North Dakota is a U. S. state in northern regions of the United States. It is the nineteenth largest in area, the fourth smallest by population, the fourth most sparsely populated of the 50 states. North Dakota was admitted to the Union on November 3, 1889, along with its neighboring state, South Dakota, its capital is Bismarck, its largest city is Fargo. In the 21st century, North Dakota's natural resources have played a major role in its economic performance with the oil extraction from the Bakken formation, which lies beneath the northwestern part of the state; such development has led to reduced unemployment. North Dakota contains the tallest human-made structure in the KVLY-TV mast. North Dakota is a Midwestern state of the United States, it lies at the center of the North American continent. The geographic center of North America is near the town of Rugby. Bismarck is the capital of North Dakota, Fargo is the largest city. Soil is North Dakota's most precious resource, it is the base of the state's great agricultural wealth.
But North Dakota has enormous mineral resources. These mineral resources include billions of tons of lignite coal. In addition, North Dakota has large oil reserves. Petroleum was discovered in the state in 1951 and became one of North Dakota's most valuable mineral resources. In the early 2000's, the emergence of hydraulic fracturing technologies enabled mining companies to extract huge amounts of oil from the Bakken shale rock formation in the western part of the state. North Dakota's economy is based more on farming than are the economies of most other states. Many North Dakota factories manufacture farm equipment. Many of the state’s merchants rely on agriculture. Farms and ranches cover nearly all of North Dakota, they stretch from the flat Red River Valley in the east, across rolling plains, to the rugged Badlands in the west. The chief crop, wheat, is grown in nearly every county. North Dakota flaxseed, it is the country’s top producer of barley and sunflower seeds and a leader in the production of beans, lentils, oats and sugar beets.
Few white settlers came to the North Dakota region before the 1870's because railroads had not yet entered the area. During the early 1870's, the Northern Pacific Railroad began to push across the Dakota Territory. Large-scale farming began during the 1870's. Eastern corporations and some families established huge wheat farms covering large areas of land in the Red River Valley; the farms made such enormous profits. White settlers, attracted by the success of the bonanza farms, flocked to North Dakota increasing the territory's population. In 1870, North Dakota had 2,405 people. By 1890, the population had grown to 190,983. North Dakota was named for the Sioux people; the Sioux called meaning allies or friends. One of North Dakota's nicknames is the Peace Garden State; this nickname honors the International Peace Garden, which lies on the state's border with Manitoba, Canada. North Dakota is called the Flickertail State because of the many flickertail ground squirrels that live in the central part of the state.
North Dakota is in the U. S. region known as the Great Plains. The state shares the Red River of the North with Minnesota to the east. South Dakota is to the south, Montana is to the west, the Canadian provinces of Saskatchewan and Manitoba are to the north. North Dakota is near the middle of North America with a stone marker in Rugby, North Dakota marking the "Geographic Center of the North American Continent". With an area of 70,762 square miles, North Dakota is the 19th largest state; the western half of the state consists of the hilly Great Plains as well as the northern part of the Badlands, which are to the west of the Missouri River. The state's high point, White Butte at 3,506 feet, Theodore Roosevelt National Park are in the Badlands; the region is abundant in fossil fuels including crude oil and lignite coal. The Missouri River forms Lake Sakakawea, the third largest artificial lake in the United States, behind the Garrison Dam; the central region of the state is divided into the Missouri Plateau.
The eastern part of the state consists of the flat Red River Valley, the bottom of glacial Lake Agassiz. Its fertile soil, drained by the meandering Red River flowing northward into Lake Winnipeg, supports a large agriculture industry. Devils Lake, the largest natural lake in the state, is found in the east. Eastern North Dakota is overall flat. Most of the state is covered in grassland. Natural trees in North Dakota are found where there is good drainage, such as the ravines and valley near the Pembina Gorge and Killdeer Mountains, the Turtle Mountains, the hills around Devil's Lake, in the dunes area of McHenry County in central North Dakota, along the Sheyenne Valley slopes and the Sheyenne delta; this diverse terrain supports nearly 2,000 species of plants. North Dakota has a continental climate with cold winters; the temperature differences are significant because of its far inland position and being in the center of the Northern Hemisphere, with equal distances to the North Pole and the Equator.
