Grand Duchy of Finland

The Grand Duchy of Finland was the predecessor state of modern Finland. It existed between 1917 as an autonomous part of the Russian Empire. Originating in the 16th century as a titular grand duchy held by the King of Sweden, it became autonomous after the Russian annexation in the Finnish War; the Grand Duke of Finland was the Romanov Emperor of Russia, represented by the Governor-General. Due to the governmental structure of the Russian Empire and Finnish initiative, the grand duchy's autonomy expanded until the end of the 19th century; the Senate of Finland was founded in 1809, which became the most important governmental organ and the precursor to the modern Government of Finland, Supreme Court of Finland and the Supreme Administrative Court of Finland. The economic and political changes in the Grand Duchy of Finland were connected with those in the Russian Empire and the rest of Europe; the economy grew during the first half of the 19th century. The reign of Alexander II after 1855 saw significant cultural and intellectual progress and an industrializing economy.

Tensions increased after the Russification policies were enacted in 1889, which saw the introduction of limited autonomy and reduction of Finnish cultural expression. The unrest in Russia and Finland during World War I and the subsequent collapse of the Russian Empire resulted in the Finnish Declaration of Independence and the end of the Grand Duchy. An extended Southwest Finland was made a titular grand duchy in 1581, when King Johan III of Sweden, who as a prince had been the Duke of Finland, extended the list of subsidiary titles of the Kings of Sweden considerably; the new title Grand Duke of Finland did not result in any Finnish autonomy, as Finland was an integrated part of the Kingdom of Sweden with full parliamentary representation for its counties. During the next two centuries, the title was used by some of Johan's successors on the throne, but not all, it was just a subsidiary title of the King, used only on formal occasions. However, in 1802, as an indication of his resolve to keep Finland within Sweden in the face of increased Russian pressure, King Gustav IV Adolf gave the title to his new-born son, Prince Carl Gustaf, who died three years later.

During the Finnish War between Sweden and Russia, the four Estates of occupied Finland were assembled at the Diet of Porvoo on 29 March 1809 to pledge allegiance to Tsar Alexander I of Russia, who in return guaranteed that the area's laws and liberties, as well as religion, would be left unchanged. Following the Swedish defeat in the war and the signing of the Treaty of Fredrikshamn on 17 September 1809, Finland became a true autonomous grand duchy within the autocratic Russian Empire; the title "Grand Duke of Finland" was added to the long list of titles of the Russian Tsar. After his return to Finland in 1812, the Finnish-born Gustaf Mauritz Armfelt became counsellor to the Russian emperor. Armfelt was instrumental in securing the Grand Duchy as an entity with greater autonomy within the Russian realm, restoring the so-called Old Finland, lost to Russia in the Treaty of Nystad in 1721; the formation of the Grand Duchy stems from the Treaty of Tilsit between Tsar Alexander I of Russia and Napoleon Bonaparte of France.

The treaty mediated peace between Russia and France and allied the two countries against Napoleon's remaining threats: Great Britain and Sweden. Russia invaded Finland in February 1808, claimed as an effort to impose military sanctions against Sweden, but not a war of conquest, that Russia decided to only temporarily control Finland. Collectively, the Finnish were predominately Anti-Russian, Finnish guerillas and peasant uprisings were a large obstacles for the Russians, forcing Russia to use various tactics to quash armed Finnish rebellion. Thus, in the beginning of the war, General Friedrich Wilhelm von Buxhoeveden, with permission of the Tsar, issued an oath of fealty on Finland, in which Russia would honor Finland's Lutheran faith, the Finnish Diet, the Finnish estates as long as the Finns would remain loyal to the Russian crown; the oath dubbed anyone person who gave aid to the Swedish or Finnish armies a rebel. The Finns complied, bitter over Sweden abandoning the country for their war against Denmark and France, begrudgingly embraced Russian conquest.

The Diet of Finland was now to only meet whenever requested, was never mentioned in the manifesto published by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Further on, Alexander I requested a deputation of the four Finnish estates, as he expressed concern over continued Finnish resistance; the deputation refused to act without the Diet, to which Alexander agreed with, promised the Diet would shortly be summoned. By 1809, all of Finland had been conquered and The Diet was summoned in March. Finland was united through Russia via crown, Finland was able to keep the majority of its own laws, giving it autonomy; the earlier years of the Grand Duchy can be seen as uneventful. In 1812, the area of Old Finland, known as the Viipuri Province was returned to Finland after being annexed by Russia in the Great Northern War and the Russo-Swedish War; this surprising action by the Tsar was met with anger from certain parts of the Russian government and aristocracy, who wished to either return to the previous border or annex the communities west of St. Petersburg.

