she was queen of England at the time; the county was founded alongside Kings County, Richmond County. However, the namesake is in dispute. On October 7, 1691, all counties in the Colony of New York were redefined. Queens gained South Brother Islands as well as Huletts Island.
On December 3, 1768, Queens gained other islands in Long Island Sound that were not assigned to a county but that did not abut on Westchester County. Queens played a minor role in the American Revolution, as compared to Brooklyn, where the Battle of Long Island was fought. Queens, like the rest of what became New York City and Long Island, remained under British occupation after the Battle of Long Island in 1776 and was occupied throughout most of the rest of the Revolutionary War. Under the Quartering Act, British soldiers used, as barracks, the public inns and uninhabited buildings belonging to Queens residents. Though many local people were against unannounced quartering, sentiment throughout the county remained in favor of the British crown; the quartering of soldiers in private homes, except in times of war, was banned by the Third Amendment to the United States Constitution. Nathan Hale was captured by the British on the shore of Flushing Bay in Queens before being executed by hanging in Manhattan for gathering intelligence.
From 1683 until 1784, Queens County consisted of five towns: Flushing, Jamaica and Oyster Bay. On April 6, 1784, a sixth town, the Town of North Hempstead, was formed through secession by the northern portions of the Town of Hempstead; the seat of the county government was located first in Jamaica, but the courthouse was torn down by the British during the American Revolution to use the materials to build barracks. After the war, various buildings in Jamaica temporarily served as courthouse and jail until a new building was erected about 1787 in an area near Mineola known as Clowesville; the 1850 United States Census was the first in which the population of the three western towns exceeded that of the three eastern towns that are now part of Nassau County. Concerns were raised about the condition and distance of the old courthouse, several sites were in contention for the constru
Long Island Rail Road
The Long Island Rail Road abbreviated as the LIRR, is a commuter rail system in the southeastern part of the U. S. state of New York, stretching from Manhattan to the eastern tip of Suffolk County on Long Island. With an average weekday ridership of 354,800 passengers in 2016, it is the busiest commuter railroad in North America, it is one of the world's few commuter systems that runs 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, year-round. It is publicly owned by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority, which refers to it as MTA Long Island Rail Road; the LIRR logo combines the circular MTA logo with the text Long Island Rail Road, appears on the sides of trains. The LIRR is one of two commuter rail systems owned by the MTA, the other being the Metro-North Railroad in the northern suburbs of the New York area. Established in 1834 and having operated continuously since it is one of the oldest railroads in the United States still operating under its original name and charter. There are 124 stations and more than 700 miles of track on its two lines to the two forks of the island and eight major branches, with the passenger railroad system totaling 319 miles of route.
As of 2018, the LIRR's budgetary burden for expenditures was $1.6 billion, which it supports through the collection of taxes and fees. The Long Island Rail Road Company was chartered in 1834 to provide a daily service between New York and Boston via a ferry connection between its Greenport, New York, terminal on Long Island's North Fork and Stonington, Connecticut; this service was superseded in 1849 by the land route through Connecticut that became part of the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad. The LIRR refocused its attentions towards serving Long Island, in competition with other railroads on the island. In the 1870s, railroad president Conrad Poppenhusen and his successor Austin Corbin acquired all the railroads and consolidated them into the LIRR; the LIRR was unprofitable for much of its history. In 1900, the Pennsylvania Railroad bought a controlling interest as part of its plan for direct access to Manhattan which began on September 8, 1910; the wealthy PRR subsidized the LIRR during the first half of the new century, allowing expansion and modernization.
Electric operation began in 1905. After the Second World War, the railroad industry's downturn and dwindling profits caused the PRR to stop subsidizing the LIRR, the LIRR went into receivership in 1949; the State of New York, realizing how important the railroad was to Long Island's future, began to subsidize the railroad in the 1950s and 1960s. In June 1965, the state finalized an agreement to buy the LIRR from the PRR for $65 million; the LIRR was placed under the control of a new Metropolitan Commuter Transit Authority. The MCTA was rebranded the Metropolitan Transportation Authority in 1968 when it incorporated several other New York City-area transit agencies. With MTA subsidies the LIRR modernized further, continuing to be the busiest commuter railroad in the United States; the LIRR is one of the few railroads that has survived as an intact company from its original charter to the present. The LIRR operates out of three western terminals in New York City, with a fourth expected by the early 2020s.
Major terminals include: Pennsylvania Station, in Midtown Manhattan, is the busiest of the western terminals, serving 500 daily trains. It is reached via the Amtrak-owned East River Tunnels from the Main Line in Long Island City; the New York City Subway's 34th Street–Penn Station and 34th Street–Penn Station stations are next to the terminal. It connects LIRR with Amtrak and NJ Transit trains. Atlantic Terminal Flatbush Avenue, in Downtown Brooklyn serves most other trains, it is next to the New York City Subway's Atlantic Avenue–Barclays Center station complex, providing easy access to Lower Manhattan. Rush-hour trains run to one of two stations in Long Island City, Queens: the Hunterspoint Avenue station, or the Long Island City station on the East River. From Hunterspoint Avenue, the Hunters Point Avenue subway station can be reached for Midtown Manhattan access; the same subway trains can be reached from Long Island City station at the Vernon Boulevard–Jackson Avenue subway station. It connects to the NYC Ferry's East River Ferry to Midtown or Lower Manhattan.