As such, summers are subtropical, but winters are cold enough to ensure plant hardiness is low. Native American peoples lived in what is now North Dakota for thousands of year
Pembina County, North Dakota
Pembina County is a county in the U. S. state of North Dakota. At the 2010 United States Census its population was 7,413; the county seat is Cavalier. For thousands of years, various indigenous peoples inhabited the area along the Pembina and Red rivers. At the time of European contact in the 16th century, the dominant tribes were the Assiniboine and the Lakota; the Ojibwe known as Chippewa, a branch of the Anishinaabe-speaking language group migrated west along both sides of the Great Lakes. They developed a long trading relationship with French colonists. Throughout the Red River of the North area, French trappers married Native American women, their descendants continued to hunt and trap. A large mixed-race population developed, recognized as an ethnic First Nations group in Canada called the Métis; the Ojibwe and Métis supported the French forces during the Seven Years' War in the mid-eighteenth century against Great Britain. With the British defeat of France and takeover of its colonial territory, the Chippewa learned to deal with a new trading culture.
Armed with guns by trading and having adopted the horse from the Mandan and Hidatsa, by the end of the eighteenth century the Chippewa had migrated from woodlands to the Great Plains and begun to push the Lakota west before them. By the time of the War of 1812, the Ojibwe allied with the British against the United States, hoping to forestall European-American settlers' encroaching on their territory. With the settlement of the northern boundary with Canada, the Chippewa within the Dakota Territory were forced to deal with the United States. During the first half of the nineteenth century, the Chippewa had continued conflicts with the Lakota along the Red River pushing them into present-day western North and South Dakota. Father George Belcourt, a Catholic Jesuit missionary who served them, described their territory in 1849 as the following We understand here, that the district or department called Pembina, comprises all of the country or basin, irrigated or traversed by the tributaries of the Red River, south of the line of the 49th parallel of latitude.
The prairies' rivers and lakes which extend to the height of land of the Mississippi, the immense plains which feed innumerable herds of bison to the westward and from which the Chippewa and half breeds of this region obtain their subsistence, contains within their limits a country about 400 miles from north to south and more than five hundred miles from east to west. The Métis used two-wheeled ox-drawn carts to transport furs to market along the Red River Trails, between what is now Winnipeg and Mendota or St. Paul, Minnesota, they used ox-carts to transport food and shelter during extended buffalo hunts. Over time, the Ojibwe were persuaded to cede much of their land by treaty to the US, which in turn sold it to homesteaders, they moved to small Indian reservations within their earlier territory. The precursor to Pembina County was a county of the same name in the Minnesota Territory, extending from the Upper Mississippi River to the western boundary of the territory; when Minnesota became a state in 1858, its western boundary was set at the Red River, the land to its west was unorganized.
A new Pembina County was established as part of the Dakota Territory in 1867. At the time it was a large territory, in 1871 it was expanded to include much of the territory in what is now eastern North Dakota from Canada to the South Dakota border; the Dakota Territory legislature created Pembina County on January 9, 1867, from unorganized territory. Its government was organized on August 12 of that same year, it was named for a Chippewa term for stabbing. Pembina, the oldest European-American settlement in the future state, was the county seat. In 1911 the seat was relocated to Cavalier; the county boundaries were altered in 1871, 1873, 1881, 1887. It has retained its present boundaries since 1887. Between 1873 and 1881, eleven new counties were created from Pembina, including Cass County and Grand Forks County. Pembina took its current form in 1887. Icelandic State Park is located in Pembina County; the first Icelandic immigrant settlement in present-day North Dakota was in Pembina County in the late 1870s, when a colony of settlers from Iceland moved into the county from the New Iceland homesteads near Lake Winnipeg.
The first Icelandic settlements in what is now North Dakota were established in Pembina County in the late 1870s. Many of the immigrants came from New Iceland near Lake Winnipeg, along with other Icelanders who moved into the area from colonies in Wisconsin; the new settlers lived in the so-called "Icelandic Townships" of Akra, Beaulieu and Thingwalla. The State Historical Society of North Dakota reported fewer than 3 or 4 non-Icelandic families living there in the early 1900s. Evidence of this heritage is found in several city names with Icelandic origins. Akra was named after the town near Reykjavík. Icelandic State Park was established to preserve evidence of this early pioneer heritage. Pembina County lies at the NE corner of North Dakota, its north boundary line abuts the south boundary line of Canada and its east boundary line abuts the west boundary line of the state of Minnesota. The Pembina River flows easterly through the upper portion of the county, discharging into the Red River near the NE county corner.