Despite the outcry, the borders remained set until 1940. The g

We Are One (Ole Ola)

"We Are One" is a song recorded by Cuban American rapper Pitbull for One Love, One Rhythm – The 2014 FIFA World Cup Official Album. It is the official song of the 2014 FIFA World Cup and features guest vocals from American singer Jennifer Lopez and Brazilian singer Claudia Leitte; the artists co-wrote the song with Sia, RedOne, Danny Mercer, Dr. Luke and Thomas Troelsen. While receiving positive reviews from critics the song received some negative reactions from Brazilians over its lack of Brazilian feeling. To change that, another version was released and the music changed to fit Afro Brazilian group Olodum's style of drumming - that version being the one, used in the music video for the song. "We Are One" has experienced commercial success, reaching the top 20 in countries including Austria, Germany, Italy and World Cup's host country, Brazil. The song went to its peak at no.1 in 3 countries. According to one of the co-writers of "We Are One, Thomas Troelsen, he pitched a demo version "that had a sort of whistle thing in it" to Pitbull.

On January 22, 2014, FIFA and Sony Music Entertainment announced that "We Are One" would serve as the official song of the 2014 FIFA World Cup. At the occasion, Pitbull said, "I'm honored to join Jennifer Lopez and Claudia Leitte at the FIFA World Cup to bring the world together. I believe that this great game and the power of music will help unify us because we are best when we are one." Lopez said Pitbull asked her to join the song: "I can't take credit for this. This was one of Pitbull's call-ins, he had this record, he's like,'I think this record could be great for the World Cup. He's like,'Will you do it with me?' And I go,'Yeah, of course.'" A solo version of the song featuring only Pitbull leaked online on February 2. On April 8, Pitbull tweeted an iTunes Store link to the track; the song received lukewarm reviews. Carl Williott of Idolator opined that there is too much of Pitbull in the song, not enough Lopez or Leitte. He, stated that the song is an upgrade from Shakira's "Waka Waka", the official song of the 2010 FIFA World Cup. wrote that to "Waka Waka", the song "blends the feel of the tournament's hosting country with an accessible, exciting pop sound that has instant repeat appeal". Judy Cantor-Navas of Billboard described the song as "surprisingly breezy", with Spin noting it to contain the "rah-rah international unity you'd expect for a Cup song". Luís Antônio Giron of Época criticized the album saying "maybe I'm wrong and Brazil only crave to be the same as what FIFA wants it to be. Brazil is fifalized", and praised music produced in Miami, "bomb on any track."The song received some criticism from Brazilian and football fans over its tone and lyrics with the lyrics and video being labeled as a "big pile of clichés" and its failure to pay homage to Brazil's own rich musical heritage. Such criticism has pointed out the small amount of actual Portuguese lyrics involved, critics stating their confusion to why "were Cuban-American rapper Pitbull and Bronx-born Puerto Rican singer Jennifer Lopez were chosen for the song, when there are so many other great musicians in the land of bossa nova", as well as its "reinforcement of stereotypes with smiling, barefoot children and semi-naked, samba-dancing women".

In February 2014, Pitbull and Lopez shot the music video for "We Are One" with Olodum in Fort Lauderdale, United States. Its concept was to simulate Carnival in its home country Brazil with the Olodum mix of the song being used as the soundtrack, it was released on May 16, 2014. As of April 2019, the video has received over 680 million views. Pitbull and Leitte performed "We Are One" at the 2014 Billboard Music Awards on 18 May 2014, they performed the song at the 2014 FIFA World Cup opening ceremony on June 12 in Arena Corinthians, São Paulo, prior to the Brazil v. Croatia match, preceded by Leitte's solo rendition of Ary Barroso's classic "Aquarela do Brasil". However, due to the amount of noise made by dancers and poor quality stadium aesthetics, some spectators had difficulty hearing the vocals. German CD Single"We Are One" – 3:42 "We Are One" – 3:56Digital download"We Are One" – 3:42Digital download — remix"We Are One" – 3:56Digital download — opening ceremony version"We Are One" – 5:21 RecordingEngineered at Al Burna's Extreme Mobile Recording Studio.


Dhaka-4 is a constituency represented in the Jatiya Sangsad of Bangladesh since 2014 by Sayed Abu Hossain of the Jatiya Party. The constituency encompasses Dhaka South City Corporation wards 47 and 51 through 54, one union parishad of Shyampur Thana: Shyampur; the constituency was created for the first general elections in newly independent Bangladesh, held in 1973. Ahead of the 2008 general election, the Election Commission redrew constituency boundaries to reflect population changes revealed by the 2001 Bangladesh census; the 2008 redistricting altered the boundaries of the constituency. "People's Republic of Bangladesh". Psephos