Access to a fourth major terminal is under construction. As early as 2022, the LIRR intends to start service to a new station under Grand Central Terminal via the East Side Access; the East Side Access project will reduce congestion while increasing the number of trains during peak hours. However, some February 2014 estimates push the opening date as far back as September 2024. In addition, the Jamaica station is a major hub transfer point in Jamaica, Queens, it has yard and bypass tracks. Passengers can transfer between trains on all LIRR lines except the Port Washington Branch. A sixth platform with two tracks is under construction and will serve Atlantic Branch shuttle trains to Brooklyn once completed. Transfer is made to separate facilities for three subway services at the Sutphin Boulevard–Archer Avenue–JFK station, a number of bus routes, the AirTrain automated electric rail system to JFK Airport; the railroad's headquarters are next to the station. The Long Island Rail Road system has eleven passenger branches
Citi Field is a baseball park located in Flushing Meadows–Corona Park in New York City. Completed in 2009, it is the home field of the New York Mets of the National League division of Major League Baseball; the stadium was built as a replacement for and adjacent to Shea Stadium, which opened in 1964 next to the site of the 1964 New York World's Fair. Citi Field was designed by Populous, is named after Citigroup, a New York financial services company which purchased the naming rights; the $850 million baseball park was funded with $615 million in public subsidies, including the sale of New York City municipal bonds which are to be repaid by the Mets plus interest. The payments will offset property taxes for the lifetime of the park; the Mets are receiving $20 million annually from Citibank in exchange for naming the stadium Citi Field. The first game at Citi Field was on March 29, 2009, with a college baseball game between St. John's and Georgetown; the Mets played their first two games at the ballpark on April 3 and 4, 2009 against the Boston Red Sox as charity exhibition games.
The first regular season home game was played on April 2009, against the San Diego Padres. Citi Field hosted the 2013 Major League Baseball All-Star Game, marking the second time the Mets have hosted the event. Since the 1990s, the Mets had been looking to replace Shea Stadium, it had been built as a multi-purpose stadium in 1964. While it had been retrofitted as a baseball-only stadium after the NFL's New York Jets left for Giants Stadium after the 1983 season, it was still not optimized for baseball, with seating located farther away from the playing field compared to other major league ballparks; the team unveiled a preliminary model of the ballpark in 1998. The Mets considered moving to Mitchel Field or Belmont Park in Nassau County, Long Island. In December 2001, shortly before leaving office, New York City Mayor Rudy Giuliani announced "tentative agreements" for both the Mets and New York Yankees to build new stadiums. Of the $1.6 billion sought for the stadiums and state taxpayers would pick up half the tab for construction, $800 million, along with $390 million on extra transportation.
The plan said that the teams would be allowed to keep all parking revenues, which state officials had said they wanted to keep to compensate the state for building new garages for the teams. The teams would keep 96% of ticket revenues and 100% of all other revenues, not pay sales tax or property tax on the stadium, would get low-cost electricity from New York state. Business officials criticized the plan as giving too much money to successful teams with little reason to move to a different city. Michael Bloomberg, who succeeded Giuliani as mayor, exercised the escape clause in the agreements to back out of both deals, saying that the city could not afford to build new stadiums for the Mets and Yankees. Bloomberg said that unbeknownst to him, Giuliani had inserted a clause in this deal which loosened the teams' leases with the city and would allow the Mets and Yankees to leave the city on 60 days' notice to find a new home elsewhere if the city backed out of the agreement. At the time, Bloomberg said.
Under Bloomberg, the New York City government would only offer public financing for infrastructure improvements. Bloomberg called the former mayor's agreements "corporate welfare." Giuliani had been instrumental in the construction of taxpayer-funded minor league baseball facilities MCU Park for the Mets' minor league Brooklyn Cyclones and Richmond County Bank Ballpark for the Staten Island Yankees. The final plans for what is now Citi Field were created as part of the unsuccessful New York City 2012 Olympic bid. After plans for a West Side Stadium fell through, New York looked for an alternate stadium to host the opening and closing ceremonies and track and field; the Olympic Stadium project on the West Side was estimated to cost $2.2 billion, with $300 million provided by New York City and an additional $300 million from New York State. If New York had won the bid, Citi Field would have been expanded to Olympic events while the Mets would have played at Yankee Stadium in the Bronx for the 2012 season.
The projected cost of the new ballpark and other infrastructure improvements is $610 million, with the Mets picking up $420 million of that amount. The agreement includes a 40-year lease that will keep the Mets in New York until 2049; the Mets own the stadium through Queens Ballpark Company. On March 18, 2006, the New York Mets unveiled the official model for the new ballpark. By July 2006, initial construction of the new park was underway in the parking lot beyond Shea Stadium's left-field, with a projected finish ahead of Opening Day 2009 in late March. By April 13, 2008, all of the structure for the Jackie Robinson Rotunda was in place with the arched windows receiving their paneling and glass. By September 2008, most of the Citi Field signage had been installed. By December 1, 2008, all of the seats and the playing field had been installed. During the 2010 offseason, the bullpen area in right-center field underwent a complete renovation; when the edifice opened in time for the start of the 2009 MLB season, the Mets' bullpen was in front of the visiting bullpen, leading to an obstructed view of the field from the visiting bullpen, which the San Diego Padres complained about during the Mets' first regular-season home series.
The bullpens were turn