The Tongue River flows northeasterly through the upper porti
The Territory of Dakota was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from March 2, 1861, until November 2, 1889, when the final extent of the reduced territory was split and admitted to the Union as the states of North and South Dakota. The Dakota Territory consisted of the northernmost part of the land acquired in the Louisiana purchase in 1803, as well as the southernmost part of Rupert's Land, acquired in 1818 when the boundary was changed to the 49th parallel; the name refers to the Dakota branch of the Sioux tribes. Most of Dakota Territory was part of the Minnesota and Nebraska territories; when Minnesota became a state in 1858, the leftover area between the Missouri River and Minnesota's western boundary fell unorganized. When the Yankton Treaty was signed that year, ceding much of what had been Sioux Indian land to the U. S. Government, early settlers formed an unofficial provisional government and unsuccessfully lobbied for United States territory status.
Three years President-elect Abraham Lincoln's cousin-in-law, J. B. S. Todd lobbied for territory status and the U. S. Congress formally created Dakota Territory, it became an organized territory on March 2, 1861. Upon creation, Dakota Territory included much of present-day Montana and Wyoming as well as all of present-day North Dakota and South Dakota and a small portion of present-day Nebraska. A small patch of land known as "Lost Dakota" existed as a remote exclave of Dakota Territory until it became part of Gallatin County, Montana Territory, in 1873. Dakota Territory was not directly involved in the American Civil War but did raise some troops to defend the settlements following the Dakota War of 1862 which triggered hostilities with the Sioux tribes of Dakota Territory; the Department of the Northwest sent expeditions into Dakota Territory in 1863, 1864 and 1865. It established forts in Dakota Territory to protect the frontier settlements of the Territory and Minnesota and the traffic along the Missouri River.
Following the Civil War, hostilities continued with the Sioux until the 1868 Treaty of Fort Laramie. By 1868, creation of new territories reduced Dakota Territory to the present boundaries of the Dakotas. Territorial counties were defined including Bottineau County, Cass County and others. During the existence of the organized territory, the population first increased slowly and very with the "Dakota Boom" from 1870 to 1880; because the Sioux were considered hostile and a threat to early settlers, the white population grew slowly. The settlers' population grew and the Sioux were not considered as severe a threat; the population increase can be attributed to the growth of the Northern Pacific Railroad. Settlers who came to the Dakota Territory were from other western territories as well as many from northern and western Europe; these included large numbers of Norwegians, Germans and Canadians. Commerce was organized around the fur trade. Furs were carried by steamboat along the rivers to the settlements.
Gold was discovered in the Black Hills in 1874 and attracted more settlers, setting off the last Sioux War. The population surge increased the demand for meat spurring expanded cattle ranching on the territory's vast open ranges. With the advent of the railroad agriculture intensified: wheat became the territory's main cash crop. Economic hardship hit the territory in the 1880s due to a drought; the territorial capital was Yankton from 1861 until 1883. The Dakota Territory was divided into the states of North Dakota and South Dakota on November 2, 1889; the admission of two states, as opposed to one, was done for a number of reasons. The two population centers in the territory were in the northeast and southeast corners of the territory, several hundred miles away from each other. On a national level, there was pressure from the Republican Party to admit two states to add to their political power in the Senate. Admission of new western states was a party political battleground with each party looking at how the proposed new states were to vote.
At the beginning of 1888, the Democrats under president Grover Cleveland proposed that the four territories of Montana, New Mexico and Washington should be admitted together. The first two were expected to vote Democratic and the latter two were expected to vote Republican so this was seen as a compromise acceptable to both parties. However, the Republicans won majorities in Congress and the Senate that year. To head off the possibility that Congress might only admit Republican territories to statehood, the Democrats agreed to a less favorable deal in which Dakota was divided in two and New Mexico was left out altogether. Cleveland signed it into law on February 22, 1889 and the territories could become states in nine months time after that. However, incoming Republican president Benjamin Harrison had a problem with South Dakota. There had been previous attempts to open up the territory, but these had foundered because the Treaty of Fort Laramie required that 75% of Sioux adult males on the reservation had to agree to any treaty change.
Most a commission headed by Richard Henry Pratt in 1888 had failed to get the necessary signatures in the face of opposition from Sioux leaders and government worker Elaine Goodale Superintendent of Indian Education for the Dakotas. The government believed that the Dawes Act, which attempted to move the Indians from hunting to farming, in theory meant that they needed less land (but in reality was an economic dis
Steele County, North Dakota
Steele County is a county in the U. S. state of North Dakota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 1,975, its county seat since 1919 is Finley. The Dakota Territory legislature created the county on June 2, 1883, with territories partitioned from Griggs and Traill counties, it was not organized at that time, but was attached to Traill for administrative and judicial purposes. It was named for businessman Edward H. Steele. On July 13, 1883 the county organization was effected and Steele County was detached from Traill County. In 1897 the town of Finley was founded, by 1919 its growth had eclipsed Sherbrooke to the point that the county seat was transferred to Finley; the county's boundaries have been unchanged since its creation. The Sheyenne River flows southward into the county's west boundary line; the Goose River flows southeastward through the NE part of the county. The county terrain consists of rolling hills, dotted with ponds; the area is devoted to agriculture. The terrain slopes to the east.
The county has a total area of 715 square miles, of which 712 square miles is land and 3.2 square miles is water. North Dakota Route 32 North Dakota Route 38 North Dakota Route 200 As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 2,258 people, 923 households, 635 families in the county; the population density was 3 people per square mile. There were 1,231 housing units at an average density of 2 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 98.32% White, 0.04% Black or African American, 0.62% Native American, 0.04% Asian, 0.22% from other races, 0.75% from two or more races. 0.18% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 60.7% were of Norwegian and 15.6% German ancestry. There were 923 households out of which 29.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.30% were married couples living together, 4.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.20% were non-families. 28.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 3.01. The county population contained 27.60% under the age of 18, 4.70% from 18 to 24, 23.10% from 25 to 44, 25.00% from 45 to 64, 19.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 107.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 108.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $35,757, the median income for a family was $43,914. Males had a median income of $30,104 versus $20,694 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,601. About 5.00% of families and 7.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.00% of those under age 18 and 3.60% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 1,975 people, 864 households, 589 families in the county; the population density was 2.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,171 housing units at an average density of 1.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 97.6% white, 1.2% American Indian, 0.2% black or African American, 0.1% Asian, 0.4% from other races, 0.6% from two or more races.
Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.0% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 60.0% were Norwegian, 35.2% were German, 5.4% were Irish, 1.0% were American. Of the 864 households, 24.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.4% were married couples living together, 4.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.8% were non-families, 27.8% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.78. The median age was 47.7 years. The median income for a household in the county was $44,191 and the median income for a family was $54,625. Males had a median income of $36,588 versus $25,648 for females; the per capita income for the county was $27,728. About 4.3% of families and 4.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.1% of those under age 18 and 5.1% of those age 65 or over. Steele County is a Democratic-leaning swing county in presidential elections. Since 1964 it has selected the Democratic Party candidate in 64% of national elections.
National Register of Historic Places listings in Steele County, North Dakota
U.S. Route 81
U. S. Route 81 is a major north-south highway that extends for 1220 miles in the central United States and is one of the earliest United States Numbered Highways established in 1926 by the US Department of Agriculture Bureau of Public Roads; the route of US-81 follows that of the old Meridian Highway which dates back as early as 1911. The highway has alternately been known as part of the Pan-American Highway. In the segment in the State of Oklahoma, the highway corresponds to the old Chisholm Trail for cattle drives from Texas to railheads in Kansas in the 1860s and 1870s; as of 2004, the highway's northern terminus is just north of Pembina, North Dakota at the Canada–US border. At this point, it is routed along Interstate 29 and continues northward into Manitoba on Highway 75 that leads to Winnipeg, its southern terminus is in Fort Worth, Texas, at an intersection with Interstate 35W. Between the inception of the numbered highway system in 1926 through 1991, US 81's southern terminus was at the Mexican border in Laredo, Texas.
In 1991, the terminus was moved to San Antonio. The route was shortened to its present length of 1,234 miles in 1993, when the terminus was moved to Fort Worth. In both cases, the dropped portions of US 81 were replaced by Interstate 35. Portions of former US-81 south of Fort Worth continue to exist as business loops of I-35; the decommissioning of portions of U. S. 81 that have been displaced by concurrent Interstate highways means that U. S. 81 no longer extends from the Canada–US border to the Mexico—US border, while one of its "children", U. S. Route 281 does extend to both borders; as a result of decommissioning portions of US 81, the length of U. S. 81 is 672 miles shorter than of its "child." US 81 at its inception in 1926 followed the route of State Highway 2, which began in Laredo and passed through San Antonio, Austin and Fort Worth before passing over the Red River into Oklahoma four miles north of Ringgold. The 1936 Official Map of the Highway System of Texas shows the route labeled both as US 81 and S.
H. 2. It was cosigned with U. S. Highway 83 for 18 miles from Laredo to 2 miles south of Webb, with U. S. Highway 79 for 18 miles from Austin north to Round Rock, with U. S. Highway 77 for 33 miles from Waco to Hillsboro. In 1940 U. S. Highway 287 was extended south into Texas, a 67-mile stretch from Fort Worth northwest to Bowie was cosigned with US 81; the Summer 1941 Texas Highway Map shows this pairing, the current southern terminus of US 81 is still cosigned with US 287. The Spring and Summer 1949 Texas Highway Department Official Map designates the length of US 81 from Laredo to Fort Worth as part of the National System of Interstate Highways, but no numeric designation is given, it was not until 1959 that parts of US 81 in Texas appeared on the Texas Official Highway Travel Map cosigned with Interstate 35 shields. Succeeding maps reflect the slow completion of I-35 and I-35W over the stretch of US 81 between Laredo and Fort Worth, with the 1978-79 Texas Official Highway Travel Map showing only a 14-mile section from Encinal north to 3 miles south of Artesia Wells as incomplete, the 1980 Texas Official Highway Travel Map showing that section completed.
In 1980, US 81 was cosigned with I-35 and I-35W except where the Interstate bypassed towns, with US 81 providing the main route through town and reconnecting with I-35 on the other side. The longest section of US 81 in 1980 not cosigned with the Interstate ran from I-35 in Hillsboro 20 miles north to I-35W, just north of Grandview. Enid, El Reno and Duncan are major Oklahoma towns on the highway. Among the elders throughout the small towns that are dotted along Route 81 in Oklahoma, the sixth meridian is known among the locals as the "Indian Meridian" but Route 81 is not known as the "Indian Meridian Highway." The Indian Meridan is located some 40 miles east and parallel of U. S. Route 81. By pure coincidence, the Chisholm Trail of the Post-Civil-War decades followed along the corridor of present-day Route 81. Nearly all of US-81 in Kansas is either expressway; the route enters Kansas as a two-lane near Caldwell. From South Haven to Wichita it parallels Interstate 35, known as the Kansas Turnpike in that area.
After South Haven, the only town of any significance along US 81 until Wichita is Wellington, just west of the Turnpike along U. S. Route 160. At Wichita, US-81 joins Interstate 135; the two highways remain joined with I-135's mile markers taking precedence. Interstate 135 ends at Interstate 70 but US-81 continues as a freeway to Minneapolis as an expressway passing through Concordia before exiting the state north of Belleville; the alignment of US-81 from Wichita to Salina prior to the completion Interstate 135 is intact. The prior alignment ran from where current US-81 breaks off for Interstate 135 at 47th street, north through Wichita along Broadway street. Old US-81 parallels Interstate 135 to Newton. Ol US-81 follows current K-15 through Newton between an interchange with US-50 and Hesston Road, where old US-81 breaks northwest onto Hesston road. Old US-81 travels through the small Kansas towns of Hesston and Elyria, before turning to the nort
Minnesota is a state in the Upper Midwest and northern regions of the United States. Minnesota was admitted as the 32nd U. S. state on May 11, 1858, created from the eastern half of the Minnesota Territory. The state has a large number of lakes, is known by the slogan the "Land of 10,000 Lakes", its official motto is L'Étoile du Nord. Minnesota is the 12th largest in area and the 22nd most populous of the U. S. states. This area is the center of transportation, industry and government, while being home to an internationally known arts community; the remainder of the state consists of western prairies now given over to intensive agriculture. Minnesota was inhabited by various indigenous peoples for thousands of years prior to the arrival of Europeans. French explorers and fur traders began exploring the region in the 17th century, encountering the Dakota and Ojibwe/Anishinaabe tribes. Much of what is today Minnesota was part of the vast French holding of Louisiana, purchased by the United States in 1803.
Following several territorial reorganizations, Minnesota in its current form was admitted as the country's 32nd state on May 11, 1858. Like many Midwestern states, it remained centered on lumber and agriculture. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, a large number of European immigrants from Scandinavia and Germany, began to settle the state, which remains a center of Scandinavian American and German American culture. In recent decades, immigration from Asia, the Horn of Africa, the Middle East, Latin America has broadened its demographic and cultural composition; the state's economy has diversified, shifting from traditional activities such as agriculture and resource extraction to services and finance. Minnesota's standard of living index is among the highest in the United States, the state is among the best-educated and wealthiest in the nation; the word Minnesota comes from the Dakota name for the Minnesota River: The river got its name from one of two words in the Dakota language,'Mní sóta' which means "clear blue water", or'Mnißota', which means cloudy water.
Native Americans demonstrated the name to early settlers by dropping milk into water and calling it mnisota. Many places in the state have similar names, such as Minnehaha Falls, Minneota, Minnetonka and Minneapolis, a combination of mni and polis, the Greek word for "city". Minnesota is the second northernmost U. S. state and northernmost contiguous state. Its isolated Northwest Angle in Lake of the Woods county is the only part of the 48 contiguous states lying north of the 49th parallel; the state is part of the U. S. region known as part of North America's Great Lakes Region. It shares a Lake Superior water border with Michigan and a land and water border with Wisconsin to the east. Iowa is to the south, North Dakota and South Dakota are to the west, the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Manitoba are to the north. With 86,943 square miles, or 2.25% of the United States, Minnesota is the 12th-largest state. Minnesota has gneisses that are about 3.6 billion years old. About 2.7 billion years ago, basaltic lava poured out of cracks in the floor of the primordial ocean.
The roots of these volcanic mountains and the action of Precambrian seas formed the Iron Range of northern Minnesota. Following a period of volcanism 1.1 billion years ago, Minnesota's geological activity has been more subdued, with no volcanism or mountain formation, but with repeated incursions of the sea, which left behind multiple strata of sedimentary rock. In more recent times, massive ice sheets at least one kilometer thick ravaged the state's landscape and sculpted its terrain; the Wisconsin glaciation left 12,000 years ago. These glaciers covered all of Minnesota except the far southeast, an area characterized by steep hills and streams that cut into the bedrock; this area is known as the Driftless Zone for its absence of glacial drift. Much of the remainder of the state outside the northeast has 50 feet or more of glacial till left behind as the last glaciers retreated. Gigantic Lake Agassiz formed in the northwest 13,000 years ago, its bed created the fertile Red River valley, its outflow, glacial River Warren, carved the valley of the Minnesota River and the Upper Mississippi downstream from Fort Snelling.
Minnesota is geologically quiet today. The state's high point is Eagle Mountain at 2,301 feet, only 13 miles away from the low of 601 feet at the shore of Lake Superior. Notwithstanding dramatic local differences in elevation, much of the state is a rolling peneplain. Two major drainage divides meet in Minnesota's northeast in rural Hibbing, forming a triple watershed. Precipitation can follow the Mississippi River south to the Gulf of Mexico, the Saint Lawrence Seaway east to the Atlantic Ocean, or the Hudson Bay watershed to the Arctic Ocean; the state's nickname, "Land of 10,000 Lakes", is apt, as there are 11,842 Minnesota lakes over 10 acres in size. Minnesota's portion of Lake Superior is the largest at 962,700 acres and deepest body of wate
Interstate 29 is an Interstate Highway in the Midwestern United States. I-29 runs from Kansas City, Missouri, at a junction with Interstate 35 and Interstate 70, to the Canada–US border near Pembina, North Dakota, where it connects with Manitoba Highway 75; the road follows the course of three major rivers, all of which form the borders of U. S. states. The southern portion of I-29 parallels the Missouri River from Kansas City northward to Sioux City, where it crosses and parallels the Big Sioux River. For the northern third of the highway, it follows the Red River of the North; the major cities that I-29 connects to includes Iowa. Near its southern terminus, I-29 is concurrent with I-35 and U. S. Route 71; the interstate diverts from U. S. 71 just north of St. Joseph and follows a sparsely populated corridor along the Missouri River to Council Bluffs. During the design phase there was an alternative sending the route further along U. S. 71 through the bigger towns of Maryville and Clarinda, Iowa.
During the Great Flood of 1993 the Missouri River flooded this section and traffic was rerouted to U. S. 71 through Maryville and Clarinda. I-29 was closed again for about two months during the 2011 Missouri River Flood. All of I-29 in Missouri is in an area called the Platte Purchase, not part of Missouri when it entered the Union. Interstate 29 begins in Iowa near Hamburg, it goes northwest to an interchange with Iowa Highway 2 goes north until Council Bluffs. It runs concurrent with Interstate 80 until separating from I-80 less than a mile east of Omaha, Nebraska to follow the Missouri River north, winding its way along the western and northern edges of Council Bluffs. North of Council Bluffs, I-29 runs concurrent with Interstate 680 between Exits 61 and 71. After Interstate 680 separates, I-29 continues on a northwesterly path toward Sioux City. At Sioux City, Interstate 129 spurs off of I-29 to go west toward Nebraska. After continuing toward downtown Sioux City on a northerly route, I-29 turns west and enters South Dakota.
Interstate 29 enters South Dakota at North Sioux City by crossing over the Big Sioux River. It runs northwest until its interchange with South Dakota Highway 50 near Vermillion, where it turns north; the highway alignment is due north until just before Sioux Falls. In the Sioux Falls area, I-29 serves the western part of Sioux Falls while I-229 spurs off and serves eastern Sioux Falls. In northwestern Sioux Falls, I-29 meets Interstate 90. After that, it continues north past Brookings and an intersection with US 14. At the intersection with South Dakota Highway 28, I-29 turns northwest toward Watertown. After Watertown, the highway continues north and passes an intersection with US 12 before continuing into North Dakota. Interstate 29 enters North Dakota from the south, near Hankinson. At Fargo, it continues north along the Red River toward Grand Forks. At its northern terminus, I-29 enters Canada and becomes Manitoba Provincial Trunk Highway 75, which leads to Winnipeg; the portion from Fargo, North Dakota, to the Canada–US border was considered for designation as Interstate 31 in 1957 for present-day I-29.
No freeway was planned south of Fargo. However, it was subsequently decided in 1958 to connect I-31 between Sioux Falls and Fargo; the entire freeway was built and numbered as I-29. Residents of Missouri and Louisiana began campaigning in 1965 via, the "US 71 - I-29 Association," to extend Interstate 29 all the way to New Orleans, Louisiana following the US 71 corridor; the campaign would create a limited access highway from New Orleans on to Winnipeg. That extension came to be called Interstate 49, not part of the 1957 master plan, it was named I-49 instead of I-29 because the interstate naming rules mandate that north-south roads are odd numbered and named in increasing order from west to east. North of their concurrence, I-29 is west of I-35, but south of Kansas City Interstate 35 and Interstate 45 are to the west of the proposed route, Interstate 55 is to the east. Interstate 49 was the number chosen; when Interstate 49 is complete, the goal of the Association will have been accomplished, with only a brief gap and name change in Kansas City.
Missouri I‑35 / I‑70 / US 24 / US 40 / US 71 in Kansas City. I-29/I-35 travels concurrently through Kansas City. I-29/US 71 travels concurrently to east of Amazonia. US 69 on the Gladstone–Kansas City city line US 169 on the Gladstone–Kansas City city line I‑635 in Kansas City I‑435 in Kansas City; the highways travel concurrently to Platte City. I‑229 south-southeast of St. Joseph US 169 in St. Joseph US 36 in St. Joseph US 169 in St. Joseph US 59 north-northeast of St. Joseph; the highways travel concurrently to east of Amazonia. I‑229 / US 59 / US 71 North of St. Joseph US 59 northwest of Amazonia; the highways travel concurrently for 1.8 miles. US 59 north of Oregon US 159 south-southeast of Mound City US 59 east of Craig US 136 in Rock Port Iowa US 34 / US 275 west of Glenwood. I-29/US 275 travels concurrently to Council Bluffs. I‑80 in Council Bluffs; the highways travel concurrently through Council Bluffs. I‑480 / US 6 in Council Bluffs I‑680 west-southwest of Crescent; the highways travel concurrently to west-southwest of Loveland.
US 30 in Missouri Valley I‑129 / US 20 / US 75 in Sioux City US 77 in Sioux City South Dakota US 18 south-southwest of Worthing. The highways travel concurrently for 3.02 miles. I‑229 in Sioux Falls I‑90 in Sioux Falls US 14 in Brookings US 212 in Watertown US 81 n